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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLUDING 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 



(nEIN'O A CONTINUATION OP THE 'ANNALS ' COMBINED WITH LOUDON ANO 
CHAEILESWORTII'S ' MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

ALBERT C. L. G. GUNTHER, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 

WILLIAM S. DALLAS, F.L.S., 

WILLIAM CARRUTIIERS, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

AND 

WILLIAM FRANCIS, Ph.D., F.L.S. 



VOL. L— FIFTH SERIF 




LONDON: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS. 

SOLD BY LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER ; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, 

AND CO.; KENT AND CO.; WHITTAKEU AND CO.: BAILLIERE, PaRLS : 

MACLACHLAN AND STEWART, EDINBURGH : 

HODGES, FOSTER, AND CO., DUBLIN : AND ASIIER, BERLIN. 

1878. 



" Omnes res creatse sunt divinse sapientiiB et potentice testes, divitiffi felicitatis 
humanse : — ex barum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulckritiidine sapientia Domini ; 
ex oeconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis 
elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper aestimata ; 
a Tere eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper 
inimica fuit." — LiJJNiEUS. 

"Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour 
voir qu'elle est le chef-d'oeuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rappor- 
tent toutes ses operations." — Eruckneu, Theorie du 8i/steme Animal, Leyden, 
1767. 

The sylvan powers 

Obey oiu" summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme 

And pm'ple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818. 



FLAMMAM. 




PREFACE TO THE FIFTH SERIES. 



With the present Number this Journal enters upon the fifth 
decennial period of its existence. The Editors, one of whom 
assisted at the verj birth of the ' Annals/ cannot but con- 
gratulate themselves upon the continued and ever-increasing 
vitality of their Journal, which, notwithstanding the nume- 
rous other means of publishing Natural-History Articles that 
now exist, has at no previous period of its career been more 
abundantly supplied with good materials. This is due, no 
doubt, in great measure to the extreme activity which has 
prevailed in the investigation of all branches of Natural 
History during the last fifteen years ; but the Editors cannot 
help feeling that the continued flow of valuable articles to 
their Journal is an indication that it is regarded as, to some 
extent, a particularly favourable vehicle for publication — a 
view which is confirmed by the fact that even Foreign Natu- 
ralists seek admission for their writings to its pages. That 
it may still retain this character will be the object of their 
earnest endeavours j and they trust it will be long before the 
increasing age of the ' Annals ' is betrayed by any signs of 
decrepitude. 



PREFACE. 

No alteration will be made in the plan of the work, which 
will consist, as heretofore, of original papers on Zoological, 
Botanical, and Palgeontological subjects, with occasional trans- 
lations of foreign memoirs of importance, brief notices of 
new books and of the proceedings of Societies, and short 
notes of interesting facts and observations. 

Of early contributors to the ' Annals ' we have had to 
deplore the loss of two distinguished men during the past ten 
years — Dr. James Scott Bowerbank and Dr. John Edward 
Gray, — the latter especially, who for nearly twenty years 
was one of the Editors of this Journal, in the prosperity and 
usefulness of which he took the greatest interest, and nearly 
to the end of his long and valuable life enriched our pages 
with important contributions to various departments of zoo- 
logy. Dr. Gray's place as Editor has been taken by his suc- 
cessor at the British Museum, Dr. Albeet Gunther, under 
whose auspices valuable descriptive papers which are the 
natural outcome of the work done in his department of the 
Museum will still, as formerly, find their way to the 'Annals.' 
One other change we have still to mention. Quite recently, 
from private considerations, Mr. Charles Cardale Babington, 
whose name has appeared on om* titlepage for 35 years, 
expressed his wish to retire from the Editorial office ; and 
Mr, William Carruthers, the Keeper of the Botanical 
Department in the British Museum, will in future act as the 
Botanical Editor of the ' Annals.' 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 

[FIFTH SERIES.] 

NUMBER I. 

I. Observations upon Prof. Ernst Haeckel's Group of the " Physe- 
maria," and on the Affinity of the Sponges. By W. Saville Kent, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c 1 

II. Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
M.A., F.L.S., and C. E. Broome, Esq., F.L.S. (Plates m. & IV.) 17 

III. Notes on Sessile-eyed Crustaceans, with Description of a 
new Species. By the Rev. Thomas R. R. Stebbing. (Plate V.) . 31 

IV. On the Young of Pityriasis gymnocephala. By Dr. F. Brug- 

GEMANN . 37 

V. Characters of new Genera and of some undescribed Species of 
Phytophagous Beetles. By Joseph S. Baly, F.L.S 38 

VI. On the Minute Structure of the Corals of the Genera Helio- 
phyllum and Crepidophyllnm. By H. Axleyne Nicholson, M.D., 
D.Sc, F.L.S., Professor of Natural History in the University of St. 
Andrews 44 

VII. On Two New and remarkable Species of Cliona, By W. J. 
SoLLAS, M.A., F.G.S., &c. (Plates I. & IL) 54 

VIII. Description of a new Species of Spotangidcs. By Ed gab, 

A. Smith, F.Z.S., Zoological Department, British Museum 67 

IX. On Wagnerella, a new Genus of Sponge nearly allied to the 
Physemaria of Ernst Hackeh By C. Mereschkowsky. (Plate VI.) 70 

X. Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from Japan. — 
Part II. Noctuites. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. . . 77 

XL Description of an apparently new Species of Hornbill from 
Cochin China, of the Genus Anthracoceros. By D. G. Elliot, 
F.R.S.E., &c 86 

XII. On the Solitaire {Didus solitarius, Gm. ; Pezophaps solitaria, 
Strkl.). By Prof. R. Owen, C.B., F.R.S., &c. (Plates VII. & VIII.) 87 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
XIII, Description of a new Species of Water-bird from Cochin 
China belonging to the Genus Poiyhjno. By D. G. Elliot, 
F.R.S.E. &c 98 

New Book : — The American Palaeozoic Fossils, &c., by S. A. Miller 99 

Preliminary Notice of a Species of Phasmidte apparently possessing 
all the Structural Arrangements needed both for Aerial and 
Aquatic Respiration, by J. Wood-Mason, F.G.S. ; Auriferous 
Sand in the Neighbourhood of the Seychelle Islands, by H. J. 
Carter, F.E.S. &c ; On a new Marsupial from Australia, by 
Prof. R. Owen, F.R.S. &c. ; Metamorphosis of the Cantharis 
(CantJiaris (Lytta) vesicatoria) , by M. Ijichtenstein 101 — 103 



NUMBER II. 

XIV. Notes on British Spiders, with Descriptions of some new 
Species. By the Rev. 0. P. Cambeidge, M.A., C.M.Z.S., &c. 
(Plate XI.) 105 

XV. INIr. James Thomson's Fossil Sponges fi-om the Carboniferous 
System of the South-west of Scotland. By H. J. Carter, F.R.S. 

&c. (Plates IX. & X.) 128 

XVI. Notes on new and little-known Manticlce. By Prof. J. 
Wood-Mason, Deputy Superintendent, Indian Museum, Calcutta. . 143 

XVII. Revision of the PlcKjusiinm. By Edward .1. Miers, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., Assistant in the Zoological Department, British 
Museum 147 

XVIII. Entomological Notes bearing on evolution. By Raphael 
Meldola, Sec. Ent. Soc 155 

XIX. Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from Japan. — 
Part II. Noctuites. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.. . 161 

XX. Position of the Sponge-spicule in the Spongida ; and Post- 
script on the Identity of Squamulina scapula with the Sponges. By 

H. J. Carter, F.R.S. &c 170 

XXI. Description of a new Scops Owl from Ceylon. By Capt. W. 

V. Legge, R.A., M.B.O.U., &c 174 

New Book : — White's Natural History of Selborne, edited by Thomas 

Bell, F.R.S 176 

Thomas Vernon W^oUaston ; On the Orthonectida, a new Class of 
Animals Parasitic on Echinodermata and Turbellaria, by M. A. 
Giard ; A new Species of Cfmncera found in American Waters, 
by Theodore Gill ; Note on the Habits of young Limulus, by 
Alexander Agassiz ; New Species of Ceratodus from the Jurassic, 
by O. C. Marsh ; Sexual Dimorphism in Butterflies, by S. H. 
Scudder 178—184 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
NUMBER III. 

XXII. On the Geographical Distribution of the Common Oyster. 

By G. WiNTHER 185 

XXIII. Note on Selaginopsis ( = Poli/serias Hinchsii, Mereschkow- 
sky), and on the Circumpolar Distribution of certain Hydrozoa. By 

the Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A 189 

XXIV. Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from Japan. — 
Part II. Noctuites. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.. . 192 

XXV. Further Notes on the Structure o£ Perij)atns nov<e-ze.alnndi<2. 

By F. W. HuTTON, Professor of Zoology in the University of Otago. 204 

XXVI. On the Genus Talceacis, and the Species occurring in British 
Carboniferous Rocks. By R. Etheridge, juu., F.G.S., and H. 
Alleyne Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc, &c. (Plate XII.) 206 

XXVII. Descriptions of new Species of Lepidoptera collected 
by tlie late Dr. F. Stoliczka during the Indian-Government Mission 

to Yarkund in 1873. By F. Moore, F.Z.S 227 

XXVIII. Description of a new Species of Land-Planarian from 
the Hothouses at Kew Gardens. By H. N. Moseley, F.R.S 2.37 

XXIX. Studies on the Ilydroida. By C. MERESCHKOWSKY^ 
(Plates XIII., XIV. & XV.) 239 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 256, 257 

On the Migrations and Metamorphoses of tlie Tape^vorms of the 
Shrews, by M. A. Villot ; On some Monstrosities of Asteracan- 
iliion ruhens, by M. A. Giard ; On the Feeding of Dinamoeba, by 
Prof. Leidy ; On the Structure of Amjihioxits lanceolatus, by 
Prof. Schneider 268—262 



NUMBER IV. 

XXX. Od the Genus Haliphysema, with Description of several 
Forms apparently allied to it. By the Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A. 
(Plate XVI.) 265 

XXXI. On the Architectural Achievements of little Masons, 
Annelidan (?) and Rhizopodan, in the Abyss of the Atlantic. By 

the Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A 284 

XXXII. Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from Japan. — 
Part II. Noctuites. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. . . 287 

XXXIII. On Races of Herring observed in the Sound. By G. 
Winther 295 



VI CONTENTS. 



XXXIV. On new Species of Hydrdctinudee, Recent and Fossil, 
and on tlie Identity in Structure of Millepora (dcicornis with Stroma- 
topora. By H. J. 'Carter, F.R.S. &c. (Plate XVII.) 298 

XXXV. Descriptions of a new Genus and of new Species of Halti- 
cince. By Joseph S. Baxy, F.L.S 312 

XXXVI. Studies on tlie Hydroida. By C. Mereschkowsky , , 322 

XXXVn. Descriptions of twenty new Species of HesperidcB from 
his own Collection. By W. C. Hewitson 340 

XXXVIII. Note on Artamus monachus. By Dr. F. BRiJGGE- 
MANN 348 

XXXIX. Description of an apparently new Species of Pip:eon of 

the Genus Ptilojms. By D. G. Elliot, F.RS.E. &c 349 

On Dinichthys, Newberry ; On an Ostracode Crustacean of a new 
Genus (Acanthoptis), met with in the deep waters of the Lake 
of Geneva, by M. H. Vernet 350, 352 



NUMBER V. 

XL. Notes on the Genus Hetepora, with Descriptions of new 
Species. By the Rev. Thomas IIincks, B.A., F.R.S. (Plates 
XVm. & XIX.) 353 

XLI. Descriptions of new Species of Heteropterous Ilemiptera 
collected in the Hawaiian Islands by the Rev. T. Blackburn. — No. II. 
By F. Buchanan White, M.D., F.L.S 365 

XLII. Descriptions of new Species of Birds from the Island of 
Lifu, New Caledonia. By E. L. Layard, C.B., Il.B.M. Consid, 
Noumea, New Caledonia 374 

XLIII. Emendatory Description of Ptirisiphmiia Clarkei, Bk., a 
Hexactinellid Fossil Sponge from N.W. Australia. By H. J. 
Carter, F.R.S. &c 376 

XLIV. Notes on the Internal and External Structure of Palaeozoic 
Crinoids. By Charles Wachsmuth 379 

XLV. Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from Japan. — 
Part III. Geometrites. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 392 

XLVI. On the Number of Cervical Vertebrae in Dinorm's. By F. 
W. Hutton, Professor of Zoology in the University of Otago .... 407 

XLVII. Two new Crustacea from the Coast of Aberdeen. Bv C. 
Spknce Bate, F.R.S .'. . . 409 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
XL VIII. On Calcareous Hexactiiiellid Structure in the Devonian 
Limestone ; large Fossil Hydrozoic Coralla from the Chalk ; and 
fm'ther Observations on the Replacement of Silex by Calcite. By 
H. J. Carter, F.R.S. &c 412 

On the Young' Stages of some Osseous Fishes — Development of the 
Tail, by Mr. Al. Agassiz ; On Selaf/inopsis, Polyserias, and Perir 
cladium, by M. C. Mereschkowsky ; on a new Gorilla from 
Congo, by MM. AUix and Bouvier ; On the Ehizopoda of the 
Salt Lake of Szamosfalva, by Dr. Geta Entz ; Note on the 
Locality and Synonyms of Sternotomis cornutor, Fabr. (Coleo- 
ptera, Lamiidae), by Charles O. Waterhouse ; On the Genus 
HaUpkysema, by the Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A 419—424 



NUMBER VI. 

XLIX. On the Reticularian and Radiolarian Rhizopoda (Forami- 
nifera and Polycystina) of the North-Polar Expedition of 1875-76. 
By Henry B. Brady, F.R.S. (Plates XX. & XXI.) 425 

L. Descriptions of new Species of Ileterocera from Japan. — 
Part III. Geometrites. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 440 

LI, Notes on the Internal and External Structure of Palteozoic 
Crinoids. By Charles Wachsmuth 453 

LII. Description of a remarkable new Form of Ophiurid<^ from 
Ceylon. By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S 463 

LIII. Remarks on some new AlpJiei, with a Synopsis of the 
North-American Species. By W. N. I-,ockington 465 

LIV. Description of two Butterflies collected b}' Dr. Turner at 
Port Moresby, New Guinea. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S. &c. . 480 

LV. On the KaitpUus Stage of Prawns. By Dr. Fritz Mijller 481 

LVI. Notes on a Collection of Japanese Sea-Fishe.«. By Dr. A. 
Gunther, F.R.S 485 

Neiv Book : — Thesaurus Devonico-Carboniferus : Flora and Fauna 
of the Devonian and Carboniferous Periods. By J. J. Bigsby, 
M.D., F.R.S., &c 487 

On the Origin and Distribution of the Turbellaria of the deep Fauna 
of the I^ake of Geneva, by M. Duplessis ; Characters of a new 
Species of Dryops from Formosa (Coleoptera, Parnidse), by 
Charles O. Waterhouse ; On the Organ called " Dorsal Chord " 
in Amphioxus lanceokdus, by MM. J. Renaut and G. Duchanip ; 
On the Zoological Affinities of the Genus Mesites, by M, A. 
Milne-Edwards 490—493 



Index 495 



PLATES IN VOL. I. 
Plate L 



New Species of Cliona. 

' J- New British Fungi. 

V. Caprella fretensis — Stimpsonia chelifera. 
VI. Wagnerella borealis. 

■ > Pezophaps solitaria. 

V IXX. I 

"/ > Fossil Sponges from the Carboniferous System. 

XI. New British Spiders. 
XII. Species of Palseacis from British Carboniferous Rocks. 

XIII. I 

XIV. i New Hydroida. 
XV. 1 

i Haliphysema confertum — Technitella legumen — Technitella 

■ I melo — Marsipella elongata. 
XVII. New Hydi'actiniidte. 

,' [ New Species of Eetepora. 

^^ \ North-Polar Rhizopoda. 
XXL I ^ 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[FIFTH SERIES.] 



•' perlitora spargite musciun, 

Naiades, et circiun vitreos considite fontes: 
Pollice virgineo teneros hie carpite flores : 
Floribus et pictum, divas, replete canistrum. 
At Tos, o NymphsB Craterides, ite sub undag ; 
Ite, reeurvato variata eorallia trunco 
Vellite muscosia e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Perte, Dese pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N. Parthenii Giannettasii Eel. 1. 



No. 1. JANUARY 1878. 



I. — Observations upon Professor Ernst HaeckeVs Group of the 
" Physemaria^^'' and on the Affiiiity of the 8ponges. By W. 
Saville Kent, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

It was scarcely to be expected that Mr. Carter would quietly 
surrender into Prof. Ernst Haeckel's hands, for the further 
exposition of his celebrated ''Gastrsea " theory, that interest- 
ing organism, SquamuUna scopida, which he (Mr. Carter) a 
few years since pronounced, and still holds, to be a Forami- 
nifer. The brusque and, it must be admitted, somewhat dis- 
courteous manner in which the learned professor disposes of 
Mr. Carter's arguments in support of the view which he 
adopts has also naturally led to the protest that appears in 
the last October number of the ' Annals.' In this protest, 
however, Mr. Carter does not appear to have made the most 
of his own position, nor, indeed, to have clearly defined the 
one maintained by Prof. Haeckel. 

Though unable at the present moment to refer to the article 
which has so greatly perturbed Mr. Carter's equanimity, I 
was fortunate enough to obtain in May of this present year, 
and still have by me, a copy of Prof. Haeckel's '■ Biologischen 
Studien,' zweites Heft, 1877, containing a chapter entirely 
devoted to the consideration of the so-called SquamuUna 
scopula and its supposed allies. It is upon these forms col- 
lectively that the author bestows the title of the Physeraaria ; 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol i. 1 



2 Mr. W. Saville Kent on Prof. E. HaecheVs 

and it is further evident from the quotations given by Mr. 
Carter that we have here word for word a reprint of the 
original article puLlished in the ^ JenaischeZeitschrift.' This 
possession, last spring, of the volume in question enabled me 
to discuss at some length, in a communication to the meeting 
of the Linnean Society held on the 21st of June of the pre- 
sent year*, the views expounded by Prof. Haeckel concerning 
the nature and affinities of his newly created group. My 
communication here referred to, and of which the briefest 
possible notice only has so far appeared, embraces the results 
of investigations prosecuted during the last six years relative 
to that remarkable group of " collar-bearing " flagellate Pro- 
tozoa whose existence was first discovered in America by the 
late Prof. H. James-Clark, and announced by him in the 
' Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History,' vol. i., 
for the year ISGGf. Four species only, representing two genera 
[Godosiga and Salpingoeca) ^ were here described by Prof. 
Clark. Later on, in the autumn of the year 1871, three out of 
these four types, with the addition of two new varieties, were 
discovered by me in the neighbourhood of London, and were 
duly announced at the meeting of the Royal Microscopical 
Society held Nov. 1 of the same yearj. With this excep- 
tion these Flagellate Protozoa, as a special and independent 
group, do not appear, knowingly, to have fallen beneath the 
observation of any other investigator. 

The importance that attaches itself to Prof. Clark's dis- 
coveries, however, is not associated so much with his intro- 
duction to scientific notice of a new structural type, as his 
simultaneous declaration that sponges were essentially com- 
posed of sociable colonies of similar collar-bearing flagellate 
monads. This he at the time demonstrated through an 
exposition of the minute anatomy of the calcareous sponge- 
form Leucosolenia hotryoides, Bowerbank, and subsequently 
in association with a siliceous American freshwater species, 
Spongilla arachnoidea^ Clark§. This last important discovery 
of Prof. Clark's has since been fully confirmed by the observa- 
tions of Mr. Carterll, and also by myself, as shown in my com- 
munication to the Linnean Society just quoted, in which 

* " A Monograph of the Gymnozoidal Diseostomatous Flagellata, with 
a proposed new Scheme of Classification of the Protozoa, &c." 

t Reprinted in the ' Annals and JNIagazine of Natural History,' 4th ser. 
vol. i. 1868. 

I Abstract published in the 'Monthly Microscopical Journal,' vol. vii. 
p. 2G1, 1871. 

§ ' Silliman's American Journal,' December 1871 ; reprinted in the 
Ann. & Mas. Nat. Hist, for January 1872. 

U Ann. k Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. x. Julv 1871. 



Group of the " Physemariay 3 

I am enabled, through my extended researches into the struc- 
ture and developmental history of the independent collar- 
bearing forms, to follow out the subject to a more decisive issue 
than has yet been attempted. 

Prof. Haeckel, as it is well known, while driven to admit 
the existence in sponge-structures of these collar-bearing cells 
or monads, has altogether refused so far to recognize in each 
such collar-bearing monad a distinct and individual vitality, 
choosing rather to regard the same as the contiguous cellular 
constituents of one out of two multicellular layers or tissues of 
which he considers all sponge-forms are composed. This view 
held by Haeckel would, if correct, approximate the sponges 
more closely to the simplest tissue-forming Coelenterata ; and 
it is exactly such a position for them that he has been endea- 
vouring for some years past to bring into general recognition. 
Taking upon trust, indeed, and dazzled by the garish lustre 
of the learned professor's brilliant " Gastrgea " theory, of which 
the " Coelenteric " or " Diploblastic " interpretation of the 
sponge question must be regarded as the chief corner-stone, 
that recognition has already been very extensively accorded, 
leaving, indeed, as a very slender minority the adherents of the 
Protozoic or Monoblastic interpretation of the organisms in 
dispute. An irreparable gap has further been occasioned here 
through the recent deplorable death, in the midst of his valu- 
able investigations, of Prof. H. James-Clark. The time at 
length, however, seems to have arrived when accumulated 
facts of so substantial a nature can be set in array in proof of 
the thorough agreement of the sponges in every essential 
detail with the representatives of the ordinary Protozoa, that 
the acceptors, upon trust, of the Diploblastic interpretation of 
the question will be well advised to reexamine and work it 
out for their own satisfaction. If upon so doing the results 
realized should accord with and confirm those obtained by the 
writer, the " Diploblastic " or " Gastrsea " theory, so far, at 
least, as the sponges are concerned, will be held henceforth in 
but scant estimation. 

The grounds upon which the above, at first sight somewhat 
presumptuous, anticipation is hazarded, together with the 
bearings upon the question of Prof. Haeckel's newly created 
group of the Physemaria (embracing, in his opinion, Mr. Carter's 
Foraminiferal (?) type Squamulina scapula), may now be 
examined. Before arriving at this more complex aspect of 
the problem, however, it is desirable to devote a brief space to 
an acquaintance with the initial integers of it, viz. the inde- 
pendent collar-bearing flagellate monads in their simplicity, as 
first made known to us by Prof. Clark. On reference to my 

1* 



4 Mr. W. Saville Kent on Prof. E. HaeckeVs 

communication, already quoted, it will be found that the record 
of nearly forty well-marked species, in place of the original 
four, has been the reward of my several years' study of this 
interesting group ; and concerning the general structure, func- 
tions, and developmental history of these I am enabled to 
supply perfectly original and important data. To those 
acquainted with the writings of Prof. Clark, the general aspect 
of these typical " collar-bearing" monads will no doubt be 
familiar ; but for the advantage of those who are not, they may 
be described as ovate, pyriform, or flask-shaped animalcules, 
stalked, sessile, or floating freely in the water, naked or en- 
closed within a transparent lorica, and either solitary or 
forming extensive colonies — the chief and common character- 
istic of all these being that each individual is adorned ante- 
riorly with an exquisitely delicate funnel-shaped sarcodic 
expansion, the " collar," from the centre of the area en- 
closed by the base of which a single long flagellum takes its 
origin. All the species as yet discovered are of so minute 
a size, the body of the largest not exceeding the 1200th part 
of an English inch in total length, and usually being much 
smaller, that a magnifying-power of at least 500 diameters is 
requisite for their satisfactory investigation. This last cir- 
cumstance, no doubt, readily accounts for the immunity from 
attention that they have hitherto enjoyed, they, on the other 
hand, being so abundantly distributed in both salt and fresh 
water that scarcely a fragment of weed can be examined from 
either of these two sources, by those once familiar with their ap- 
pearances, and employing a sufiiciently high magnifying- 
power, without the encounter of some one or even several 
types. 

Among the most important results of my investigations of 
this interesting and, as is now shown, exceedingly extensive 
group is the satisfactory elucidation of the true nature and 
position of the oral aperture or mouth, and of the structure 
and function of the hyaline funnel-shaped " collar." Prof. 
Clark left both these points in a very unsatisfactory state, he, 
in the first place, being altogether unable to determine the 
exact aspect and position of the oral aperture, but hazarding 
tlie opinion that it lay somewhere within the collar and near 
the base of the flagellum. Concerning the nature and uses 
of the funnel-shaped " collar " itself he makes no suggestion 
and furnishes us with no clue. By prolonged and repeated 
observation, however, I have been able most conclusively to 
demonstrate that food is ingested at any point within the area 
embraced by the base of the hyaline collar, the whole of 
which area must therefore necessarily be characterized as the 



Group of the ^^ Physemariay 5 

oral or inceptive one. Digested and other effete particles 
are likewise, I have ascertained, usually passed off from the 
same circumscribed surface. The function and properties of 
the hyaline " collar" I have found to be almost inconceiv- 
ably remarkable. By the employment of an amplifying 
power of from 800 to 1000 diameters it was revealed to me 
that this collar consisted of an exquisitely delicate film of sar- 
code, capable of expansion and retraction at the will of the 
animalcule — to such an extent, indeed, that it might be quite 
withdrawn into the substance of the body. In this structure 
a circulating stream was constantly in motion, ascending 
on the outside and descending on the inside, and identical in all 
ways with those circulating sarcode-streams characteristic of the 
extended pseudopodia of certain Radiolaria. Placing commi- 
nuted carmine in the water, this collar with its circulating 
current, assisted by the active movements of the flagellura, 
was found to constitute a wonderful and most admirably con- 
structed trap for the purpose of drawing towards it and arrest- 
ing passing particles of food. '^I^he phenomenon presented by 
this trap in active action was as follows : — The rapid rotatory 
action of the flagellum impelling swift currents of water to 
flow from behind in a forward direction, caused all floating 
particles carried with it to impinge upon some point of the sur- 
face of the expanded collar. Adhering here, these particles 
were now carried on by the motion of the substance of the 
collar, and after ascending the outer surface, surmounting the 
rim, and descending upon the interior surface of the structure, 
became engulfed in the soft sarcode of the animalcule's body 
embraced by the collar's base. The accompanying woodcut 
(p. 6) illustrates clearly and in a diagrammatic manner the 
remarkable phenomena that accompany the feeding-process. 

In relation to the life-history and reproductive phenomena 
of this interesting collar- bearing group, I have satisfactorily 
ascertained that while that simple flssiparous method of 
multiplication common to all ordinary Protozoic organisms 
extensively prevails, a process of encystment and resolution 
of the entire body into granular germs or spores also ]5lays 
an important part. The withdrawal by the adult individual 
of the characteristic hyaline collar, and its extension of pseudo- 
podic processes, have likewise been frequently observed, these 
phenomena being intimately associated with the function of 
reproduction. The larval or initial condition of the collar- 
bearing Flagellata derived from the reproductive process is 
more simple in structure than the parent from which it sprung, 
it in some instances taking the form of an Amosba and in others 
that of a simple flagellate monad. Taken as a whole, my 



6 Mr. W. Saville Kent on Prof. E, HaeckeVs 

investigation of the life-historj of this collar-bearing group 
has yielded data abounding with evidence confirmatory of and 
parallel with that obtained by Messrs. Dallinger and Drys- 
dale relative to the life-history of the more simple Cercomo- 
nadsy published at length in the ' Monthly Microscopical 
Journal' for the years 1873-74, some of the same having 



Monosiga gracilis^ S. Kent. 

A solitary Gymnozoidal Disco- 
stomatous Protozoou feeding on 
comminuted carmine : c, collar ; 
n, nucleus 5 Jl, flageUum ; c.v, 
contractile vesicles ; f.g, food 
globules. The arrows indicate 
the direction of the current 
caused by the rotatoiy motion 
of the flagellum, and the course 
taken by the food-particles on 
striking against and adhering to 
the collar. The dotted line on 
each side of the flagellum marks 
the arc described by its rotation. 
X 2000 diameters. 




been accumulated by me prior, and some subsequent, to 
the appearance of their very valuable contributions to our 
knowledge of these lowly organized types. 

My prolonged investigation of these hitherto little-known 
collar-bearing flagellate monads, together with a careful study 
of all other forms most closely approaching these in structure, 



Group of the " Physemaria.'''' 7 

has in the end forced upon me not only the unavoidable neces- 
sity of coining for this particular group a special classificatory 
title ; it has at the same time been suggestive of an entirely 
new and simple scheme of reclassification, or redivision into 
primary sections, of the entire Protozoic subkingdom. This 
latter object I have proposed to attain by taking as a basis 
for diagnosis the nature and extent of the oral or inceptive 
area. Thus, for instance, among an exceedingly extensive 
group of the Protozoa, embracing practically all the represen- 
tatives of the Rhizopoda and certain Flagellata, it will be found 
that there is no especial mouth-aperture, food-particles being 
engulfed indiscriminately by the soft, yielding sarcode at any 
point on the surface of the periphery. These organisms are, 
in fact, in all parts and everywhere mouth, and represent the 
simplest or most degraded types of the whole subkingdom. 
In reference to this dispersed character of the inceptive 
surface I have proposed for this section tlie title of the 
"HOLOSTOMATA*". Advancing a little further we find a 
group in which, although the oral or inceptive areas have 
become distinct and specialized, they are at the same time 
multifarious and distributed over a considerable extent, if not 
over the whole, of the surface of the body. This class or 
section is represented by the Acinetina or Suctoria, a group 
in which the modification into tubular sucking-mouths of 
the pseudopodia of the preceding Holostomatous type is at once 
apparent. For these many-mouthed forms I have proposed 
the title of the Polystomata. With the next step forward we 
are brought face to face with that assemblage of collar-bearing 
flagellate forms that constitute the chief subject matter of 
this communication. Here, as already shown, there is a con- 
siderable advance upon the two preceding types ; for the in- 
ceptive area, although not yet attaining to the importance of a 
distinct and definite mouth, is no longer scattered over the 
general surface of the body, but is concentrated and confined 
to the anterior extremity. In reference to the discoidal form 
of this anterior inceptive area, bounded, as already shown, 
by the base of the funnel-shaped collar, I have proposed the 
title of the Discostomata. The fourth and most specialized 
group of the Protozoa includes the typical Ciliate and Flagel- 
late Stomatode Infusoria, which may be collectively distin- 
guished by the title of the Monostomata or Eustomata. 

A brief space may now be devoted to an examination of 
the claim of the members of the sponge tribe for admission 
into the ranks of one or other of the four Protozoic classes or 
subdivisions above enumerated. As mentioned in a preceding 

* [Already used in Mollusca, aud hardly bearing the signification here 
given to it. — Eds.] 



8 Mr. W. Saville Kent on Prof. E. EaeckeVs 

page, Prof. H. James-Clark was the first authority to point 
out the resemblance between the essential flagellate units of 
the sponge-body and the independant collar-bearing monads, 
of which he was the discoverer, these results, so far as relates 
to the possession by the sponge-monads or Spongozoons of 
similar membranous collars, being confirmed by the observa- 
tions of Mr. Carter. It was clear, however, that it could only 
be through a much more extended and accurate acquaint- 
ance with the independent Discostomatous or collar-bearing 
forms that this question of the natural affinities of the sponges 
could be definitely and satisfactorily set at rest. It was en- 
tirely actuated by the ambition to become possessed of such 
accurate and extended information that the writer has de- 
voted the last six years to the study of this particular group ; 
and it is only fortified with the substantial fruits of this pro- 
longed investigation that he now approaches the obscure ques- 
tion of the nature and affinities of the sponges. Full details 
in reference to these investigations will appear in due course ; 
but it may be briefly stated here that a careful examination 
of members of each of the leading sponge-orders, Calcareous, 
Siliceous^ and Keratose, has pointed to one and the same 
general conclusion — namely, that sponges can no longer be 
regarded logically in any other light than as typical DlSCO- 
STOMATOUS Protozoa. Not only in all structural points and 
in the remarkable form and function of the hyaline collar is 
the correspondence complete, but the phenomena of repro- 
duction and development are likewise essentially identical 
with what has already been observed of the simple and inde- 
pendent collar-bearing types. The only essential distinction 
between the sponges and these last-named forms is, in fact, that 
while the latter, whether fixed or floating, solitary or aggregated 
in social clusters on a simple or branching pedicel, are invari- 
ably naked and fully exposed to view, the collar-bearing 
flagellate monads of the sponge-colony are as invariably con- 
cealed by and immersed within a sarcodic and usually spi- 
culum-secreting matrix. Practically, the distinction between 
the two groups is essentially parallel with what obtains be- 
tween the solitary or social " naked " Tunicata, Ascidiadce 
and ClaveUtmdce, and those compound colony forms, the 
Botryllidce, which are immersed and concealed within a 
gelatinous and not unfrequently spiculiferous matrix. And 
yet no one in his right senses would think of calling in ques- 
tion the propriety of uniting these two as members of the 
same primary class of the Molluscoida. In a similar manner 
it is requisite to unite as members of the same Protozoan class 
of the Discostomata the naked and independent collar -bearing 



Group of the " Physemariay 9 

monads, Godosiga and SaVpingceca^ and those socially im- 
mersed, the sponges, in a sarcodic matrix. For convenience' 
sake I have proposed to distinguish these two respective sec- 
tions or subclasses as the Discostomata Gymnozoida and 
Discostomata Sarcocrypta. 

While at first sight a sponge-body, or Sarcocryptal Disco- 
stomatous colony, appears to present an almost incomprehen- 
sibly complex type of organization, it will be found on close 
investigation, assisted by an intimate acquaintance with the 
Gymnozoidal Discostomatous group, to be reducible to three, 
or even less, very simple elements. The first and most 
essential of these is necessarily represented by the collar- 
bearing monads, the second by the simple ylmcBZ>a-like cell- 
elements or cytoblasts, and the third by the general investing 
sarcode or syncytium. These three elements intelligently 
recognized, or even the first and last only, all remaining 
structural details are most easily comprehended. Regarding, 
in fact, the collar-bearing monads as the one essential element 
of the sponge to which all the other structures are subsidiary, 
the investing sarcode or syncytium may be described as fur- 
nishing, in the first place, a gelatinous fulcrum or basis for 
the reception and support of the essential monads, and, in the 
second, a suitable nidus or matrix for the nurture and deve- 
lopment of their offspring or reproductive products. To this 
last-named category, indeed, may be referred the AmoebaAike 
cytoblasts and all the remaining larger or lesser granular 
contents of the syncytium. This explanation of the sponge- 
structure is offered not as a crude theory, but as the result 
of direct personal investigation, in the course of which the 
development of what at first sight appeared as mere granular 
specks, first into Amoeha-\ike bodies, and then onwards into 
the characteristic adult collar-bearing monads, was actually 
witnessed by me, as also the reassumption by these adult 
monads of an amoeboid state, their coalescence or fusion with 
neighbouring individuals, and final breaking up into innume- 
rable germs or spores similar to those from which they origi- 
nally sprang. The whole life-cycle is in fact perfectly 
identical with what obtains among the gymnozoidal section 
of the class and all other simple monad forms, with the single 
difference that the reproductive germs, instead of being dis- 
persed into the surrounding water, are retained by, and grow 
up within, the substance of the syncytium. 

Although the method of increase above recounted represents 
the normal process of development among the sponges, there 
are certain departures from this simple formula which require 
a special explanation. The most important of these, and one, 



10 Mr. W. Saville Kent on Prof. E. HaeckeVs 

indeed, that has considerably exercised the mind of every 
authority who has devoted his energies to the solution of the 
" sponge- question," is associated with the so-called ciliated 
germs or larvse of certain sponge-forms. This " ciliated 
larva/' which may in fact be regarded as the veritable ^^ pons 
asinorum " of the whole sponge-problem, has been seized upon 
and trotted round the lists by Prof. Haeckel and all the sup- 
porters of the Diploblastic or Coelenteric theory of sponges as 
the perfect embodiment of the typical sac-shaped bilaminate 
Gastreea, or the hypothetical stock-form of all animal life from 
the Ccelenterata upwards, and as conclusively proving in its 
own personality the necessity of regarding sponges as members 
of the Coelenterate subkingdom. Put crucially to the test, 
however, it will be found that these ciliated sponge-germs are 
altogether innocent of the blushing honours that have been so 
forcibly thrust upon them. 

As already shown by Metschnikoff*, these somewhat re- 
markable bodies by no means conform, in either external 
characteristics or in the fashion of their development, to 
that arbitrary formula which has been insisted upon by 
Prof. Haeckel, and which was necessary for the vindication 
of his position. It may be further demonstrated now, how- 
ever, that there is no structural or functional aspect asso- 
ciated with these bodies that does not find its parallel among 
the more simple and typical Protozoa, or that cannot be readily 
explained by reference to the phenomena manifested by the 
various members of that group. The only clue to a thorough 
comprehension of the nature of these ciliated bodies is, as 
might be expected, afforded by the study of their development. 
This has been followed out by me in association with Grantia 
compressa^ Sycon ciliatum^ and other sponges prominent for 
their plentiful production of these disputed structures, the 
evidence adduced in all cases, as detailed and illustrated else- 
where, overwhelmingly indicating that they cannot be regarded 
otherwise than as the results of a specially modified process of 
multiple fission, and that their correct title would be " com- 
pound gemmules." Among the ordinary Holostomatous Pro- 
tozoa such a mode of multiple fission following the coalescence 
or fusion of two or more individuals is of frequent occurrence, 
the only point of departure between the two cases being that, 
whereas in the sponges the individual resultants of such mul- 
tiple fission remain in intimate connexion with one another, 
in the more simple and independent forms, as remarked of 
their germs, they become separated and dispersed through the 

* ' Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliclie Zoologie,' Bd. xxiv. 1874 ; and 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., July 1875. 



Oroup of the '■^ Physemaria.''^ 11 

surrounding water. Taken in its most highly characteristic 
phase, this compound gemmule, or wrongly called " ciliated 
larva" of the sponge, represents a spherical or ovate aggre- 
gation of typical collar- bearing monads or spongozoa, con- 
nected laterally and by their bases with one another, and 
with their anterior flagellate and collar-bearing extremity 
directed outwards. In this condition they, in fact, present a 
wonderful resemblance to a social colony of one of the simpler 
Gymnozoidal types, and might be directly compared to a 
detached capitulum of the pedicelled genus (7oc?os^^a, Jas.-Clk., 
or to a spherical colony of the free-floating genus Astrosiga, 
S. Kent. It is only when certain of these sponge-monads 
withdraw their characteristic collars and commence to throw 
off and secrete around them the spiculiferous syncytium as a 
nidus for the further development of the colony that their true 
sponge nature becomes apparent. This brief chapter of their 
developmental history brings out in high relief the potential 
importance of the collar-bearing monads compared with the 
remaining elements of the sponge community, showing, indeed, 
as already intimated, that these latter are entirely subordinate 
to and derived from these essential sponge-units. 

The compound ciliated gemmules, whose true nature has 
just been discussed, are most abundantly encountered in asso- 
ciation with the calcareous division of the sponge tribe. With 
certain of these forms, but more especially among the siliceous 
group, other compound ciliated bodies occur, concerning which, 
although it has not been hitherto attempted, a very similar 
interpretation may be rendered. Reference is here made to 
those spherical ciliated chambers that first received from Mr. 
Carter the title of " ampullaceous sacs." By Prof. Clark 
they have been denominated the " monad-chambers ;" and in 
those sponge-types where they are present they seem, so far as 
has been observed, to embrace the whole and entire system of 
the collar-bearing monads, each such chamber in its normal 
and fully developed state being completely lined, except at its 
point of communication with the general aquiferous system, 
with these essential spongozoa. The, examination by me of 
a species of Desmacidon revealed the presence of these ciliated 
chambers in great profusion and in every phase of their deve- 
lopment. It was further elicited, by a careful study of the 
earlier stages of the same, that they take their origin by a 
process of multiple fission in all ways identical with what has 
been followed by the detached compound gemmules. Both 
present in their initial stage a morula-like aspect, the subse- 
quent and essential point of departure being that, while in the 
latter case the free-swimming ciliated gemmule has the collar- 



12 Mr. W. Saville Kent (m Prof. E. HaeckeVs 

bearing and flagellate extremity of the individual monads 
directed exteriorly, in the ampullaceous sacs or monad-chambers 
they are directed towards the interior of a central cavity. 
Full details, with illustrations, of the examples that have led 
to this interpretation of the " ampullaceous sac " accompany 
my recent communication to the Linnean Society. 

The bearing upon the whole question of Prof. Haeckel's 
newly created group of the Physemaria may now be ap- 
proached. In Haeckel's own words [I.e. pp. 172 and 178), 
the several types to which this title of the Physemaria is col- 
lectively applied are characterized as being neither true sponges 
nor true polypes, but as " eine kleine Gruppe von niedersten 
Pflanzenthieren, die der hypothetischen Stammform aller 
Metazoen, der Gastraea, naher stehen, als alle anderen bis 
jetzt bekannten Thiere." Or, as elsewhere intimated, he re- 
cognizes in this group the almost perfect embodiment of the 
hypothetical " Gastrgea," upon which the whole superstructure 
of his celebrated Gastrsea theory is founded ! Altogether Prof. 
Haeckel relegates to his newly founded group two generic and 
seven specific types, the aspect and structural characteristics 
of which, as described and illustrated by him, may now be 
examined. The first of the two genera [Haliphysema) is already 
familiar, the name having been conferred by Dr. Bowerbank, in 
his ^Monograph of the British Spongiada3,' on two minute forms 
which he regarded as the smallest and simplest of known 
sponge-types; the second genus [Gastrophysema^ Haeckel) 
exhibits a slight advance in complexity of structure upon the 
preceding genus. Represented in their simplest condition 
\HaUphysema primordiale et ecMnoides, Haeckel) , and neces- 
sarily closest approximation to Prof. Haeckel's hypothetical 
"Gastrffia," these Physemaria maybe described as minute sphe- 
rical or ovate bodies elevated on a pedicel and bristling externally 
with adhering fragments of sponge-spicules, grains of sand, 
and other extraneously derived particles. Interiorly there is 
found a single hollow chamber opening anteriorly by a simple 
constricted terminal aperture. The most interesting and im- 
portant feature of these organisms is now arrived at. By Prof. 
Haeckel's own description and drawings it is shown that the 
entire lining surface of the simple interior cavity is represented 
by a single and continuous layer of collar-bearing cells identical 
with those that constitute the essential living units of ordinary 
sponge-structures, or of the independent Gymnozoidal Dis- 
costomatous group already described. The outer wall is 
composed of a syncytial element similar to that of typical 
sponges, with the exception that, instead of secreting a spicu- 
lar or other skeleton of its own, it draws together and appro- 



Group of the " Physemariay 13 

priates for a similar use such foreign particles close at hand 
as may be of a convenient size and form. Prof. Haeckel 
refuses at present, as in the case of ordinary sponge-structures, 
to recognize in the collar-bearing-monad lining any thing of 
less high organization than a true cellular membrane or tissue, 
comparable to ordinary ciliated epithelium , each collar-bearing 
flagellate monad being, in his opinion, indeed, a mere cell unit. 
That we have here, however, as, judging from their broad 
external characters only, Dr. Bowerbank was the first to decide, 
a true sponge or sarcocryptal Discostoraatous Protozoon, there 
cannot be the slightest doubt. It may be further maintained 
that Haliphysema not only represents the simplest sponge- 
type tliat has yet been discovered, but one in which is found 
epitomized, with but slight modification, the simple monad- 
lined " ciliated chamber " or " ampullaceous sac " of the more 
complex groups referred to at length on a preceding page. 
The developmental phenomena of the HalipJiysemata^ as indi- 
cated by Haeckel's figures and description, are entirely in 
accord with those of the ordinary sponges — compound ciliated 
gemmules, the result of multiple fission, being produced, which 
agree in form and structure with those of Sycon^ Grantia^ and 
other sponge-types. The genus Gastrophysema differs from 
Haliphysema only by having several intercommunicating 
internal chambers instead of one, the two, in fact, bearing the 
same relationship to one another that the many-chambered 
forarainiferal genus Nodosaria does to the single-celled Lagena. 
The exceedingly slight and artificial grounds upon which the 
discrimination between two such closely approximating types 
is based, each having necessarily represented the single-cham- 
bered type at one period of its growth, totally unprepares one 
for the account Prof. Haeckel has to render of Gastrophysema 
dithalamium, Haeckel, the simplest and typical representative 
of his second genus. 

Here verily Haeckel has out-Haeckeled Haeckel, and, carried 
away by the ardour of his devotion to the " Gastrsea " theory, 
lost all command over the reins of his very fertile imagi- 
nation ! Having observed that the ciliated germs and amoeboid 
masses (his so-called ova) in the example he examined were, 
as might be rationally anticipated, represented most abundantly 
in the posterior or older-formed of the two chambers, he at 
once takes for granted that the functions of reproduction are 
specially relegated to this chamber, and, with characteristic con- 
fidence in the strength of this bare assumption, bestows upon 
it the title of the " Bruthohle oder Uterus." The upper or 
anterior of the two chambers he invests with the functions of a 
true stomach (" Magenhohle") , while the terminal aperture of 



14 Mr. W. Saville Kent on Prof. E. HaecheVs 

this chamber, as also the single one of Haliphysema^ho, re- 
gards as a true mouth or oral aperture (" MundofFnung") . 
Having further observed some peculiar pyriform bodies scat- 
tered among the ordinary flagellate cells that line the anterior 
chamber, he sees, or rather imagines he recognizes, in these, 
rudimentary glandular structures, or, to use his own expres- 
sion, " Driisenzellen." From the figures of these so-called 
" gland cells " which accompany his description, however, it 
is very evident that we have here simply an " encysted " 
condition of certain of the ordinary collar-bearing monads, 
already ascertained by me to occur among the ordinary 
sponges, and which in this instance, regarded separately, 
harmonizes remarkably with a similar encysted condition of the 
solitary Gymnozoidal species Salpingoeca fusiformis, S.Kent, 
comparisons between which may be instituted in the illustra- 
tions that accompany my monograph of this group. 

Such being the wonderfully complex organism that Prof. 
Haeckel constructs out of this simple little two-chambered 
sponge, the mind trembles with awe at the thought of what he 
might have conjured out of the three-, four-, or five-chambered 
species, Gastro'pliysema scapula, Hkl., = Squaviulina scapula^ 
Carter, had he had an opportunity of examining that species 
in the flesh. As suggested elsewhere, with every additional 
chamber he would probably have discovered and associated 
some new sensory organ, until in the most complex type a 
perfect embodiment of the five primary senses might have 
been made manifest. Under existing circumstances, however, 
Prof. Haeckel is obliged to content himself with enumerating 
its external characters as given by Mr. Carter, and with taking 
that authority smartly to task for the interpretation he has 
given of the structure. Under any circumstances, the con- 
clusions arrived at by Mr. Carter concerning the true nature 
of this debatable organism are far more logical than his 
own, he (Mr. Carter) having, without doubt, referred the struc- 
ture to its right subkingdom, that of the Protozoa. That Mr. 
Carter, in witnessing the ]:)rotrusion of the pseudopodia from 
the terminal orifice of the type in question, should have decided 
upon its foraminiferal nature is perfectly comprehensible. 
Even as a true sponge, agreeing in all structural details with 
the simple Haliphysemata here described, we should expect 
to find the sarcode or syncytial element protruded in such 
a fashion for the seizing of the fragmentary foreign particles 
out of which it builds up instead of secreting, as do ordinary 
sponges, a protective and supporting framework. If, on a 
closer investigation, Mr. Carter finds the internal cavity lined 
with the cliaracteristic collar-bearing monads, it may be anti- 



Group of the ^^ Physemaria.'''' 15 

cipated that no one will be more ready than himself to recog- 
nize in it a true though wonderfully simple sponge-type. If, 
on the other hand, he should find it to consist of homogeneous 
sarcode, it is not identical with Prof. Haeckel's Gastrophy- 
sema, and his first inference, that it must be regarded as a true 
Foraminifer, or, at all events, a K.hizopod, is correct. 

Notwithstanding the remarkable interpretation placed by 
Prof. Haeckel upon the interesting and simple little sponge- 
forms which have received .from him the title of the Physe- 
maria, that authority has undoubtedly greatly advanced our 
knowledge of tlie Protozoa by his record (so far as structural 
facts only are concerned) and exquisite illustrations of those 
types which have been examined by him. In the faithful 
rendering of the minutest histiological detail his pencil cer- 
tainly has no equal, every stroke speaking to those familiar 
with the object or structure depicted with an amount of elo- 
quence that words would fail to inspire. 

In conclusion, it may b6 predicated that, if Prof. Haeckel 
would only recognize in each collar-bearing cell of his exqui- 
site drawings that individuality which it is impossible after a 
long acquaintance to deny them, we should hear no more of 
the " Gastr^ea " theory in association with the sponges. That 
the chief if not the only obstacle to his yielding such recog- 
nition exists through his unacquaintance with these collar- 
bearing cells in their living and active state, forces itself upon 
one's mind in contemplating all his illustrations of these struc- 
tures that occur both in his magnificent ' Monograph of the 
Calcareous Sponges ' and the volume containing his descrip- 
tion of the Physemaria. In not a single instance out of these 
is the characteristic "collar" portrayed in that symmetrical 
and fully expanded condition which so eminently distinguishes 
it in the living state. Nor on any occasion has Prof. Haeckel 
indicated the presence of the invariably two or more rhythmi- 
cally expanding and contracting vesicles always to be observed 
in the living monads, and which in these types, as among all 
other Protozoa, represent the rudimentary respiratory system. 
His representation of the nucleus of these separate bodies is also 
by no means life-like, but presents all the features of a post 
mortem aspect. A careful investigation of this special struc- 
ture has, in fact, clearly demonstrated that it is by no means 
a constant and essential factor of any Protozoan organism, not 
being, indeed, the equivalent of the nucleus of ordinary tissue 
structure, but merely an accessory to the reproductive act. 
The probability of this element being subservient only to this 
function of reproduction, and of its not being comparable to 
the typical histiological nucleus, has been already suggested 



16 On HaeckeVs Oroup of the " Physemaria." 

by Prof. Huxley* ; while the Inconstancy of its occurrence 
among even the higher Protozoa at once demonstrates the arti- 
ficial character of the group of the Monera, founded by Haeckel 
for the reception of those forms in which a nucleus has not yet 
been recognized. If, as is here intimated, the collar-bearing 
monads of the sponge-colony have only been examined by 
Prof. Haeckel in a dead and preserved state, with all the 
exquisitely beautiful phenomena of life suspended, it is not to 
be wondered at that he has passed them by as the mere indivi- 
dual cell elements of an epithelium-like tissue. But should 
he make himself acquainted with the same when alive, and 
note, as has been done by the writer, the circulating sarcode 
stream of the expanded "collar," the food intercepted by it, and, 
after traversing the outer and inner surface, engulfed within 
the substance of the sarcode at its base, then collected into 
pellets and regurgitated through the substance of the body in 
a manner identical with the food-circulation of the higher 
infusorial types, such as Vorticella — witnessing at the same 
time the constant pulsating action of the contractile vesicles 
and all the phenomena attending the several reproductive pro- 
cesses — he will scarcely disallow any longer their title to 
individual and independent recognition. 

Respecting the position, in reference to the ordinary sponge- 
forms, that the single-chambered non-spiculiferous Physe- 
maria occupy, it is very evident that they so far differ 
from such ordinary types that they cannot be correctly styled, 
with their single oscular aperture and no trace of pores, re- 
presentatives of the " PoRiFEEA." The discovery of these 
new and interesting forms makes it necessary, indeed, to 
effect a slight modification of the usual classificatory system. 
Rejecting the old title of the Porifera, the group may be more 
conveniently divided now into two primary sections — one 
known as the " Polyteemata," to include all the ordinary 
poriferous sponges, and a second, to be distinguished as the 
" MoNOTEEMATA "f, for the reception of all those simple and 
single-apertured types of which the genera Halyphysema and. 
Gastrophysema constitute the characteristic representatives. 
A little later, not improbably, a third section, equivalent in 
value to these two, may have to be instituted, under the title of 
the " Ateemata." This type would have no internal cavity, 
and consequently no aperture or pores, the collar-bearing 
monads, with their bodies immersed in a syncytial basis, 
opening directly on the water. Such a type seemed to have 

* Prof. Huxley "On the Classification of the Animal Eongdom,'' 
Journal of the Liunean Society, vol. xii. p. 205, 1875. 
t [Already used for an order of Mammalia. — Eds.] 



Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 17 

been already furnislied by the genus Phalansterium, Cien- 
kowski, as reported by Prof. Clark* ; but a reference to the 
original description and illustration in Schultze's ' Arcliiv/ 
Bd. vi. S. 4, 1870, has elicited that this colony form is com- 
posed of the more simple flagellate Holostomatous monads, and 
not of the collar-bearing or Discostomatous varieties. Should 
this missing link be discovered, it will, while closely related 
to and forming a natural group of the true sponges, occupy the 
same relation towards the Gymnozoidal or free and indepen- 
dent Discostomatous types as the social and slime-immersed 
genus Oj>hrydium does to Vorttcella, Vaginicola, or other 
naked and solitary representatives of the higher ciliate order 
of the Infusoria. 

4 Marine Terrace, St. Helier's, Jersey, 
Oct. 12, 1877. 



II. — Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berke- 
ley, M.A., F.L.S., and C. E. Become, Esq., F.L.S. 

[Continued from ser. 4. vol. xvii. p. 145.] 

[Plates III. & IV.] 

1631. Agaricus (Amanita) magnijicus, Fr. Hym. Eur. 
p. 25; Fl. Dan. t. 2146. 

In fir-woods. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 707. 

Our plant differs from the figure quoted above in having a 
bulbous base. 

Pileus campanulate, even, with scattered mealy patches ; 
stem attenuated upwards, transversely scaly. Whole plant 
dark liver-red, with the exception of the white adnexed gills. 
Allied to A. rubescens, but quite distinct, though variable. 
Fl. Dan. tab. 2148. fig. 2, which is referred by Fries to this 
species, has, like the agaric before us, a bulbous base. The 
wartless variety of A. muscarius occurred last autumn more 
than once at Coed Coch, and was very beautiful. 

1632. A. (Lepiota) rhacodes^ subsp. puellaris, Fr. Hym. 
Eur. p. 29. 

In woods. Coed Coch. Not uncommon. 

1633. A. (Lepiota) hiornatus, B. & Br., Journ. Linn. Soc. 
xi. p. 502. 

In great abundance in a melon-frame, Arthingworth, 

* Silliman's ' American .Journal,' Feb. 1871 : Ann. & Map;. Nat. Hist. 
March 1871. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol i. 2 



18 Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 

Nortliauts, July 8, 1876. Exactly agreeing with the Ceylon 
specimens, except that the gills are not ventricose. 

1634. A. (Lepiota) seminudus^ Lasch. ; Fr. Hym. Eur. 
p. 38. 

King's Lynn, Mr. Plowright. A very delicate little plant. 
*^. (Lepiota) gliodermus^ Er. Ic. t. 15. tig. 1. 
Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan White. 

1635. A. (Armillaria) hcematiteSj B. & Br. Pileo hemi- 
sphajrico jecorino sicco hispidulo ; sti])ite concolori deorsum 
incrassato, solido ; annulo spongioso ; lamellis breviter decur- 
rentibus. 

Amongst fir-leaves. Glamis, Eev. J. Stevenson. 

Pileus about 1 inch across ; stem 2 inches high, \ inch 
thick at the base ; ring scaly beneath. 

We cannot point out any species to which it is allied. 
Like A. suhcavus it is analogous to Lepiofce. 

1636. A. (Tricholoma) cerinus, Pers. Syn. p. 321 ; Er. Ic. 
t. 39. %. 1. 

On a lawn. Ballinluig, Eev. J. Stevenson, no. 902. 

The yellow gills, contrasted with the brown pileus, make it 
a very pretty species. The pileus in our specimens is brown, 
which seems to be the more usual colour ; but it is sometimes 
yellow. 

*^. (Tricholoma) tigrinus, Schteff. t. 89; Er. Ic. t. 41 inf. 

Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 900. On the sea-shore. 

Allied to A. gamhosus. 

It varies a good deal in the scaliness of the pileus. Mr. W. 
S. Smith's plant from Eeigate is presumably the same ; but 
ours can scarcely be called foetid (Cooke, Handb. p. 33) . 

1637. A. (Clitocybe) socialis, Er. Ic. t. 49. iig. 2; Hym. 
Eur. p. S3. 

Amongst fir-leaves. Downton, Herefordshire. Hereford 
Eungus Show, 1876. 

1638. A. (Clitocybe) amareUa, P.; Er. Hym. Eur. p. 84. 
In woods. Coed Coch, Oct. 19, 1876. 

The taste is bitter and disgusting, the smell that of prussic 
acid. 

1639. A. (Mycena) ruh-o-marginatus^ Er. Hym. Eur. 
p. 132. 

Var. fusco-purpureus^ Lasch. 
Amongst dead leaves. East Earleigh. 
Very distinct from the usual form, having much the appear- 
ance of an exotic Mm-asmius. 

1640. A. (Mycena) Zephirus, Er. Ic. t. 78. fig. 6 ; Hym. 
Eur. p. 133. 

On decayed wood. Rev. J. Stevenson. Rose-coloui'ed. 



Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 19 

*A. (Mycena) paraholicusj Fr. Ic. t. 80. fig. 3. 
On decayed wood. East Farleigli, Sept. 13, 1876. 
*^. (Mycena) atro-cyaneus^ Batsch ; Fr. Hyra. Eur. 
p. 141. 

On the ground. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1641. A. (Mycena) plicosus, Fr. Ic. t. 81. fig. 4; Hym. 
Eur. p. 142. 

Killin, Eev. J. Stevenson. 

1642. A. (Mycena) amictus, Fr. Ic. t. 82. fig. 3 ; Hym. 
Eur. p. 144. 

Amongst leaves. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1643. ^. (Omphalia) ^^c^ro^raywmMS, Fr. Ic. tab. 71; Hym. 
Eur. p. 154. 

Coed Cocli, Oct. 1876. 

1644. A. (Omphalia) umhilicatus, Schseff. ; Fr. Ic. t. 73. 
fig. 1 ; Hym. Eur. p. 155. 

Amongst moss. Perth, Dr. Buchanan White. 

1645. A'. (Omphalia) maurus, Fr. Ic. tab. 73. fig. 2; Hym. 
Eur. p. 156. 

On lawns. Coed Cocli. 

1646. A. (Omphalia) stricepileusj Fr. Ic. t. 73. f. 3 ; Hym. 
Eur. p. 157. 

Amongt moss and leaves. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1647. A. (Omphalia) pictus, Fr. Ic. t. 77. fig. 4 ; Hym. 
Eur. p. 163. 

Killin, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

*^. (Pleurotus) mutilus, Fr. Syst, Myc. i. p. 191 ; Ic. 
tab. 88. f. 4. 

Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan White. 

1648. A. (Pleurotus) reniformis, Fr. Ic. t. 89. fig. 3 ; Hym. 
Eur. p. 177. 

On branches of silver fir. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1649. A. (Leptonia) cethio^is, Fr. Ep. p. 152 ; Ic. t. 97. 
fig.3. ■ 

Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan White. Glamis, Rev. J. 
Stevenson. 

1650. A. (Nolsmesi) fulvo-strigosus,^. & Br. Pileo conico 
griseo ruguloso ; stipite tenui furfuraceo-squamuloso, basi 
strigis lateritiis hispido ; lamellis adnatis griseis. 

On the ground in a wood, near Cortinarius Bulliardi. 

East Farleigh, Sept. 13, 1876. 

Pileus I inch across, | inch high ; stem 2 inches high, 
about 1 line thick, clothed at the base with rigid red hairs and 
tinted with the same colour above. Spores '0005 long, '0003 
broad. The peculiar character of the strigse separates this 
from all other species. 

2* 



20 Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 

1651. A. (Eccilia) mgrella, Pers. Syn. p. 463. 
Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan White. 

This appears to be quite distinct from^. atrides ; the stem 
is not nigro-punctate above, nor are the gills nigro-denticu- 
late. 

1652. A. (Pholiota) Vahlii, Schum., in Fl. Dan. t. 1496 ; 
Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 214. 

On the grassy banks of the railroad. Inver, Dunkeld, 
Mr. M'Intosh. 

Fries makes this a variety of A. aureus. Our plant is 
exactly that of the ' Flora Danica.' 

^A. (Pholiota) terrigenus^ Kalkb. 

Ballinluig, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 960. 

1653. A. (Inocybe) dulcamarus^ Pers. Ic. pict. tab. xv. 

On the ground. Pass of Killiecrankie, Rev. J. Stevenson, 
no. 950. 

We suppose this to be the plant of Persoon, at least that 
figured in the ' Icones;' but as the gills are peculiar we think 
it better to give a description. 

Pileus convex, umbonate, umber, clothed with adpressed 
fibres, the centre breaking up into areolate patches, about 
-g— 4- inch across ; stem 1 inch or more high, 1 line thick, of 
the same colour as the pileus, scaly below, tomentose above ; 
gills clay-coloured, ventricose, margin paler, waved, adnate, 
with a strong decurrent tooth ; spores even ; flesh white ; 
taste at first pleasant. In one specimen the gills are just as 
figured by Persoon. Though he gives in his specific charac- 
ter stipite nudo, the stem is represented in the figure as scaly. 
In A. furfur aceus we find in the same group specimens with 
decurrent and others with adnate gills. 

1654. A. (Inocybe) cinci7inatus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 228. 
Amongst moss. Coed Coch. 

Spores granulated or irregular. 

This appears to be what Qu^let figures under the name of 
A. didcamarus^ his -^4. cincinnatus being rather referable to 
that species. 

1655. A. (Inocybe) carptus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 230. 
On the naked soil. Coed Coch. 

Spores even. 

In this very difficult subgenus it is of great consequence to 
ascertain the nature of the spores, which are sometimes quite 
even, at others granulated or irregular in outline, like those of 
so many of the Hyporhodii. 

1656. A. (Inocybe) Triniij Weinm. p. 194 ; Fr. Hym. 
Eur. p. 223. 



Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 21 

Ballinluig, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

Spores strongly granulated. 

*^, (Galera) minutus, Quelet, iii. p. 10, tab. 1. f. 5. 

In woods amongst moss. Wrotliam, Kent, Oct. 1, 1875. 

1657. A. (Tubaria) ciqndaris, Bull. t. 554. f. 2 ; Fr. Hym. 
Eur. p. 272. 

Ballinluig, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 919. 

*A. (Crepidotus) EuM, B. ; Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 276. 

Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan White. 

1658. A. (Crepidotus) Phillipsii, B. & Br. Pumilus, um- 
brinellus ; pileo obliquo striato glabro ; stipite basi incurvo 
solido ; lamellis angustis ventricosis, breviter adnatis. 

On grass. Wrekin, W. Phillips, Esq. 
Pileus about 3 lines across, stem 1-li line high, spores 
*0002 long. A very distinct species. 

1659. A. (Stropharia) thraustus, Kalkb. Fung. Hung, 
tab. 15. f. 4 ; Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 286, sub A. squamoso. 

Rannock, Dr. Buchanan White. 

1660. A. (Stropharia) scobinaceus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 288. 
Glamis, Rev. J. Anderson. Two forms occur, one much 

more slender. 

1661. A. (Psilocybe) ammopMlus, Mont. & Dur. Exp. Sc. 
Alg. tab. 31. 

On sand. St. Andrews, where it is abundant, Rev. M. 
Anderson. There is no doubt that it is a true Psilocyhe. 

Spores -0005 long, -00035 wide. 

*A. (Psathyra) Gordoyii, B. & Br. ; Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 308. 
A. aulacinusj Fr. Mon. ii. p. 348. 

Abundant on the wood of a cold frame. Coed Coch, Oct. 
31, 1876. 

1662. A. (Panaaolus) spMnctrinus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 311; 
Qu^let, tab. 8. fig. 5. 

Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

The slender form figured by Qudlet. 

1663. Cortinarius (Telamonia) qiiadricolor^ Fr. Hym. Eur. 
p. 378. 

Coed Coch, Oct. 1876. 

1664. G. (Hydrocybe) dilutus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 389. 
Coed Coch, Oct. 1876. 

1665. C. (Hydrocybe) erythrinus^ Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 396. 
In woods. Coed Coch, Oct. 1876. 

1666. Paxillus spilomceolus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 402 ; HofFm. 
Ic. tab. 10. fig. 1. 

• Stoke Poges, M. Terry, Esq. 

The spotted pileus and dingy spores at once distinguish it 
from any Tricholoviafa with which it might be confounded. 



22 Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 

The stem is sometimes incrassate at the base, sometimes 
quite equal. 

*P. leptopusj Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 403. 

King's Lynn, Mr. Plowright. Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan 
White. 

1667. Hygrophorus pulverulentus^ B. & Br. Parvus; pileo 
viscoso pulvinato candido ; margine involuto tomentoso ; sti- 
pite subgequali farcto, ima basi attenuate, toto roseo-pulveru- 
lento-punctato ; lamellis crassis deciuTentibus acie obtusis 
albidis. 

Amongst pine-leaves. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 840. 

Pileus about -^ inch across, stem | inch high, 1-2 lines 
thick. Allied to H. eburneus ; but the rose-coloured meal with 
which the stem is covered separates it from all other species. 

1668. H. nemoreiis, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 413 (not of Persoon). 
Stoke Poges, M. Terry, Dec. 1876. 

Spores white. 

1669. H. cinereus, Fr. Atl. Svamp. t. 30, in part. 
Rannoch, Dr. Buchanan White. 

1670. H. subradiatus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 416. 
Glamis, Eev. J. Stevenson, no. 574. In pastures. 
^H. turundus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 418. 

On peat soil. Farragon, Perthshire, at 1700 feet. Rev. J. 
Stevenson. 

The typical form, which is brilliantly coloured. Fries 
makes our no. 1279 a variety under the name of H. mollis. 
This also occurs in Scotland. 

1671. H. glauco-nitens, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 421. 

Pass of Killiecrankie, Rev. J. Stevenson. Marston Trus- 
sell. 

Distinct from R. nitratus. Batsch's plant is probably A. 
scaber. It is certainly no Hygrophorus. 

1672. Lactarius vietus, Fr. Hym. Eiu'. p. 432. 

In woods. Stoke Poges, M. Terry. Abundantly. 

1673. L. Terrei, B, & Br. Ca?spitosus ; pileo corrugate 
depresso badio ; stipite basi incrassato pileo concolori auran- 
tiaco-tomentoso cavo ; lamellis decurrentibus pallidis ; odore 
glycino. 

Stoke Poges, M. Terry, Nov. 6, 1876. 
Pileus -^ inch across ; stem |-1 inch high, 2 lines thick. 
Allied to L. subdulcis. 

1674. Eussula seniicrema, Fr. Ep. p. 350. 
Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1675. B. xerampeliiia^ Schseff.; Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 445. 
Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

One of the most distinct species of a very difficult genus. 



Messrs. Berkeley and Broome 07i British Fungi. 23 

1676. R. consobrina, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 447. 
Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1677. Marasmius scorteus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 468. 
Perthshire, Aug. 1877, Dr. Buchanan White. 

A more delicate and smaller species than 31. oreades. Dr. 
White's plant approaches closely Batsch's tig. 109. 

1678. M. torquescensj Quelet, tab. 23. f. 3; Fr. Hym. Eur. 
p. 471. 

Amongst oak-leaves. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 
The gills are finely serrulated. In the very young plant, 
when the pileus is conical, there is a slight indication of a veil. 

1679. M. languidus, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 473. Agaricus 
grossulus, Pers. Myc. Eur. t. 26. tig. 6. 

On dead leaves. East Farleigh, Sept. 13, 1876. 
Just intermediate between the normal form and the short- 
stemmed variety figured by Persoon. 
Stems pallid ; gills strongly decurrent. 

1680. Fames patellaris, Fr. Ep. p. 400. 
On cherry. Forres, the liev. J. Keith. 

1681. Merulius IwticoIorjB. & Br. Totus effusus adnatus 
Isete aurantiacus ; margine tomentoso albo ; hymenio e Isevi 
plicato-rugoso ; plicis distantibus. 

On sawdust and leaves. King's Lynn, Mr. Plowright. 

We had at first referred this plant to 3L aureus ; but an 
authentic specimen of that species shows that our fungus is 
very different and brighter in colour than any other species. 

1682. Folyporus leucomelas^ Fr. Syst. Myc. i. p. 346. 
Aviemore, Rev. J. Keith. 

A curious esculent species, which attains a considerable 
size. 

Pileus and stem here and there changing to black ; flesh 
soft, marbled, pinkish when exposed to the air ; pores white, 
but soon changing colour, unequal, slightly sinuated, shortly 
decurrent. Taste pleasant, but slightly astringent. There 
are two distinct forms figured by Micheli — the one with a short 
obtuse stem, the other with the stem more equal. 

We have authentic specimens of both — of the former from 
Herr Trog, of the latter from Fries. Mr. Keith's plant 
belongs to the former state. The fungus was eaten by some 
small animal, possibly a squirrel. 

^- Forothdium Friesli, Mont, in Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1836 j Fr. 
Hym. Eur. p. 595. 

Wothorpe, Oct. 7, 1840. 

In studying the genus we find three distinct species which 
we confounded with F. Friesii, from which they differ greatly. 

1683. F. Stevensoni, B. & Br. Contextii crassiusculo 



24 Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fangi. 

gelatinoso ; margine substuppeo deglubente ; hymenii ver- 
rucis distinctis, interstitiis glaberrimis j globulo apicali dia- 
pliano limpido luteo. 

Glamis, May 1877, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1684. P. Keithii, B. & Br. Arete adnatum umbrinellura ; 
ambitu tenuissimo primnm subgelatinoso ; verrucis brevibus 
demum collapsis, centro gelatinosis. 

ForreSj Rev. J. Keith. 

1685. P. confiisum, B. & Br. Arete adnatum pallidum ; 
margine tenuissimo arachnoideo ; contextu primum floccoso- 
pulverulento ; verrucis minoribus. 

Glen Tanner, Aberdeenshire. Leigh Wood, C. E. Broome. 

1686. Hydnum (Resupinatum) limonicolor^ B. & Br. Ad- 
natum Igetecitrinum; aculeis confertis acutis brevibus ; mycelio 
candido parco 1. obsoleto. 

On stone buried amongst pine-leaves. Glamis. 
The mycelium when present is distributed amongst the 
decayed pine-leaves. 

1687. H. (Resupinatum) multiforme^ B. & Br. Ochro- 
leucum primitus leeve corticiiforme, demum hie illic fertile ; 
aculeis congestis acutissimis, deinde pallidis fimbriatis ; con- 
textu floccoso-farinaceo. 

Glamis, Menmuir. 

Very variable, sometimes almost towy, with the margin 
inflexed. 

1688. H. sordtdum, Weinm. p. 370; Fr. Hym. Eur. 
p. 614. 

Stoke Poges, M. Terry, Nov. 1876. 

1689. H. nodulosum, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 616. 
On fir-stumps. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1690. Grmidinia crustosa, Fr., var. lignorum, Hym. Eur. 
p. 627. 

On fir. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1691. G. mucida, Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 626. 
Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 867. 

1692. Cladoderris minima^ B. & Br. Alba ; e basi stipi- 
tiformi vel obsoleta oriunda, resupinata ; pileo tomentoso ; 
hymenio e costis ramosis radiato. 

On birch. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 849. 

Flabelliform, from two to three lines across. Though small, 
it has exactly the structure of the exotic species. 

^Thelephora tuherosa,GYev. t. 178. 

Amongst grass and moss. Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan 
White, Aug. ^1877. 

We were delighted to receive this interesting species, 
which does not seem to have occurred since the figure of 



Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 25 

Greville was published. The specimens are not quite so 
tuberous, nor, in general, the branches quite so much flattened 
as he represents them ; but, from the analogy of allied North- 
American species, there is no doubt about the identity. 

1693. T. crassa, L6v. Ann. d. So. Nat. 1844, ii. p. 209 ; 
Bonite, tab. 139. fig. 1. 

Berkshire, Sawyer. 

Having no type, it is impossible to say positively that it 
is Leveille's plant, though the description and figure agree. 
Widely diffused over soil partially covered with moss, and 
forming irregular, thick, rounded, umber- brown masses of a 
velvety aspect but not setulose. 

1694. Corticium cinnamomeum^ Fr. Ep. p. 561. 
On birch. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1695. C. citrinum^ Pers. Myc. Eur. p. 136. 
On thorn. Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan White. 

1696. C. violaceo-Uvidunij Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 655. 
On dead wood. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1697. C. limitatum, Mont. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1836 ; Fr. 
Ep. p. 565. 

On Cytisus. Perth, Dr. Buchanan White. 

W^e have no type 5 but though the extreme ciliated margin 
is in most places white, the dark zones and dull nodular 
hymenium are characteristic. 

*(7. serum, Pers. ; Fr. Hym. Eur. p. 659. 

Some specimens come very close to some states of Kneiffia 
setigera, Fr., to which it is allied. See Hym. Eur. p. 629. 

1698. Gyphella stuppea, B. & Br. Erumpens, sessilis, 
pezizeeformis, externe stuppea, ex brunneolo albescens ; hyme- 
nio fusco. 

Bursting through the tender cuticle of broom. Rev. M. 
Anderson, March 1873. ' 

'^ Glavaria fiisiformis, Sow. t. 234. 
Ballinluig, at 2000 feet. Rev. J. Stevenson. 

1699. Typhula gracillimajY^hiiQ. Alba^ stipite gracillimo 
CLirvo glabro ; clavula elongata. 

On various herbaceous plants. Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan 
White. 

1700. Dacrymyces vermiformisj B. & Br. Minuta grisea 
vermiformis ; sporophoris globosis ; sporis globosis pallide 
fuscis. 

On rotten wood. Bathford plantations, C. E. Broome, 
April 1, 1877, also April 28, 1876. 

Sporophores "0005 inch in diameter ; spores '0002. 

Plate III. fig. 1, a, plant in situ, magnified ; b, sporophores with 
spores, highly magnified. 



26 Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 

^Tilmadoche mutabilis, E,tfki. PJiysai-um nutanSy Pers. 
This is verj properly separated by Rostafiiiski from Phy- 
sarum, in which genus it was always a " vexata qujestio." 

1701. Ostracoderma 2^ulvinatum, Fr. Syst. Myc. iii. p, 214. 
Sibbertoft, 1873. On an old sack which had been lying on 

a dunghill. 

Looks at first sight like a white Diderma {Chondriodermaj 
E,tf Id.) , but not gelatinous in a young state. 

Spores '0003 inch long. 

1702. Gloeosporium Hendersoniy B. & Br. Hypophyllum, 
sparsum ; gelatina placentiformi ; sporis oblongis ; nucleo 
colorato. 

On orange-leaves in a conservatory. Milton, Mr. J. Hen- 
derson. 

Spores 'OOOS-'OOOG inch long, 

1703. G. violcBy B. & Br. Maculis pallidis demum albis ; 
pustulis paucissimis vel solitariis, sporis aurantiacis in matri- 
cem effusis. 

On leaves of violet. Glamis, E,ev. J. Stevenson, no. 893. 
The effused spores, especially when developed on large white 
spots, make it a very striking species. 

1704. Bfictridium acutum, B. & White. Candidum, para- 
siticum ; floccis deorsum attenuatis, apice acutis 1-3-septatis ; 
articulo pen ultimo tumido. Sc. Nat. iv. p. 162, tab. 2, 
lig, 4. 

On hymenimn of Peziza cochleata. Perthshire, Dr. Bucha- 
nan White. 

Distinguished from Bactridium helvellce by its constantly 
very acute apex and attenuated base. A specimen from the 
same locality sent by Mr. Stevenson had not the same 
parasite. 

PiiATE III. fig. 2. Threads, magrafied. 

1705. Cylindrosporium loncjipes^ Preuss, in Sturm, Fl. iii. 
29, tab. 35. 

On the shell of a walnut. Perthshire, Dr. Buchanan 
White. 

The base of the stem, as in Preuss's figure, is dark, the upper 
part hyaline and breaking up into cylindrical spores, abso- 
lutely truncate at either extremity. This is probably Ghalara 
fusidioidesy Sacc. Corda's plant seems different, being white 
throughout. 

1706. Triclwhasis LyncMiy B. in Gard. Chron. Aug. 25, 
1877. Maculis parvis pallidis; sporis sparsis raro confluenti- 
bus ; ])seudosporis flavis obovatis pulcherrimc cchiiudatis ; 
stipite brevi. 



Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 27 

On a Spiranthes from Trinidad. Kew, Mr. B,. Irwyn 
Lynch. 

Generically distinct from Uredo conjluens, var. orcMdis, 
and different in habit. U. gynandrcBarum^ Cda. iii. tab. 1. 
fig. 9, agrees in habit ; but the spores are dark, and the pus- 
tules bullate. 

1707. Ustilago KiceJiJitana, Wolff ; Fisch. de Wald. Ust. 
p. 29 ; Gard. Chron. July 1876. 

On Rumex acetosella from permanent meadow- land in Mr. 
Lawes's Park at Rothhamstead, Dr. Gilbert. 
Spores "00045 inch long. 

1708. Protomyces Comari^ B. & White. Pustulis fuscis ; 
sporis in cellulis tumidis matricis ternis vel solitariis. 

On Comarum palustre. Aug. 1877, Loch of Kinordy, 
Forfarshire, Bev. M. Anderson. 

Besembling at first sight Isothea pustula, but a true Pro- 
tomyces. 

The pustules are far more prominent than in P. menyanthis. 
Spores •001-'0012 inch long, broadly obovate. 

MiLESiA, White, nov. gen. Peridiura incarceratum reticu- 
latum, basi inter cellulas matricis radicans ; sporte obovatse 
echinulatte per ostiolum minutum demum emisste. 

1709. M. polygoni, B. & White. Sc. Nat. I. c. tab. 2. 
f. 5. 

On the underside of leaves of Polygonum viviparum. Glen 
Tilt, Dr. Buchanan White. 

Evidently allied to Endophyllum^ but distinguished by its 
reticulated / thoroughly incarcerated peridium, which does not 
burst irregularly, but discharges its spores by a minute pore. 
The spores closely resemble those of Uredo pteridum^ White, 
•0012--0017 inch long. Sc. Nat. I c. tab. 2. f. 6. . 

Plate III. fig, 3. a, pseudoperidium with its liyplise ; 6, ditto, 
crushed ; c, single spore. All more or less magnified. 

1710. Isaria spliingum^ Schwein. Car. no. 1298 ; Fr. 
Syst. Myc. iii. p. 275. 

On pupte of Diptera. Kincardineshire, Mr. Taylor. 
Mycelium much branched. 

1711. /. tomentella, Fr. Syst. I.e. p. 276. 

On beech-leaves and mast. Creeping over the leaves, and 
at length sending up clavate fertile heads. 
Colour just that of Arcyria nutans. 

1712. Sfysanus putredimSj Cda, iii. tab. 2. fig. 36. 

On decayed leaves, Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 873. 
Spores •b0025--00035 inch long. 

1713. Slilbum Sfevcnsoni, B. & Br. Sparsum ; stipitc 



28 Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 

brevissimo nigro ] capitulo niveo globoso ; sporis minutissimis 
globosis. 

Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson. Scattered on dead wood, on 
which it looks like a very minute Didymium. 

Spores too small to admit of measurement. 

1714. S. orliculare, B. & Br. Album ; plantulis sparsis 
gregariis e macula alba pulverulenta oriundis ; stipite cylin- 
drico tomentoso apice quandoque velo lacerato ornato ; capitulo 
globoso ; sporis oblongis minutis. 

On Lindhladia effusa. Aviemore, Rev. J. Keith. Forming 
patches an inch or more in diameter ; springing from a white, 
thin, pulverulent stratum, which is at length stained by the 
Lindhladia. 

Spores '0002 inch long. 

At first sight it looks like a parasitic Hydnum. 

Plate III. fig. 4. a, plaut, nat. size ; b, a portion, magnified ; c, spores 
of Lmdhladia ; d, spores of Stilbum, magnified. 

^j^gerita Candida, P. Syn. p. 684. 

A fawn-coloured form was found at New Pitsligo by the 
Rev. J. Fergusson and at Killin by the Rev. M. Anderson. 
A form also occurred at Glamis on herbaceous stems, Steven- 
son, no. 156. Grocysporium torulosum, Bonorden, tab. iv. 
fig. 90, is evidently the same thing. 

'^Peronosjyora inolacea, B. Outl. p. 349. 

On petals of Knautia arvensis. As some doubt has been 
expressed about this species, which was found June 30, 1859, 
it has been thought advisable to give a figure. 

Plate III. fig. 5. Flocci witli spores in situ, magnified. ■ 

*P. calotheca, De B. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1863, p. 111. 
On Asjyerula odorata. Rev. J. Fergusson. 

1715. P. affinis, Rossman, in Rab. Herb. Myc. ii. no. 489. 
On Fumaria. King's Cliff. Distorting the plant. 

1716. Dactylium cervinum, B. & Br. Effusum, pallide 
cervinum ; floccis ramosis articulatis ; sporis obovatis unisep- 
tatis deorsum apiculatis. 

On Cytisus lahurnum. Ballinluig, Rev. J. Stevenson, 
no. 989. Lambley, Notts. 

1717. D. spiVa?e, White. Candidum e macula tosta oriun- 
dum, floccis spiralibus simplicibus ; sporis magnis uniseptatis 
medio constrictis, utrinque obtusissimis. Sc. Nat. /. c. p. 161, 
tab. 2. f. 3. 

On the underside of leaves of Polygonum, viviparum. Glen 
Tilt, Dr. Buchanan White. Forming little white patclies 



Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 29 

consisting of scattered simple spiral flocci '004 inch high. Sc. 
Nat. I. c. p. 162, tab. 2. f. 2. 

Spores •0009-'0012 inch long, half as wide. 

Plate IV. fig. 6. a, plant on leaf, slightly magnified ; b, threads ; 
c, spores, young and mature, highly magnified. 

1718. D. modestum, White. Candidum e macula tosta 
orimidum ; floccis simplicibus subrectis vel leviter flexuosis ; 
sporis magnis uniseptatis elongatis medio constrictis. 

On leaves of Alchemilla aljoina. Glen Tilt, Dr. Buchanan 
White. 

Closely allied to D. spirale^ but distinguished not only 
by the flexuous threads, but the very different spores, which 
are '001 inch long, one fourth as much wide. 

Plate TV. fig. 7. a, threads; 6, spores, highly magnified. 

1719. Mucor stolonifer^ Ehrb. Sylv. Myc. RMzopus nigri- 
cans, Mycetog. tab. xi. 1-7. 

On melon. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 712. 

1720. DesmaziereUa acicola, Lib. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. 1829, 
xvii. p. 83, tab. 6. f. 1, 3. Phillips, exsiccata. 

Near Shrewsbury, W. Phillips, Esq. 

1721. Helvellaatra, Kon. ; Fr. Syst. Myc. ii. p. 19. 
Loch Laggan, Dr. Buchanan White. 

^Peziza (Geopyxis) Percevali, B. & Cooke, Myc. fig, 192. 
P. cihorium major, Fr. no. 1479. 

*P. (Geopyxis) ammopMla, Dur. & Lev. ; Cooke, Myc. 
fig. 100. P. arenaria, no. 1619. 

Dr. Cooke has very properly pointed out that the St.-An- 
drew's plant is identical with that from Algeria. 

1722. P. (Sarcoscyphffi) coprinaria, Cooke, Myc. fig. 149. 
On cow-dung. Batheaston, March 1877. 

1723. P. (Hymenoscyphge) Gandolleana, L^v. Ann. d. Sc. 
Nat. 1843, XX. p. 232, tab. 7. fig. 4. 

Batheaston, C. E. Broome, raised under bell glass from 
Sclerotium pustula. 

1724. P. (Calycinffi) alhida, Roberge ; Desm. Exs. no. 
2004. 

On ash-petioles. East Farleigh, Sept. 13, 1876. 

1725. Biatrype coramhlycoJa, B. & Br. Pustulis elongatis 
bullatis ; ostiolis prominulis asperatis ; sporidiis fusiformibus 
3-4-nucleatis. 

On cabbage-stalks. Forres, Rev. J. Keith, Apr. 17, 
1875. 

Sporidia "00035 long. Probably not an uncommon species. 



30 Messrs. Berkeley and Broome on British Fungi. 

1726. Eutypa asjjera^ Fr. sub 8. eutypa^ b, Syst. Myc. 
ii. p. 478.. 

On wood. Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 880. 

1727. Sphceria 7naculans, Desm. Exs. no. 1784. 

On stalks of dead Brassicce. Perth, Dr. Buchanan White. 
Sporidia yellow, •0014-*002 long, multiseptate. 

1728. S. Stevensoni, B. & Br. Peritheciis sparsis hie illic 
congestis ovatis sursum attenuatis ; ascis gracilibus ; sporidiis 
uniseriatis, anguste ellipticis, 2-3-nucleatis. 

On dead wood. Glamis, Bev. J. Stevenson, no. 869. 
Sporidia '0002 inch long. 

'^ ChcetosphcBria innumera, Tul. Sel. Fung. Carp. ii. p. 253, 
tab. xxxiii. 8. innumera, B. & Br. Out. p. 395. 

On dead wood. Eev. J. Stevenson. Glamis, no. 870. 
Sporidia •0003--00035 inch long. 

1729. Gephalotheca sulfwea^ Fuckel, Fung. Bhen. no. 2313. 
Peritheciis sparsis gregariis, globosis, villo sulfureo tectis, 
demum vertice glabris atrisque, denique totis glabris et mox 
difFractis ; sporidiis ovatis, hyphis ascigeris multiguttulatis. 

On a rotten board in Mr. Spencer Perceval's grape-house, 
Clifton, April 1876. 

Plate IV. fig. 8. a, plant in situ, magnified ; 6, dark rigid hairs and 
various threads ; o, structure of the perithecium ; d, sporangia ; e, sporidia ; 
y, young perithecium produced within the old oue. 

The specific character given above is copied from Fuckel. 
The sporangia produced within the perithecia on the hypha are 
something quite different from any thing which occurs in 8p}ice- 
riacei ; and perhaps it is better to consider them as asci, though 
even then their mode of development is abnormal. Not less 
curious is the product of a new perithecium within the old one. 
The structure, too, of the perithecium is very singular. 

'^Dothidea betulina^ Fr. Syst. ii. p. 554. 

Glamis, Rev. J. Stevenson, July 6, 1874. 

Stylospores uniseptate, "OOl inch long. 

^Phacidiimi Vacchiii^ Fr. Syst. ii. p. 575. 

Stylosporous state forming little crowded dark specks, 
containing Bacteria-Yike, bodies, "00016 inch long. 

1730. Ascochyta metulcesijora, B. & Br. Maculis orbiculari- 
bus fuscis, peritheciis minutis pallidis, sporis metuljeformibus. 

On leaves of ash. Ballinluig, Rev. J. Stevenson, no. 908. 
The shape of the spores is singular, like that of the pieces of 
wood with which boys play called tipcats (iato/mefs Gall.). 



Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing on Sessile-eyed Crustaceans. 31 

III. — Notes on Sessile-eyed Crustaceans^ loitli Description of a 
new Species. By the Rev. Thomas R. R. Stebbing. 

[Plate v.] 

Caprellafretensisj n. sp. (PI. V. fig. 1.) 

The head of this species has a small rostrum, acute in ap- 
pearance when viewed laterally, but obtuse when seen from 
above. The eyes are small, ovate, sliglitly protuberant within 
the narrow bounds of the head, which is distinguished from 
the first pereion-segment only by a minute groove above, the 
sides being continuous and converging backwards to the 
junction of the first with the second segment ; the latter is 
long and narrow, widest near its termination, where it receives 
the insertion of the second gnathopods. The third, fourth, 
and fifth segments are considerably shorter than the second ; 
in one specimen they are also decidedly shorter than the 
combined head and first segment, but in another specimen 
they are nearly equal to them ; the third and fourth seg- 
ments are widest at the branchial vesicles, the fifth at the end 
where the legs are attached ; the sixth segment is the widest 
of all, but only about half the length of the fifth ; the 
seventh is no longer than the sixth, and much narrower. 
The pleon is half concealed by the hinder margin of the last 
pereion-segment ; it occupies about a third of the width of 
that margin, beyond which can be seen a pair of minute 
style-like processes or one-jointed pleopoda, and between 
these a more conspicuous pair with short convergent pedun- 
cles and divergent oval rami. 

The upper antenna have the first joint longer than the 
head, and stout by comparison with that somewhat insignifi- 
cant organ. The second joint is much longer, the third some- 
what shorter than the first ; the second is a little, and the 
third a good deal furred on the under margin, chiefly towards 
the distal end. The flagellum, of fourteen articulations pretty 
uniform in length, tapers gradually to a point ; almost all 
the articulations carry two " olfactory " filaments. The 
lower antennae do not reach to the end of the second joint of 
the peduncle of the upper. The first portion that projects 
distinctly from the head is a very short joint ; to this suc- 
ceeds one twice its length, but still short. The next is nearly 
double these two combined, more slender, curved, and orna- 
mented with two rows of cilia beneath. The next portion is 
still longer and has longer fringes. The piece that succeeds 
to this is of equal length but diminished breadth and shorter 
fringes. Lastly follows a short, narrow, unfringed piece, 



32 Rev. T, R. R. Stebbing on Sessile-eyed Crustaceans. 

tipped with two or three short, hooked, compound setas. The 
cilia of the fringes just mentioned appear to be finely plumose. 
The first gnathopods are inserted just below the eyes ; so that 
the dorsal groove-line, which marks the termination of the 
head, is well to the rear of them. Of these limbs the basos 
is narrow, scarcely so long as the hand ; the two following 
joints are short and insignificant ; the wrist is also short, but 
broad and cup-shaped. The hand is well developed, longer 
than broad, swollen out, except at its junction with the finger ; 
here and along both edges it has a good crop of bristles. Its 
ventral surface also shows some very short stiff-looking down, 
and near the base two stout divergent spines, between which 
the finger closes down. The finger itself is broad, as long as 
the hand; its outer edge curved, its inner edge nearly straight, 
serrated with blunt serrations. The whole gnathopod is very 
small. Not so the second pair, although in these the thigh is 
scarcely longer than the breadth of the second segment. The 
wrist also is a small rectangular piece, almost square ; but the 
hand is of great size, nearly as long as the segment to which 
the limb is attached. The narrowest part of this elongate 
hand is at the base ; the anterior margin is nearly straight. 
The hinder margin is broken a little beyond the middle by a 
triangular process surmounted by a small spine ; beyond this 
process the margin runs on with some slight sinuosity to its 
angular termination, where it turns to meet the finger-joint. 
The massive finger is set on at right angles to the anterior 
margin ; and when it is closed the great swelling curve 
of its outer edge is brought round into the recess formed 
by the process above mentioned ; while, under the same 
circumstances, the convex portion of its inner curve is over- 
lapped by the distal angle of the hand. The portion of the 
hand between the distal angle and the triangular process is 
furred with long hairs. The branchial vesicles are narrowly 
ovate. The fifth, sixth, and seventh pairs of legs scarcely 
differ in any respect except size, the sixth being larger than 
the fifth, and the seventh than the sixth. In the seventh the 
thigh is nearly as long as the segment to which it is attached; 
the following joint is quite small ; the triangular metacarpus 
is about the same size as the thigh, and carries a small group 
of setse on the distal exterior angle; the wrist is shorter, 
somewhat squared in shape, but broadest distally ; it has 
pairs of short setai or spines along the inner edge : the hand 
is twice the length of the wrist ; it has a concave palm com- 
mencing at a third of its length from the wrist, with two 
broad, blunt, serrated spines at its origin, and four pairs of 
spines along its edge, which, when highly magnified, seem 



-Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing on Sessile-eyed Crustaceans, 33 

to be more or less finely pectinate, with whip-like ends. 
The back of the hand carries three or four groups of setae. 
The finger is strong and curved, and matches the palm in 
length. 

This species bears a strong general resemblance to Gaprella 
oequilihra^ as described by Messrs. Bate and Westwood ; but, 
whereas in that species " the head is round and unarmed," 
here the head has a small rostrum; in that the second pereion- 
segment " is armed inferiorly, in the ventral median line, 
with a long straight tooth," of which there is no trace in the 
present species. In Caprella cequilibra the hands of the 
second gnathopods have the palms two thirds of their length, 
instead of less than half, and are figured with the greatest 
Avidth near the base, while in our species the hands, contrary 
to what is usual among the Caprellidse, widen distally. The 
third, fourth, and fifth segments are not unusually short as 
in C. oequilihra. 

The two specimens which have supplied the above details 
were dredged at Salcombe in August 1875, in the estuary, 
whence the specific name. 

The pair of spines at the palm of the hinder legs seem to 
be correlated in an interesting manner with the generic 
distinctions which have been established by various authors 
in the family of the Caprellidse. Thus, in both the known 
forms of Proto they are placed at the origin of the palm, are 
rather slender, with the inner margin very finely pectinate, 
and terminate in a strong, though slightly curved, double 
hook. In Protella of Dana and Spence Bate, =^gina of 
Kroyer and A. Boeck, the species P. yhasma has them at the 
base of the palm as in Proto^ but short and simple, except for 
one minute notch not far from the apex. In Caprella acan- 
thifera of Bate and Westwood, the u^ginella spinosa of A. 
Boeck, they are long and slender, situated more than halfway 
down the inner margin of the hand, and have the distal por- 
tion of their own inner margin finely serrate. They are 
both preceded and followed by other pairs of finely pectinate 
spines with whip-like ends. In the accepted species of 
Caprella^ as far as I have had an opportunity of examining 
them, namely in the forms known as C. linearis^ C. lohata, 
C. tuberculata, C. acutifrons, as well as in the new species 
just described, the pair of spines under discussion agree in 
position at the origin of the palm, and are alike in being more 
or less boldly serrate on the inner margin, while they exhi- 
bit slight specific differences in regard to comparative length, 
breadth, and bluntness. Finally Caprella typica of Spence 
Bate, =■ Podalirhis typicns of Kroyer and of A. Boeck, is 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol i. 3 



34 Kev. T. K. R. Stebbing on Sessile-eyed Crustaceans. 

described as having the joints of the hinder legs slender, 
naked, and destitute of spines. A specimen in my possession, 
of C. lohata^ has on one side of one of its hands an extra 
spine, illustrating the possibility of variation in an animal not 
under domestication. 

Stimpsonia chelifera^ Spence Bate. (PI. V. figs. 2 & 3.) 

This species has been already figured and pretty fully 
described by Mr. Spence Bate in his Museum Catalogue, and 
by Messrs. Bate and Westwood in their well-known work. 
Nevertheless the examination of several specimens taken on 
the shores of Torbay has brought to light some peculiarities 
that seem well worthy of notice. 

The secondary flagellum of the upper antennge is not uniar- 
ticulate, but two-jointed, the second articulation being rather 
the longer, and the two together slightly exceeding in length 
the first articulation of the principal flagellum. In the lower 
antennge there is a character which appears to develop itself 
only in the adult male. The long penultimate joint of the 
peduncle is at the base as deep as the thick deep joint which 
precedes it; this dilatation is slight on the upper margin, 
where it affects the whole thickness of the joint, but is consi- 
derable on the lower margin, where it takes the form of a 
large flattened lobe. The preceding joint has its distal margin 
more or less deeply indented in all specimens, as if prepared 
to give a suitable holdfast to its dilated successor ; but from 
the variety of the dilatations themselves it may be inferred that 
they are only acquired in very advanced age. 

In the first gnathopods the long infero-distal process of the 
wrist varies greatly in length, sometimes not reaching nearly 
to the extremity of the hand. In the space between this 
process and the hand, but nearer to the latter than the former, 
there is a small tooth, with long setge springing from both 
sides of it. Three or four transverse rows of setge line the 
lower margin of the wa-ist. The inner margin of the hand 
does not follow the uniform curve of the outer margin, but, 
beginning with a concavity, bulges centrally ; it has three 
rows of setse. There are three other groups on the inner face 
of the hand, and two groups on the outer margin, one centrally, 
the other distally placed. The coxge of these gnathopods 
have the infero-anterior angle produced under part of the 
lower margin of the head. 

The second gnathopods have a small process at the anterior 
distal angle of the .basos. The alm,ost rectangular metacar- 
pus has its distal margin fringed with setce of various lengths, 
without regularity in the line of insertion ; along its lower 



Rev. T. 11. R. Stebbing on Sessile-eyed Crastdceans. ;35 

margin the elongated wrist is adorned with several transverse 
rows of adpressed setse. There is one row away from the 
margin near to the junction of hand and wrist. The lower 
margin of the hand exhibits similar rows of setae : the waved 
palm is set with cilia on both sides. In respect of this second 
pair of hands the Torbay specimens, with more or less varia- 
tion among themselves, differ all of them from that described 
by Mr. Spence Bate from Salcombe. The thumb-like pro- 
cess curves in towards the finger instead of out and away from 
it; its inner edge is perfectly simple, without any of the 
semispiral grooving figured by tlie author just mentioned ; 
it has a quite blunt or truncate extremity, within which is 
inserted a strong, bent (or in some cases straight), movable 
spine. The length of the thumb seems to depend on the age 
of the animal, that specimen in which it is longest having 
other marks of advanced life upon it : thus, the wrist-process 
of the first gnathopods is very long, the finger-points of the 
second gnathopods are worn, and the penultimate joint of the 
lower antennas has the large dilatations before described. A 
specimen in my collection, unobservantly assigned to Aora 
gracilis till its true character was detected by the Rev. A. M. 
Norman, has an interesting peculiarity in tliis second pair of 
gnathopods. One is of the usnal form ; but the other has the 
palm nearly straight, not waved, without any thumb or ter- 
minal hinged spine. This is an approacli to the character of 
the female. The gnathopods of the female differ very con- 
siderably from those of the male. The two pairs are very 
similar in general construction ; but the first are much the 
larger. In both, the hands are subequal to the wrists or a 
little larger. The hands and wrists arc fringed on the lower 
margin as in the male. Both these joints are broad, and about 
twice as long as they are broad. There is no process to the 
wrist, or thumb to the hand, but at the lower extremity of the 
palm a movable spine in both pairs of gnathopods. The finger 
is internally serrate in each ; and that of the first gnathopods 
considerably overlaps the palm. 

There is on the whole a close resemblance between the 
female of this species, the female of Aora gracilis^ and the 
female of Microdeuteropus anomalus as figured and described 
by Messrs. Bate and Westwood. 

The pereiopoda are alike in both sexes. The first two 
pairs have the metacarpus and wrist much broader than the 
hand ; the hand narrows distally. In the three following 
pairs, of which the last is considerably the longest, the wrist 
is shorter than either metacarpus or hand. At the extremity 
of the hand there is a long bunch of cilia. The telson, seen 

3* 



36 Rev. T. E. R. Stebbing on Sessile-eyed Crustaceans. 

from above, has the hinder margin rounded in the middle, 
but produced to an angle on each side of the convexity, neither 
of these divisions being produced beyond the other. On each 
of the angular portions there is an upright hair. The pedun- 
cles of the last uropods are short and thick, with three little 
close-set spines distally ; they extend but a little way beyond 
the telson. Each peduncle carries a pair of equal branches 
scarcely longer than itself. 

Cyclura venosa. 

I take this opportunity of noticing that Cyclura venosa from 
Australia, described in the Linnean Society's Journal, Zoology, 
vol. xii. p. 146, pi. vi., should be called Gycloidura venosa., 
the original name having been given in ignorance of its pre- 
vious appropriation in another domain of zoology. 

Arcturus linearis. 

This species has been figured and described in the ' Trans- 
actions of the Devonshire Association ' for 1874, but there 
wrongly named Arcturus gracilis, whereas it is a perfectly 
distinct new species. The specific name now chosen refers to 
the close resemblance between this product of the Devonshire 
waters and the Arcturus lineatus from Algoa Bay, South 
Africa, described in this Magazine, August 1873. 

Callimerus acudigitata. 

This species was described in this Magazine. in December 
1876, both genus and species being new. It has been suggested 
to me that the generic characters ought to be separately stated ; 
they are as follows : — Antennae subequal ; superior antennae 
without secondary appendage ; first pair of gnathopods simple ; 
second pair having the carpus infero-anteriorly produced, the 
coxae of the second pair covering those of the first. Penulti- 
mate pleopoda shorter than either of the other pairs. Telson 
simple. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. Caprella fretensts, n. sp. 1 a. Natural size in linear measure- 
ment. 1 b. Side view of head. 1 c. Pleon, seen from above. 
1 d. Last segment of the pereion with the pleon, seen from 
below. 1 e. Ventral view of the pleon, more highly magnified. 
1/. Tenninal portion of upper antenna. 1 g. Lower antenna. 
1 h. Terminal portion, more highly magnified. 1 i. Maxilliped, 
seen from below. 1./. First gnathopod. 1 k. Inner face of the 
same, more enlarged. 1 /. Second gnathopod. 1 m. Fifth leg. 
1 n. Seventh leg. 1 o. Portion of palm of ditto, showing the 



Dr. F. Briiggemann on Pitjriasis gymnocephala. 37 

pair of serrate spines. \p. One of the serrate spines, highly 

magnified. 
Fig. 2. St.impsonia chelifera, Spence Bate. 2 a. Portion of upper antenna, 

showing secondary flagellum. 2 b. Mandible. 2 c. Maxilla. 

2 d. Maxilliped. 2 e. Second gnathopod. 
Fig. 3. Tail-piece of Stimpsonia chelifera (another specimen), seen from 

above. 3 a. One of the first guathopods. 3 b. One of the second 

gnathopods. 3 c. The other of the second gnathopods. 



IV. — On the Young q/" Pityriasis gymnocephala. 
By Dr. F. Beuggemann. 

The sexes of this remarkable Bornean bird are known to 
differ in the colour of their plumage, the female showing some 
red spots on the abdomen. A young female, sent by Dr. 
George Fischer from Moeara Teweh, interior of S.E. Borneo, 
shows several peculiarities, which I think worth drawing 
attention to. Comparing it with the adult male, a specimen of 
which was also procured in the same locality by Dr. Fischer, 
the signs of its immaturity are found in the smaller terminal 
hook of the upper mandible, in the absence of horny tips to 
the feathers of the hind neck, in the lower stage of develop- 
ment of the rigid feathers on the fore neck, in the pale horn- 
colour of the feet and nails (the adult having the former yel- 
lowish and the latter blackish), and in the sooty -black (not 
deep-glossy-black) plumage. The narrow velvety edgings of 
the black feathers are also less pronounced ; and the red colour 
in the plumage is a shade lighter than in the adult, rather 
scarlet than crimson. 

All this is, of course, nothing curious ; but the following 
characters were scarcely to be expected : — The crown of the head 
is entirely hare^ without any trace of the papillge with which it 
is crowdedly covered in the adult ; of the large tuft of rigid 
brownish grey feathers in the auricular region there is no indi- 
cation, the feathers on this spot being of normal structure and 
red, like the rest of the head-feathers ; breast, belly, and 
flanks are scarlet-red, somewhat mixed, in an irregular way, 
with black, the basal part of the feathers, or the whole feather, 
excepting a broad border, being generally blackish ; it may be 
observed that the red edgings, which are much decomposed, 
are gradually worn off. The red colour decreases in extent 
on the abdomen, where it is confined to the tips of the feathers. 
There are also traces of red edgings on the scapularies and 
wing-coverts. The thigh-feathers (which are of a uniform 
red in the adult) are black, mixed only in the upper part of 
the thigh with some red ones. 



38 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera 

Thus the young bird exhibits a far greater amount of vivid 
red colour than the adult, and, besides, a different mode of 
distribution : it has the under surface of the body for the 
greater part red and the thighs hlach^ whereas in the mature 
bird the under surface is hlack and the thighs red. This is, 
at all events, a noteworthy fact ; yet it is not quite exceptional 
among birds. 

In the young of Tanygnathus luzonensis the head is green 
like the greater part of the plumage, and the rump is light 
blue ; in the adult the upper part of the head is light blue and 
the rump green (Briiggemann, Abh. Ver. Brem. v. p. 38). 

The immature Lorius histrio has the whole crown of the 
head blue and the fore back crimson ; the old bird has the 
head almost entirely crimson and the back hlue (Briigg. I. c. 
p. 41). 

In Nectarinia flavostriata the wings and tail of the young 
bird (the general plumage of which is olive-coloured) are red] 
those of the adult are blackish brown, and the remainder of 
its plumage is red (Briigg. /. c. p. 74). 

To add an example of a common indigenous bird, we find 
that in the young bird of the spotted woodpecker [Picus 
major) the crown of the head is crimson, and the upper sur- 
face of the body partly marked with white, where the adult 
is of a uniform black. 

These extraordinary instances of the young birds showing 
ornamental colours in parts of the body which are plain- 
coloured in the adults can only be explained by the sugges- 
tion that the immature plumage gives a recapitulation of 
the colours possessed by the ancestors of the species. Thus 
the young Picus major shows a stronger resemblance to the 
other European species (P. leuconotus, P. Lilfordii^ P. medius) 
than the adult does ; or, in other words, it has kept more 
strictly the colours of the common parent of the group. 

I am of opinion that many more instances of such conser- 
vative ornamental plumages in the young birds can be found 
if they are searched for. 



V. — Characters of new Genera and of some undescrihed Species 
of Phytophagous Beetles. By Joseph S. Baly, F.L.S. 

[Continued from ser. 4. vol. xx. p. 386.] 

Fam. Chrysomelidse. 

Chrysomela Jacobyi. 

C. oblongo-ovata, convexa, nigra, nitida, capite thoraceque minute 



and Species of Phytophagous Beetles. 39 

punctatis, hujus lateribus incrassatis, intus sulco foveolato mar- 
ginatis ; elytris sat fortiter substriatim. punctatis, limbo exteriore 
late rufo. 
Long. 31-4 lin. 

Hah. China, Province of Shantung. 

Antennae half the length of the body. Thorax twice as 
broad as long ; sides nearly straight and parallel from the base 
to the middle, thence rounded and converging to the apex, 
anterior angles acute ; upper surface transversely convex, 
minutely punctured, rather more coarsely punctured along the 
basal margin ; lateral margin thickened, impressed with a 
few deep punctures ; the margin is bounded within by a deep, 
very coarsely and irregularly punctured groove, the middle 
portion of which is less deeply excavated than the rest of its 
surface. Elytra rather broader than the thorax, broadly 
oblong, rather strongly punctured, the punctures arranged in 
irregular longitudinal rows ; on each ely ton are several smooth 
impunctate vittge. 

Phyllocharis eximia. 

P. elongata, modice convexa, nitida, subtus rufo-testacea, pectoris 
medio, pleuris, abdominis basi pedibusque laete cyaneis ; supra 
laete cyanea, verticis macula thoracisque lateribus latis rufo- 
testaceis ; elytris tenuiter punctatis, punctis prope suturam 
striatim dispositis, apicem versus fere deletis, singulatim macula 
humerali, fascia transversa prope medium, intus abbreviata, 
margine exteriore inter maculam et fasciam, vittisque duabus, 
una curvata, a basi ad elytri tertiam partem extensa, alteraque 
recta, apicah rufo-testaceis. 

Long. 5-5| lin. 

Hab. Australia, Rockhampton. 

Antennge robust, second joint moniliform, third one half 
larger than the second, fourth and the following two equal, 
each rather longer than the second. Thorax twice as broad as 
long ; sides straight and parallel, obsoletely sinuate behind 
the middle, rounded and converging at the apex ; disk smooth, 
impunctate, impressed on either side with a distinct fovea; basal 
margin distinctly punctured. Elytra oblong, sides parallel, 
converging near the apex, the latter acutely rounded. 

Phyllocharis Jansoni. 

P. elongata, modice convexa, rufo-testacea, nitida, pleuris, abdominis 
basi, pedibus antennisque obscure metallice coeruleis, bis extror- 
sum nigris ; capitis macula thoracisque maculis duabus, his trans- 
versim positis, fuscis ; elytris oblongis, tenuiter substriatim punc- 
tatis, punctis apicem versus fere deletis, singidatim macula sub- 



40 Mr. J. S. Baly on neiv Genera 

ovata infra callum humerale, plaga magna cuneiformi communi, 
a basi ad longe pone medium producta, alteraque oblonga, obliqua, 
pone medium posita, intus ad suturam adfixa cyaneis ; scutello 
nigro. 
Long. 3^ lin. 

Hab. Australia, Rockhampton. 

Autennse moderately robust, more than half the length of 
the body ; second joint short, third and fourth equal, ovate, 
each one half longer than the second. Thorax twice as broad 
as long ; sides straight and parallel, rounded and converging 
at the apex, anterior angles obtuse ; upper surface excavated 
on either side at the base,, the excavations deeply punctured ; 
disk smooth, impunctate. Elytra broader than the thorax, 
oblong, less acutely rounded at the apex than in the preceding 
species. 

Fam. Gallerucidse. 

Subfam. Halticin^e. 

Genus Niphr^a. 

Corpus subelongatum, modice convexnm. Caput modice exsertum ; 
antennis iiliformibus, 11-articulatis ; ocidis prominulis, integris ; 
encarpis contiguis ; carina oblonga. Thorax transversus, basi 
transversim truncatus, disco ante basin sulco transverso, utrinque 
ad marginem lateralem extenso, impressus. Elytra thorace multo 
latiora, oblonga, punctato- striata, pube sericea sat dense vestita. 
Pedes simplices ; femoribus posticis incrassatis ; tibiis apice spina 
%,cuta armatis ; tarsis posticis ad tibiae apicem insertis ; ungui- 
culis appeudiculatis. Prosternum angustatum ; acetabulis anticis 
apertis. 

Type Niphrcea hirtipennis. 

Closely allied to Trichaltica, but separated from that genus 
by the transverse groove of the thorax, which in the present 
case extends entirely across the base of the thorax. 

NiphrcBa hirtipennis. 

N. subelongata, modice convexa, fulva, nitida, antennis extrorsum 
nigro-piceis, pectore, abdomine (apice excepto) elytrisque nigris ; 
his pube griseo-argentea sat dense vestitis, granuloso-rugulosis, 
subopacis, fortiter punctato-striatis, limbo exteriore, apice am- 
pliato, fulvo. 

Long. 2-2i lin. 

Hah. Lake Nyassa. 

Vertex smooth, impunctate ; encarpre subpyriform, contigu- 
ous ; antennse nearly half the length of the body, third joint 



and Species of Phytophagous Beetles. 41 

equal in length to the second, fourth twice as long as the third. 
Thorax one half as broad again as long ; sides diverging from 
the base to beyond the middle, thence rounded and converging 
to the apex ; disk finely but distinctly punctured. 

Fara. Hispidse. 

Cephaloleia gracilis. 

Filiformis, subdepressa, nigro-picea, subnitida, minute granulosa, 
antennis basi, pedibus, thoracis lateribus elytrorumque plaga 
basali rufo-brunneis ; thorace subquadrato, foveolato-punctato ; 
elytris elongatis, apicem versus attenuatis, apice late truncatis, 
sat fortiter punctato-striatis, interspatiis basi et ad latera con- 
vexiusculis, singulatim vitta alba, basi et apice abbreviata, ornatis. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hah. Amazons. 

Face and front concave, coarsely punctured ; five lower 
joints of antennae obscure rufo-piceous, the rest black. Thorax 
scarcely broader than long ; sides straight and parallel, slightly 
converging towards the apex ; anterior angles very obtusely 
rounded, the hinder angles acute ; basal margin subangulate- 
emarginate on either side ; median lobe only slightly produced, 
obtusely rounded ; upper surface transversely convex, im- 
pressed with large round punctures, a longitudinal space on 
the middle disk impunctate • extreme lateral margin rufo- 
brunneous. Scutellum obscure piceous. Elytra elongate, 
slightly wider at the base than the thorax ; basal margin 
oblique, the humeral angle distinct ; sides straight and paral- 
lel, slightly converging towards the apex, the latter broadly 
truncate. 

Cephaloleia subdepressa. 

Elongato-ovata, subdepressa, castanea, subnitida, pedibus obscure 
fulvis, antennis (articulis basalibus tribus exceptis) nigris ; thorace 
sat fortiter punctate, piceo, lateribus castaneis ; elytris ovatis, 
distincte punctato-striatis, interspatiis minute granulosis, ad latera 
convexiusculis, pone scutellum leviter transversim rugulosis. 

Mas abdominis segmento anali concavo-emarginato. 

Foem. abdominis segmento anali rotundato, integro. 

Var. A. elytris plus minusve piceo tinctis. 

Long. 1| lin. 

Hah. Banks of the Amazon. 

Face distinctly but not strongly punctured. Thorax about 
a third broader than long at the base ,• sides straight and 
nearly parallel in the J* , less parallel in the ? , rounded at 
the apex in both sexes ; basal margin deeply concave-emargi- 



42 Mr. J. S. Baly on new Genera 

nate on either side, median lobe distinctly produced, obtusely 
truncate ; upper surface covered with round punctures, middle 
disk less closely punctured. 

Gonophora tibialis. 

Subelongata, subdepressa, pallide rufo-fulva, nitida, elytrorum 
dimidio postico antennisque nigris, harum articulo basali intus 
ultimisque duobus totis obscure rufis ; thorace medio longitudi- 
naliter canaliculato, basi ante scutellum transversim sulcato, 
utrinquc ante medium vitta elevata instrucio, rude et crebre 
foveolato, interspatiis elevatis, inter se reticulatis ; elytris anguste 
oblongis, fere parallelis, apice obtuse truncatis, angulis posticis 
distinctis, obtusis, singulatim profunde 8-seriatim foveolatis, tiicos- 
tatis, costis duabus intornis valde elevatis, costa externa medio 
interrupta ; tibiis anticis compressis, valde dilatatis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Sulu Islands, New Guinea. 

Head smooth, impunctate ; anterior margin of clypeus 
deeply concave ; antennae half the length of the body, first 
and second joints short, equal, third nearly twice the length of 
the second. Thorax transverse ; sides straight and nearly 
parallel, abruptly constricted at the apex ; surface closely 
covered with oblong foveee, the interspaces between which 
are thickened and -anastomose irregularly with each other; at 
the base just in front of the scutellum is a short deep trans- 
verse groove, from either extremity of which an oblique 
depression extends upwards on the disk. Elytra broader than 
the thorax, each with three raised longitudinal cost£e; the two 
inner ones entire, strongly elevated, the outer one interrupted 
for the greatest portion of its length ; interspaces between the 
costse each with a double row of large deep foveas, interstices 
between the foveas transversely thickened ; interspace between 
the first and second costa impressed at the base with a triple 
row of punctures ; extreme apical margin edged near the 
suture with rufo-fulvous. 

Gonojjhora lineata. 

Elongata, flavo-fulva, nitida, tarsis nigro-piceis, genibus, tibiis 
anticis fere totis, tibiisque intermediis apice piceo tinctis ; anten- 
nis nigris, articulo ultimo apice obscure rufo ; thorace convexo, 
basi ante scutellum transversim sulcato, utriuque ante sulcum 
oblique depresso, foveis numerosis magnis impresso, linea media 
discoque antico fere impunctatis : elytris thorace latioribus, paral- 
lelis, apice rotundatis, minute serratis, dorso subdepressis, singula- 
tim tricostatis, costis duabus internis validis, costa externa minus 
elevata, medio obsoleta, interspatiis profunde biseriatim foveolatis, 
transversim costulatis ; nigro-piceis, costa prima a basi fere ad 



and Species of Phytophagous Beetles. 43 

apicem, costa secunda ante medium (his costis basi convexis) mar- 
giuequc exteriore flavis. 
Loi]g. 2g lin. 

Hah. Sulu Islands, New Guinea. 

Antenna slender, more than half the length of the body ; 
second johit slightly longer than the first, the third one half 
longer than the second, fourth and fifth each equal in length 
to the third. Thorax rather broader than long; sides straight 
and slightly diverging from the base to beyond the middle, 
thence converging and deeply sinuate to the apex; hinder 
angles produced laterally into a short stout tooth ; above con- 
vex, cylindrical at the apex, flattened towards the base. 
Scutellum piceous, its apex broadly truncate. Apex of ante- 
rior tibia curved inwards and produced into an acute tooth. 

Gonophora Horsfieldi. 

Filiformis, nigra, nitida, tarsis piceis ; thorace basi et apice rufo- 
piceo, subcylindrico, ad latera foveolato-punctato, ajiice punctorum 
scric unica imprcsso, disco l»vi, basi traiisversim sulcato et utrin- 
que ante sulcura excavato ; elytris subparallclis, apice obtuse 
rotundatis, minute serratulis, t'ulvis, apice nigris, singulatim bicos- 
tatis, costis valde elevatis, integris, interspatiis profunde biseria- 
tim foveolatis, intcrstitiis apicem versus transversim costulatis ; 
pedibus robustis. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hah. Java. 

Antennae rather slender, more than half the length of the 
body, black, the two lower joints obscure piceous ; first and 
second joints short, equal, the third rather longer. Thorax 
rather broader than long ; sides rounded, constricted at base 
and apex, hinder angles produced laterally into a short obtuse 
tooth. 

Gonophora crassipes. 

Elongata, angustata, flava, nitida, tarsis antennisque piceis, his 
extrorsum nigris ; elytrorum macula apicali nigro-picea ; thorace 
transverso, parce foveolato-punctato, basi trausversim sulcato et 
utrinque ante sulcum oblique irapresso, apice cylindrico, serie 
unica punctorum impresso ; elytris parallelis, apice rotundatis, 
integris, singulatim bicostatis, costis valde elevatis, integris, inter- 
spatiis foveis magnis biseriatim dispositis profunde impressis, 
intcrstitiis apicem versus transversim costulatis ; tibiis crassis. 

Long. 1-i lin. 

Hah. Kai Island. 

Antennae half the length of the body, seven lower joints 
obscure piceous, the rest black ; first and following three joints 



44 Dr. H. A. Nicholson 07i the Minute Structure 

equal in length. Thorax with its sides obliquely diverging 
from the base to beyond the middle, thence rounded and con- 
verging to the apex, the latter abruptly constricted. 

Ceplialodonta Haroldi. 

Cuneiformis, subdepressa, nitida, subtus nigra, thoracis lateribus, 
femoribus tibiisque rufo-fulvis ; supra laete rufo-fulva, antennis 
nigris, articulis rufo variegatis ; thorace subquadrato, lateribus 
obsolete angulatis, angulis anticis antrorsum productis ; disco 
transversim convexo, ante basin transversim depresso, profunde 
foveolato -punctate; elytris a basi apicem versus leviter ampliatis, 
apice obtusis, leviter serratulis, angulo postico distincto, profunde 
foveolato-punctatis, punctis striatim disposifcis, hie illic confusis, 
interspatiis ad latera et ad apicem elevato-vittatis, hie illic irregu- 
lariter verrucosis. 

Long. 3|-31 lin. 

Hob. Columbia, river Magdalena. 

Nearly allied to G. tarsata, at once known by the coarser 
punctuation and by the irregular surface of the elytra. 



VI. — On the Minute Structure of the Corals of the Genera 
Heliophyllum and Crepidophyllum. By H. Alleyne 
Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc, F.L.S., Professor of Natural 
History in the University of St. Andrews. 

Genus Heliophyllum*. 

Heliophyllum, Hall, in Dana's ' Zoophvtes/ Explor. Exped. vol. viii. 
p. 356, fig. 3, 1846. 

Gen. char. Corallum simple or compound, usually turbi- 
nate, cono-cylindrical or cylindrical, rarely massive. Increase, 
in the simple forms, by simple calicular gemmation. Epitheca 
complete, thin, with encircling striae and annulations of growth. 
Tabulas not complete, but confined to a more or less exten- 
sively developed central area. Septa well developed, of two 
orders, a greater or less number of the primary septa almost 
always passing inwards to the centre of the visceral chamber, 
where they become flexuous and unite with one another in 
an iiTCgular network. In cross section the septa are invari- 
ably crossed by conspicuous cross bars or denticulations. 

• Descriptions of the characters of Heliophyllum and Crepidophyllum 
formed part of a paper, by Mr. James Thomson and mvself, which was 
laid before the Royal Society of Edinburgh in the session 1875-76, and 
an abstract of which was published in the ' Proceedings,' vol. ix. No. 95, 
p. 149. 



of Heliophyllum anJ Crepidophjllum. 45 

An external vesicular area feebly developed and often almost 
absent. Dissepiments of two orders : — those of the first order 
very strongly marked, and forming a series of strong ascend- 
ing ridges, which run inwards and upwards in an arching 
manner, forming the cross bars on the septa as seen in trans- 
verse sections, and appearing on the free edges of the septa in 
the calice as so many spines or teeth ; those of the second 
order being more delicate, and running in an arched manner 
inwards and downwards, often producing a greater or less 
amount of vesicular tissue in the exterior zone. No true 
columella is present ; but those of the primary septa which 
reach the centre are often elevated to form a small eminence in 
the bottom of the cup. 

In the typical species of Heliophyllum the corallum is 
essentially simple, and is usually more or less turbinate and 
conical in form, as in H. Halli, Edw. & H. ; ZT. canadense, 
Bill. ; H. colhornense^ Nich. ; and //. elegantulum^ Nich. & 
Thoms. These primarily simple forms, however, very com- 
monly produce buds by simple calicular gemmation (see a 
paper by the writer, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinb. vol. xxvii. 
p. 238), or by what Lindstrom has termed " uniserial gem- 
mation." In these cases the polype, originally and essentially 
simple, sends up from its oral disk a single bud. The primi- 
tive calice may or may not be obliterated by the gradual 
growth and extension of the epitheca over it ; and tlie secon- 
dary calice may or may not produce a tertiary bud in the 
same manner as that in which it was itself produced. Some- 
times the process stops with the production of one or two 
buds ; at other times it goes on by fits and starts, by periodic 
restrictions of growth and efforts at reproduction, till the 
corallum assumes the form of a series of .short turbinate cups 
or inverted cones, superimposed upon one another in the same 
longitudinal axis, the younger upon the older. There are 
also not wanting instances, within the limits of the genus 
Heliophyllum^ in which the old corallite throws out two, three, 
or more buds from its oral disk ; though this process is never 
carried so far as to produce large compound masses. Finally, 
in one form at present referred to Heliophyllum (viz. H. colli- 
gatum, Bill.^ the corallum is truly and essentially compound, 
forming large fasciculate masses of cylindrical and closely 
approximated corallites. 

The epitheca is complete, usually thin, and marked with 
numerous delicate encii'cling lines, generally along with well- 
marked accretion-ridges. 

The form of the calice varies. It is rarely of any great 
depth, as compared with the proportional bulk of the coral- 



46 Dr. H. A. Nicholson on the Minute Structure 

lum ; and its floor may be flat, or may exhibit a small rounded 
eminence formed by the primary septa. The principal feature 
of importance presented by the calice is, that the free edges 
of the septa are invariably furnished with prominent spines, 
formed by the terminations of the ascending dissepiments. 




A, cross section of Heliophyllum Halli, E. & H., of tlie natural size, 
showing the manner in whicli the septa are continued to the centre, 
and showing the arched ascending dissepiments, but having the other 
dissepiments omitted. B, vertical section of H. Halli, showing the 
central tabulate area, and both the ascending and descending series of 
dissepiments. C, cross section of Crepidophyllu'm subecespitosum, the 
descending series of dissepiments being, as before, omitted : twice the 
natural size. D and E, cross sections of the same species, of the 
natural size. (D shows the central tabulate area completely closed 
in by the central tube ; and E exhibits the cut edges of some of the 
delicate descending series of dissepiments.) F, vertical section of a 
fragment of the same species, twice the natural size, showing the 
central tabulate area, with its enveloping wall, and th« ascending and 
descending sets of dissepiments. B is slightly generalized, and 
some details have been omitted. All the specimens are from the 
Hamilton group of the State of New York and of Ontario. 

The internal structure of tlie corallum in Heliophyllum is 
somewhat complex, but is rendered readily intelligible by 
means of transverse and longitudinal sections. The tabulfe 



q/" Heliophyllum and Crepidophyllum. 47 

are seen in longitudinal sections (fig. B) occupying a central 
area of variable width. As a rule the tabulate area is of com- 
paratively small extent, and the tabulse are somewhat remote 
and irregular ; but sometimes these structures occupy a con- 
siderable space, and are arranged with considerable regularity 
and close together. 

The septa (fig. A) are always very well developed ; and 
both primary and secondary septa are invariably present, so 
far as I have observed. All tlie primary septa extend to 
the immediate vicinity of the centre of the visceral chamber ; 
but a large number of them, sometimes all of them, stop short 
of the actual centre. They all, however, become more or less 
flexuous as they approach the centre ; and, as a general rule, 
a certain proportion of them continue inwards till they become 
connected in a loose and irregular network, though they in no 
case form a central cellular mass. Nor is there, under any 
circumstances, any true columella. The secondary septa, 
again, are very well developed, and usually extend to at least 
half, or even two thirds, of the length of the primary septa. 
Lastly, both the primary and secondary septa exhibit in cross 
sections a variable number of conspicuous cross bars (fig. A), 
which give to them an exceedingly characteristic appearance, 
though this cannot be regarded as peculiar to the genus. 
These cross bars are confined to the exterior portions of the 
septa, and are wanting centrally. They are formed by the 
transverse section of the ascending dissepiments ; and as they 
run directly across the septa, it is evident that the dissepiments 
are placed at corresponding points on the two sides of each 
septum. In no case, however, do the cross bars formed in 
this way extend from one septum to those directly conti- 
guous to it, but they are always confined to their proper sep- 
tum ; and they do not correspond in position in neighbouring 
septa. 

The most characteristic features in the structure of Helio- 
jphyllum are due to the very remarkable form and arrange- 
ment of the dissepiments — an arrangement which has been 
(but erroneously) supposed to be peculiar to this genus. There 
are two groups or orders of dissepiments (fig. B), which inter- 
sect one another nearly at right angles, those of the one series 
having an ascending direction as regards the corallum, whilst 
those of the other are descending. The dissepiments of the 
ascending series form a group of strong curved ridges, directed 
in an arched manner upwards and inwards from the wall 
towards the centre, with the convexities of the arches up- 
wards. When seen in longitudinal sections, they are never con- 
tinuous from the wall to the free edges of the septa, but they 



48 Dr. H. A. Nicholson on the Minute Structure 

appear as successive rows of discontinuous ridges. Nor do 
they ever extend so far from any one septum as actually to 
reach the septa immediately contiguous to it. On the contrary, 
they occur in reality as so many strong ridges which are 
developed on the sides of each septum, and always in precisely 
corresponding positions on the two sides of any given septum. 
Hence it is that they appear in the calice as so many spines 
on the free edges of the septa, and in cross sections as so 
many cross bars intersecting the septa. Hence, also, in 
silicified specimens, in which the interior is exposed, they 
appear as curved striai or ridges on the otherwise plain sides 
of the septa ; and this appearance is not due to any disappear- 
ance or destruction of the dissepiments subsequent to the 
death of the polype, but is really due to the inherent form of 
these structures. 

The dissepiments of the second order are exceedingly deli- 
cate, and are much less marked than those of the preceding 
series, which they intersect approximately at right angles. 
They are directed inwards and downwards, from the wall to 
the centre of the visceral chamber, and they are continuous 
between contiguous septa. They form a series of lenticular 
vesicles, which are seen in longitudinal sections (fig. B) to be 
arranged in oblique rows, directed inwards and downwards, 
with their convexities upwards. The extent to which they 
are developed, however, varies greatly in different cases ; and 
though they are always preeminently developed in the outer 
portions of the corallum, they are never present in such num- 
bers as to give rise to the conspicuous exterior zone of vesi- 
cular tissue which forms such a marked feature in corals such 
as the typical Cyathopliylla. 

The genus Helioi^hyllum owes its name to the eminent 
American paleeontologist. Prof. James Hall ; but its first pub- 
lication was in Dana's great work on the corals {op. jam cit.). 
It was originally regarded as nothing more than a subgenus 
of Cyathophyllum ; and no higher rank is assigned to it by 
Dana than this. In reality, however, it cannot be placed 
even in the immediate vicinity of Cyathophyllum proper, with 
which it has hardly any characters in common. Though this 
constitutes the first published description of the genus, it had 
been figured previously to this date, as the Strombodes helian- 
thoides of Phillips (' Palaeozoic Fossils,' pi. v. fig. 13, 1841) 
appears to be undoubtedly a species of Heliophyllum. 

The first description giving any thing like a really accurate 
conception of the structure of the corallum in the genus Helio- 
phyllum is that published by Milne-Edwards and Haime (Pol. 
Foss. des Terr. Pal. p. 408). They define the genus as 



o/'Heliophyllum a??t? Crepldophyllum. 49 

follows : — " Corallum simple, subturbinate. Septa well deve- 
loped, and giving origin laterally to lamellar prolongations, 
which are directed from the wall towards the centre, in an 
ascending and arched direction, so as to constitute irregular 
tabular in the central area. These lamellar prolongations are 
united circumferentially by vertical plates." This defini- 
tion, however, is not only deficient in its details, but it is 
erroneous in the important point that the tabulse of the central 
area are considered as formed by prolongations from the 
ascending dissepiments, whereas these structures, in reality, 
are wholly independent of one another. 

By Mr. Billings (Can. Journ. new ser. vol. iv. p. 124) the 
genus Jielioplnillam is defined as follows : — " Corallum simple 
or aggregate; radiating septa well developed, obliquely 
striated on tiieir sides by thin elevated ridges, which extend 
from the outer wall towards the centre. These ridges are 
connected by numerous thin laminse which divide the spaces 
between the septa into small 'sublenticular cells. The trans- 
verse diaphragms are thin, flexuous, and confined to the 
central portion of the coral." This definition likewise omits 
many characters of importance ; and the distinguished Cana- 
dian palfeontologist is certainly in error in concluding that 
" the only difference between this genus and Cyathophyllum is 
the absence of the curved strife' from the septa of the latter." 

By Dybowski (Mon. der Zoanth. scler. rug. aus der Silur- 
formation &c. p. 83) the genus Ileltopliyllum is placed in a 
special family, Craspedopliyllidje, along with the two new 
genera Acanthopliyllum and CraspedojyJiyllum^ the only 
characters assigned to the family being that there is no acces- 
sory wall, that the septa are complete, and that the sides of 
the septa are furnished with lateral outgrowths. As all these 
characters, however, might be predicated of other genera, it 
will hardly be possible to retain this family as it is at present 
constituted. Finally, a description of the generic characters 
of HeliophyUum, drawn chiefly from the Ijeautiful silicified 
specimens of the Corniferous Limestone of North America, 
was published by the present writer (' Rep. on the Palason- 
tology of Ontario,' part i. p. 24, 1874). 

As regards the affinities of the genus Hdiophyllum^ it is 
certainly related to Cyathophyllum ; but the differences between 
these two genera are so many and so great that it cannot be 
said that the relationship is by any means a very close one. 
If we confine our attention to the simple and more typical 
members of the genus Cyathophyllum, the chief points of 
relationship with Heliophylhim are to be found in the pre- 
sence of an external vesicular area in both groups, in the 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. tSer. 5. Vol. i. 4 



50 Dr. H. A. Nicholson on the Minute Structure 

restriction of the tabulae to a comparatively limited central 
zone, and to the fact that a certain number of the septa pass 
inwards to the centre^ Avhere they become more or less twisted 
together. Even in these points, however^ the agreement is far 
from complete. In Cyatliophyllum the exterior zone of vesi- 
cular tissue is invariably present, is largely developed, and is 
composed of very numerous minute cells ; in HeliopliyUum 
this zone is never largely developed, is sometimes altogether 
Wanting, and is always composed of comparatively large cells, 
so as never to constitute a really conspicuous feature. Again, 
in the typical Cyatho2)hyUa the primary septa extend 
inwards to the centre, where they are tv/isted together so as 
to form a sort of spurious columella ; in HeliopliyUum, on the 
other hand, it is never more than a comparatively limited 
number of the primary septa which are continued inwards to 
the centre of the visceral chamber, and these, instead of be- 
coming twisted together, unite with one another to form a loose 
and irregular network. When, however^ we come to examine 
the differences between these two genera, they are found to 
materially outweigh the points of similarity. The species of 
HeUo]}hylIum are, more particularly, fundamentally distin- 
guished from those of Cyathqihyllum by the presence of the 
peculiar arched lamellge which are directed inwards and up- 
wards along the sides of the septa, appearing on the free edges 
of the septa within the calice as so many teeth or spines, and 
constituting the characteristic cross bars by which the septa 
are seen in transverse sections to be intersected at regular in- 
tervals. No structure in any way capable of confusion with 
this has ever been detected in any Cyatliopliyllum. 

Lindstrdm has suggested that PaJceocyclus. E. & H., will 
probably be found to be allied to Helio-pliyllum ; but I am 
unable to csnfirm this suggestion. The free edges of the 
septa in Palceocyclus are denticulated in a manner super- 
ficially similar to what is seen in Heliophyllum ; but vertical 
and transverse sections show that this denticulation is pro- 
duced in a different way. At the same time the form of the 
corallum in Palceocyclus is quite unlike that of Heliophyllum, 
and the discoid forms are wholly destitute of tabulas. 

The nearest ally to Heliophyllum is undoubtedly the genus 
CrepiclopJiyllum. In this genus we find the central tabulate 
area of Heliophyllum and the same scantily developed external 
vesicular area ; whilst the free edges of the septa are rendered 
denticulate, and their transverse section is cross-barred by the 
same series of strong lateral arched lamellte. In many re- 
spects, therefore, we find a complete resemblance between 
Heliophyllum and Crepidophyllum. At tlie same time the 



of Heliophyllum and Crepidophyllum. 51 

latter is distinguished fundamentally by the fact that the cen- 
tral portion of the tabulate area is enclosed by a distinct and 
separate wall, with which the primary septa become directly 
connected, the central space thus enclosed usually opening at 
one point to form a wide fossette bounded by two primary 
septa and containing two or three short septa. 

There is also a close relationship between Heliophyllum and 
Phillipsastrcea^ E. & H. The edges of the septa are occa- 
sionally denticulated in the latter genus in a manner appa- 
rently similar to that which obtains in Hdioijliyllum ; and there 
is also a small central tabulate area. How far this resemblance 
is really founded upon identity of structure, I am not at this 
moment in a position to determine. At any rate, the genus 
Phillipsastrcea is readily distinguished from Heliopliyllum by 
the fact that the corallites of the former are wholly destitute 
of a proper wall, and become united by the confluence of 
septo-costal radii. 

It may be mentioned, finally, that there are some species at 
present referred to Acervularia (such as A. profunda^ Hall, 
and A. Davidsoni^ E. & H., both from the Devonian forma- 
tion) in which the edges of the septa are denticulated, and 
their transverse section cross-banded, as in the genus Helio- 
phyllum. The more intimate structure of these forms, however, 
still awaits elucidation. 

So far as at present known, the genus Heliophyllum is ex- 
clusively restricted in its range to the Devonian formation, 
being known to occur in both the New and the Old World at 
this horizon. 

Crepidophyllum, Nich. & Thomson. 

Crepidophyllnm, Nicholson and Thompson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 
vol. ix. no. 95, p, 149. 

Corallum simple or compound — in the former case cylindrical 
or cono-cylindrical, in the latter case forming large fasciculate 
masses. Increase by lateral gemmation in the compound 
species. Epitheca complete, thin, with encircling striae and 
conspicuous annulations of growth. Tabulfe not complete, but 
confined to a more or less extensively developed central area, 
the median portion of which is enveloped in a distinct accessory 
wall, and thus shut off from the rest. The median tabulate 
tube (fig. 0) thus formed may be completely enclosed ; but 
more commonly it is open at one point, and the two extremi- 
ties of the horseshoe thus formed become directly continuous 
with two of the primary septa, which in this way include a 
wide septal fossula, within which are contained two or three 
short septa. The remainder of the primary septa are well 

4* 



52 Dr. H. A. Nicholson on the Minute Structure 

developed, and extend from the epitheca to the accessory wall 
surrounding the central tube, with which they become directly 
connected. The primary septa never, however, extend into 
the interior of the central tube 5 and they alternate with well- 
developed secondary septa of more than half their own length. 
The calice is moderately deep, and exhibits at its bottom a 
small flat space formed by the upper end of the central 
tabulate tube. The free edges of the septa within the calice 
are denticulated ; and the cross section of the septa shows them 
to be intersected by conspicuous cross bars, these appearances 
being produced by a series of strong arched lamellar dissepi- 
ments, which are developed at corresponding points on the 
two sides of each septum, and are directed upwards and in- 
wards towards the centre. There is also a second series of 
more delicate dissepiments, which connect the septa with one 
another, are directed downwards and inwards, and give rise in 
longitudinal sections to a larger or smaller amount of exterior 
vesicular tissue. 

It will be seen from the above description, that in many 
respects there is a very close relationship between Crepido- 
phyllum and Helio2)hyllum. This is especially seen in the 
structure of the endothecal dissepiments, which are precisely 
the same in the two genera. In both we have a double series 
of dissepiments (figs. B & F), which intersect one another at 
high angles, those of the first series running upwards and in- 
wards, and those of the second series running downwards and 
inwards. In both, the dissepiments of the first series are so 
far peculiar that they do not actually connect contiguous septa, 
but have the form of strong cuiwed or arched ridges, which are 
developed on the sides of the septa and at precisely corre- 
sponding points on the opposite sides of each individual sep- 
tum. Hence in both genera the dissepiments of this series give 
rise to three very characteristic and peculiar appearances : 
(1) the free edges of the septa in the calice are marked with 
blunt spines or teeth ; (2) the sides of the septa, as seen in 
longitudinally fractured specimens, exhibit a series of pro- 
nounced striee or ridges, directed upwards and inwards in an 
arched manner, with their convexities upwards ; and (3) the 
cross section of the ^epta, both primary and secondary, 
shows them to be intersected by conspicuous cross bars. In 
both Cre'pido'pliyllum and HeUophylhim^ again, we find a 
second series of dissepiments, which are much more delicate 
in structure, and are directed approximately inwards and 
downwards, and which actually connect contiguous septa with 
one anotlier. These dissepiments are seen, in longitudinal 
sections, to form a series of comparatively large-sized vesicles. 



o/Heliophjllum a?if? Grepidophyllum. 53 

which are strongly arched and have their convexities directed 
upwards. Though most largely developed in the external 
parts of the coral, the vesicles formed by the dissepiments of 
this series are variable in amount, and can hardly be said to 
constitute a distinct exterior vesicular zone, such as is so 
characteristic of the true Gyathopliylla. 

With these remarkable .points of agreement we find the 
following equally remarkable points of divergence, by which 
OrepidoiyliyUum is distinguished not only from HeliophyUum, 
but from all other known genera of the Eugose Corals : — (1) 
The central tabulate area, in most respects, closely resembles 
that of Heliophyllam, the tabulae being remote, often more or 
less arched, and sometimes uniting with one another. T'he 
central portion of this area, however, is shut off from the rest 
of the visceral chamber by a secondary investment or accessory 
wall, so that there is constituted a kind of central pipe or 
tube (fig. F), which is crossed by the tabulae, and runs 
down the centre of the corallum. (2) The central tabulate 
tube thus constituted, however, is only rarely quite complete : 
usually it is open on one side, and its investment or wall 
becomes continuous at this opening with two of the primary 
septa, which run to the margin of the corallum. (3) By means 
of these two primary septa and the secondary wall there is 
thus eticlosed a large, somewhat horseshoe-shaped septal fos- 
.sula {fig. C), within which are contained two or, more com- 
monly, three short septa. (4) The remaining primary septa 
are continued inwards till they meet the wall of the central 
tube, with which they become coalescent. They do not, how- 
ever, extend into the interior of the tube ; and there is there- 
fore no similarity between their arrangement and that which 
obtains in HeliophyUum^ where a certain number of the pri- 
mary septa pass inwards to the centre of the visceral chamber, 
and become loosely connected with one another there. Indeed 
I am not acquainted with any genus in which any close 
approximation to the peculiar structure of the central portion 
of the corallum in Crepidophyllum can be found. There is no 
other recorded genus in which the median portion of the 
central tabulate area is partitioned off by a distinct wall, with 
which all the primary septa are connected directly, and in 
which they terminate. 

The genus Crepidopliyllum contains two species of coraLs 
from the Hamilton formation (Devonian) of North America. 
One of these corresponds with a portion of the group of forms 
which I formerly described under the name of Heliophyllum 
subccespitosnm (Geol. Mag. new ser. dec. ii. vol. i. p. 58, 
pi. iv. fig. 9) ; and as it comprises the most typical members 



54 Mr. W. J. Sollas o)i two new and 

of this group, it must now be known under the name of 
Crepidophylluin suhccespitosuj7i. The remaining forms origi- 
nally included under the title of //. suhccespitosum are really 
referable to Helioijhyllum, of which they constitute a separate 
species {H. elegantulum, Nich. & Thomson). The other form of 
Crepidophyllum is the large compound coral which was origi- 
nally described by Mr. Billings under the name of Diphyphyl- 
lum Archiaci, but which turns out on microscopic examination 
to be unquestionably a species of CrejndophyUum. 



VII. — On Two Neio and remarhahh Species o/Cliona. 
By W. J. Sollas, M.A., F.G.S., &c. 

[Plates I. & II.] 

1. Cliona mucronata (mihi). 

(Examined in the dried state.) 

Sponge occupying a number of chambers excavated in the 
solid calcareous base of a species of Isis. 

Chambers of various forms, ova4, spherical, or irregular, 
joined together in a single series or in more complex groups 
by constricted apertures or by narrow stolon-like tubes, each 
of which is usually furnished with a spicular diaphragm. 

Spicules of three kinds : — 1, a straight acuate (PI. II. figs. 
1-3), having a cylindrical shaft, which terminates at one end 
in a more or less spherical head and at the other is rounded 
off bluntly and then produced axially into a short sharp spine 
or mucrone ; average length 0*004 inch, breadth across the 
head and rounded end 0*0006, and across the neck 0*0004, 
mucrone about 0*0002 inch long. 2, a slender pin-like acuate 
(PI. II. figs. 6,7), straight or curved, with a more or less 
spherical head and a sharp point; length 0*0073 inch, breadth 
across the head 0*0004, across the shaft 0*0002. 3, a minute 
or flesh-spicule (PL II. fig. 9), body spirali-sinuously curved 
once or oftener, or straight, irregularly spined ; length 0*0006 
inch. 

Diaphragms irregularly disciform (PI. I. figs. 2, 3, 6), coni-' 
cal (figs. 5, 9), or tubular (figs. 4, 10) and open at both ends ; 
when conical, perforated by the truncation of the apex (fig. 5) 
or imperforate (fig. 9); circumferential edge of disk-like forms, 
or the base in the case of the other two forms, attached to the 
walls of the containing tube or constricted aperture, across 
which the diaphragm extends transversely. Composed chiefly 



remarkabh Species q/Cliona. 6b 

of the goad-like or first kind of spicules, which are packed 
closely together side by side, normal to the walls they form 
(fig. 14) — their globular heads forming the exterior (fig. 15), 
and their mucronate ends the interior surface of the dia- 
phragms. The interstices between the spicules filled with 
a tough brownish-coloured kerataceous cement. A number of 
both the goad-like and the slender pin-like spicules lie on the 
outer surface of the diaphragms, some taking a circumferential 
and others a longitudinal direction ; in the case of the disk- 
like and imperforate conical forms, these radiating superficial 
spicules form a wisp-like cap (fig. 9) over the apex or the 
centre as the case may be, over which also their points meet 
and cross one another, while their heads are turned towards 
the circumferential edge. A few of the minute flesh-spicules 
occur along with the others ; and thus the spiculation of the 
diaphragms is as complete as tliat of the sponge. 

The diaphragms have a constant thickness, viz. that of the 
Ieiit2th of the goad-like spicules ; but they vary in diameter 
according to the size of the aperture they fill. 

Habitat. In the calcareous skeleton of Isis, sp. (Deciduous 
specimen.) 

Locality. (?) 

Remarks. In examining the debris from a specimen oilsis, 
sp., which I had broken to pieces for another purpose, I came 
across one of the singular mucronate spicules which form the 
staple spicule of this sponge ; and taking it to belong to some 
unknown member of the Suberitida3, I set to work to discover 
the organism from which it had been derived. I then found 
certain curious patelliform bodies (the diaphragms already 
described), which on examination proved to be mainly com- 
posed of this kind of spicule ; but since these bodies were 
wholly unlike any sort of sponge with which I was acquainted, 
I concluded that they were wanting in some of their parts, 
and continued ray search in the hope of discovering one more 
perfect than the rest ; then I met with them, in situ, in the 
chambers of our GUona, to which they evidently belonged. 
Now arose a question as to their real relations to this sponge. 
And here only two alternatives presented themselves to my 
mind : either they were in some way connected with its pro- 
pagation, embryos or '' seed bodies ;" or else they performed 
the office of septa or diaphragms. But the only known 
method of propagation amongst the Clionid^ is by means of 
ova, which they produce plentifully, giving rise to ellipsoidal 
gastrulffi provided with all the forms of spicule proper to the 
adult sponge. Thus the possession of a full complement of 
spicules is a character common to the bodies under considera- 



56 Mr. W. J. Sollas on two neio and 

tion and to the embryos of the Cliona. On the other hand, 
however, in the embryos of Cliona no Avisp-like cap has been 
observed ; and no known embryo of Cliona or of any other 
sponge exhibits the regular and close arrangement of spicules 
which is to be seen in the walls of our structures ; the spicu- 
lation of the young Cliona is in the highest degree confused, 
presenting no trace of order or arrangement. These facts are 
sufficiently important ; but when in addition we find the dia- 
phragms, as we may as well call them at once to avoid peri- 
phrasis, exhibiting such a great diversity of form and size, and 
this always in exact correspondence to the size and shape of 
the orifices or tubes they occupy, and when, moreover, we 
find them invariably attached to the sides of these tubes or 
orifices by one circumferential edge, we must, I think, exclude 
from the question all notion of attributing an embryonic nature 
to them. 

There then remains, so far as I can see, only the other 
alternative ; and the facts which tell most strongly against the 
previous supposition are just such as lend most support to this, 
the complete justification of which is to be found in the con- 
stancy with which the diaphragms occur just at the apertures 
of communication between adjoining chambers and no where 
else. This is an adaptation which Mr. Carter tells me is not 
to be found in the case of the embryos of Cliona ; but there 
can be no doubt about its existence here. By an observer 
examining the chambers of our Cliona for the first time, it 
might perhaps be for a moment called in question, since on 
looking into one of these chambers one may sometimes see, as 
if simply adhering to its walls, some four or five diaphragms 
looking just like so many limpets seated on the walls of a hole 
in a rock, and giving one no hint as to the existence of aper- 
tures concealed beneath them ; if now, however, we remove 
these little bodies one by one with a fine needle, we shall 
disclose beneath each a corresponding opening leading directly 
into an adjoining chamber. This experiment I have per- 
formed several times, and always with the same result. That 
these organs are peculiar to the constricted apertures can 
therefore admit of no reasonable doubt ; and their dia- 
phragmatic nature seems to follow as a matter of course. 

Why such diaphragms should exist, what is their precise 
function in the economy of the sponge, is another question, 
and one to which, in the absence of accessible evidence, I do 
not feel much inclined to hazard an answer ; though if one 
must conjecture, one might suggest that they may act like the 
fixed ventilating partitions in a mine, shutting off communi- 
cation in some directions, leaving it open in others, and so 



reuiarkahle Species o/Cliona. 57 

determining the path taken by the currents of water coursing 
through the canal-system of the organism — or, again, that they 
may perhaps serve to differentiate the sponge into separate 
individuals. In some instances, however, every aperture in a 
chamber seems to be provided with an imperforate form ot 
these diaphragms, so as to be completely sealed up from all 
means of communication with its neighbours. I say "seems," 
since it is difficult to make this out with certainty, and I have 
some doubt on the matter. Admitting, however, that I have 
determined this point correctly, then the whole arrangement 
suggests that of the seed of the freshwater Spongilla-^ for in 
such a chamber we have a particle of the sponge more or less 
spherical in shape, completely surrounded on all sides by an 
enclosure, which, while chiefly consisting of the calcareous 
walls of the chamber, yet does, when these are incomplete, 
possess also a wall of spicules set at right angles to its surface, 
and thus very much resembles the arrangement of the am phi- 
disks about the seed-like body of Spongilla. We might have 
here, then, a case of physiological adaptation, the existence of 
the calcareous chamber-walls making possible an economy of 
spicules, and dispensing with the necessity of a complete spi- 
cular enclosure. Thus, when the sponge went into winter 
quarters, all that would be necessary would be the plugging 
up, of the apertures in its burrows ; and on the return of more 
genial conditions the growth of these plugs into perforated 
cones and open tubes would provide for the egress of the 
reviving sponge. 

Plausible as this may appear at first sight, it will not, I 
think, bear a close investigation. In the first place CUona has 
not yet been proved to produce "seed-like bodies;" and though 
this evidence is merely negative, it is yet of great weight, if 
we consider that in no marine sponge whatever have these 
structures been discovered, and that in Bpongilla they are pro- 
bably due to the influence of extreme changes in climatal con- 
ditions, to which the marine sponges are not exposed. Again, 
had the diaphragms of a single chamber formed collectively 
parts of a single enclosure, one would expect to find the heads 
of their spicules all turned in one and the same way — that is 
to say, either outwards or inwards relatively to the chamber. 
This, however, is by no means the case ; no rule is to be 
discovered in this respect. Take for instance PI. I. fig. 3, 
where two of the diaphragms, a and 5, will be seen to have 
their surface of spicular heads turned towards the interior 
their respective chambers A and B, while a third, c, has it 
turned just the other way, or outwards towards the exterior. 
It may be said, however, that this diaphragm belongs more 



58 Mr. W. J. Sollas on tioo neio and 

especially to chamber G than to B, and that, accordingly, we 
must rather consider the fact that its spicular heads point 
towards the interior of C, than that they point away from the 
interior of B. An inspection of fig. 6 will at once furnish us 
with an answer to this argument, so far as it can be called 
argument ; for there we find two diaphragms, the relation of 
which to their respective chambers is clear enough, a evidently 
belonging to chamber A, and h to B, while, at the same 
time, the position of the surface of spicular heads is reversed 
in each case, in a the points and in b the heads of the spicules 
being turned towards the interior of the respective chambers. 
In some cases, moreover, I have seen a diaphragm placed 
obliquely across an aperture where two chambers open into a 
t|jiird, and evidently so arranged as to determine a passage into 
one rather than into the other. 

It seems then, to my mind, that whatever the ultimate 
function of these bodies may be, their immediate morphologi- 
cal relation to the sponge is that of open or closed partitions 
between adjoining chambers; and the terra " diaphragm " is 
therefore the most appropriate to them. 

The composition of the diaphragms may be best determined 
by placing one on a glass slide, adding a few drops of nitric 
acid, and boiling over a spirit-lamp till the acid has nearly all 
evaporated ; a few more drops must then be added, and the 
operation repeated as many times as may be necessary for the 
solution of the kerataceous cement which binds the spicules 
together. When this has been accomplished, the acid must be 
driven off completely by continued heating, and the spicules 
mounted on the same slide as has served for their preparation : 
no attempt must be made to wash them with distilled water, 
or to transfer them to another slide; either of these operations 
is sure to result in the loss of some or all of the small flesh- 
spicules with which the diaphragms are but sparingly sup- 
plied. 

By examining the edge of one of the diaphragms as an 
opaque object, under an objective magnifying about 100 
diameters, the arrangement of its spicules can readily be made 
out; and no arrangement could be simpler (PI. I. fig. 14). The 
more or less cylindrical spicules lie side by side, their mucro- 
nate extremities forming the inner and their globular heads 
the outer face of the diaphragm, so that the latter looks like a 
pavement of glass marbles (PI. I. fig. 15), all of the same size, 
and packed as closely as possible, and in consequence exhi- 
biting a quincuncial pattern ; the inner face has very much 
the same appearance, with the single difference that from each 
marble of its pavement a small spike stands out erect. Across 



remarl'ohle Species o/'Cliona. 59 

the open end of those diaphragms that are perforated, a thin 
film of dried protoplasm or structureless membrane extends 
(PL I. fig. 10, f), with a small ceritral or excentric lumen 
(fig, 10, l). In the membranous film a few spicules are 
usually present. 

There can be no doubt as to the attachment of the dia- 
pliragms ; for on removing one from its chamber it often leaves 
behind it a row of adherent spicules. 

On examining the interior of the chambers of the Cliona 
one finds its bodj-spicules lying full length against the walls, 
without any tendency to a regular arrangement ; one also 
finds fragments of structureless membrane adhering loosely to 
the walls, or lying freely in the interior of the chambers, and 
in these each of the different spicules of the species are con- 
tained. Small rounded granular bodies (PL I. fig. 12, c, and 
fig. 18) also occur rather plentifully in these bits of mem- 
brane ; and since they sometimes contain vacuoles (fig. 18, b)y 
we may regard them as desiccated cells. 

The walls themselves are pitted all over with hemispherical 
excavations (fig. 8) having rounded edges, and usually about 
O'OOl inch in diameter. These, which are usual, I suppose 
to be the first results of the solution by which the Cliona 
excavates its abode. 

Little circular openings (PL I. fig. 16) are also visible on 
the sides of the chambers, and become much more clearly 
exposed after washing the chambers with a little dilute acid ; 
they lead into tubular processes of variable length, generally 
simple, sometimes bifurcating, and apparently terminating 
blindly. 

On the outside of the Isis containing the Cliona may be 
seen a number of rounded holes (PL I. fig. 17), by which the 
chambers with which they communicate freely open to the 
exterior. These holes are not very abundant ; indeed I have 
been surprised not to find more of them. They occur in 
groups, and appear to be of two kinds — one larger (fig. 17, o), 
serving probably for the oscules of the sponge, and the other 
smaller, for its pores (fig. 17, ^j). Generally in the CUonidie, 
they present a crown of pin-like spicules pointed outwardly. 

On dissolving a fragment of the infested Isis in acid we 
liberate the spicules it contains, and then find not only the 
forms we have already described, but a number of others of 
quite a different character, particularly the abundant sword- 
like fcfrms, of which instances are exhibited in PL II. figs. 
10, 11. At first I thought these were proper to our species 
C. mucronata ; and since they appeared to be more numerous 
in its chambers than the mucronate forms, I set them down as 



60 Mr. \V. J. iSoIlas on two new and 

its body-spicule, and regarded the mucronate spicules as more 
or less peculiar to the diaphragms ; but after meeting with 
sponges of other genera, such as Sfellefta, in the chambers of 
our Ch'ona, I began to suspect that the sword-like spicules 
might belong to a' different species — a supposition which became 
confirmed on finding diaphragms in which the sword-like 
spicules were the chief constituents, to the entire exclusion of 
mucronate ones. This led me to examine each chamber of the 
Cliona-huvYows separately by reflected light ; and I then found 
that those chambers which were provided with diaphragms of 
mucronate spicules exhibited the same spicules scattered over 
their walls, and, similarly, that chambers in which ensiforra 
spicules were present were closed by diaphragms into the 
composition of which ensiform spicules chiefly entered. The 
spiculation of each chamber was pure ; those that contained 
mucronate spicules never contained ensiform ones, and vice 
versa. To make quite sure of this, I then proceeded as fol- 
lows : — Under a magnification of about 50 diameters I picked 
out a cell, the openings to which were guarded by diaphragms 
of one kind or the other, say of mucronate spicules ; the edge 
of this cell was then marked by a fine-pointed pencil for the 
purpose of identification. Next I drew out two pieces of 
glass tubing to very fine capillary terminations, and filled one 
with water and the other with dilute hydrochloric acid ; 
working now tinder a watchmaker's glass, I inserted the capil- 
lary end of the tube containing acid into the marked chamber, 
and expelled a drop of the acid into it. By the resulting 
solution of its walls its spicules w^ere detached and set free, so 
that it only remained to introduce the capillary end of the 
other tube into the chamber, and by forcing out the water in 
a fine jet to wash its contents into an excavated glass slide, 
where they could be examined by transmitted light. This 
operation I performed many times, and so convinced myself 
of the complete correspondence between the spicules corn- 
posing the diaphragms and those lying on the walls of the 
same chamber. Similarly the fragments of di'ied sarcode 
present in some of the chambers always contain the same 
kinds of spicule as the associated diaphragms. 

Finally, having made sure that I had present in my speci- 
men of Isis two species of Cliona, the chambers of which 
appeared to be inextricably entangled with each other, I was 
able by a little careful searching to trace out the distribution 
of each ; and I then found that the chambers of one species 
never opened into the chambers of the other, but that com- 
municating chambers were always occupied by one and the 
same species. This is indicated in PI. I. fig. 1, where the 



remarhahle Sj^ecies of QWowo.. 61 

cells left unclosed are those of C. mucronata^ while the ones 
shaded with dark lines belong to the next species, C. ensifera. 
Here and there apparently isolated chambers of one or the 
other species occur, as those of C. ensifera at a ; these, how- 
ever, are not really isolated, but communicate with chambers 
of the same kind either above or below the plane of the 
drawing. We have now thus brought to light what appears 
to me a very remarkable fact, and one that m.ight easily lead 
to great confusion in species ; for no one examining the bur- 
rows in my specimen of Isis would have supposed them to 
contain two different kinds of sponges. In the outline and 
arrangement of the chambers themselves no difference is to 
be detected ; and but for a little care the different kinds of spi- 
cules within them would certainly have been described as 
belonging to one and the same species. The necessity for 
great caution in deciding what spicules to eliminate and 'what 
to retain in determining the true complement of spicules 
proper to a sponge has already been illustrated by the re- 
searches of Carter, who has had frequently to disentano-le the 
spicules of commingled species one by one as it were, and so 
by immense care, has arrived at correct results where failure 
would otherwise have been certain, 

2. Cliona ensifera (mihi). 

Sponge burrowing in chambers of the same kind as in the 
preceding species. Spicules of three kinds: — 1, an acuate 
spicule (PL II. figs. 10, 11), having a straight or curved shaft, 
which is cylindrical in form for a certain distance from the 
globular pin-like head, and then expanding becomes fusiform 
for the rest of its length, and finally terminates in a more or 
less abrupt point : length 0*0095 inch ; breadth across the 
head and broadest part of the shaft 0*0006, and across the 
neck 0*0002 inch. 2, a slender acuate (PI. II, figs. 12 13) 
straight or curved ; inflated head variable in shape, spherical 
and ellipsoidal ; dimensions variable, averaging 0'007o inch 
in length and 0*0004 in breadth. 3, a minute or flesh-spi- 
cule (PI. II. fig. 15), with a straight or curved shaft produced 
into a number of unequal conical spines ; length 0*0006 inch. 
Diaphragms in shape and position very similar to those of 
C. nmcronata, though slightly more irregular in outline, com- 
posed of ensiform spicules which lie side by side normal to 
the walls. Owing to the fact, however, that these spicules are 
as often curved as straight, they frequently depart from a nor- 
mal position and are arranged obliquely, forming curved radii 
about the axis or centre of the diaphragm. The heads of the 
spicules form the outer surface of the diaphragm as in C. 



62 Mr. W, J. Sollas on two new and 

mucronata] but sometimes they project for greater or less 
distances from the surface, so as to render it irregular. 
Besides the single layer of spicules, which forms a wall as 
thick as they are long, there are sometimes present additional 
ensiform spicules, which, lying in the same direction as the 
others, are stuck into the diaphragm like pins into a pin- 
cushion, and so increase its thickness to once and a half 
the length of a single spicule. The additional spicules are 
only held together by the insertion of their points ; no kera- 
taceous cement is present between the projecting ends of their 
shafts, which consequently form a white layer — in striking 
contrast to the yellow colour of the rest of the diaphragm, in 
which kerataceous matter occurs (PI. I. fig. 11). 

On the surface of the diaphragms all the kinds of spicules 
which characterize the sponge are scattered irregularly. The 
combination of two diaphragms to form a single one is of fre- 
quent occurrence in this species ; and from it results the form 
shown with two centres in PI. I. fig. 13, where about each 
centre the smooth shafts of the spicules form the curved radii 
of a circular area distinguished by the absence of spicular 
heads, which, however, are abundant enough outside the cir- 
cumference of the circular area. 

Remarks. The spicules represented by PI. II. figs. 1, 6, 9 
are sufficient to define the species C. mucronata, in which they 
occur ; and similarly C. ensifera is quite sufficiently defined 
by the spicules of figs. 10, 12, and 15. But to possess a 
complete knowledge of a species it is necessary to know more 
about it than its mere distinctive characters ; one must know 
also the variations to which it is subject : a knowledge of the 
extreme as well as of the average characters of a species is of 
the highest importance if we would seek to construct accurate 
tables of phylogeny. Hence it has seemed to me well to add 
here figures and descriptions of the unusual forms of sjDicules 
which both the foregoing species exhibit — not that all of these 
will be available for immediate use, but that they may become 
so eventually, while some, on the other hand, will possess a 
present and special significance for us. The forms represented 
by PI. II. figs. 18-21 are somewhat common variations 
amongst pin-head spicules : fig. 1 8 shows a form of doubly 
inflated head in which the second inflation is of a different 
size to the first ; in fig. 21 the two inflatiocs have become 
more nearly equal in size, but still remain in immediate con- 
tact with each other ; in fig. 19 a still further change has 
taken place in the separation of the heads by an intervening 
portion of the cylindrical shaft. In fig. 20 the second infla- 
tion is merely lateral and confined to one side of the shaft. 



remarkable Sjjecies o/Cliona. 68 

In fig. 24 a short conical spine projects from the fusiform 
part of the shaft — a bud-like process, which, if prolonged, would 
give our uniaxial spicule a decidedly biaxial appearance. 
This budding of the spicules is one of the commonest of phe- 
nomena amongst the Spongidse. In Geodia arahica I have 
seen a variety of one of the large anchoring spicules which. 
had developed a fourth fluke, and so become four- instead of 
three-pronged ; and, similarly, in a Stelletta I once observed a 
variety of the trifid bifurcate anchoring spicule in which an 
additional bifurcate arm liad put in an a])pearance, so that 
the spicule had become quadriiid : thus, then, our uniaxial 
spicules may become biaxial, and, likewise, quadriradiate may 
become quinqueradiate spicules. The excessive variation to 
whicli sponge-spicules are subject makes it easy to conceive 
how the existing types of multiradiate spicules might have all 
originated from a primitive uniaxial celL Let such uniaxial 
soicule-cells bud to a varialjle extent, some producing one, and 
others two, three, four buds and so on, and we should possess 
just the sort of material which, when submitted to the influ- 
ence of natural selection, would furnish us with the spicules 
of all our existing types, — to me apparently a much more 
natural way of looking at things than that followed by Dr. 
W. Marshall. This speculative observer considers that, 
in the case of the Hexactinellidie, a sarcodic meshwork 
was first produced, which afterwards became silicified, and 
then broke down into separate sexradiate spicules. We have, 
however, every reason to believe that sexradiate spicules ori- 
ginate, like all others, in spicule-cells ; and Carter has actually 
seen the separate sexi'adiates of Aphrocallistes in various 
stages of cementation up to their complete enclosure in a 
continuous siliceous network. Marshall's view *, therefore, 
seems to me to reverse the case with a vengeance. 

In fig. 23 we appear to have two spicules joined together 
by their heads, though whether by ankylosis or as a result of 
budding, one cannot, in the absence of a visible axial canal, 
definitely say. In fig. 16 we have two shafts diverging at an 
angle of 60° from the same head ; and as but one head is seen 
here, tlie case is probably one of mere budding. 

In fig. 24 the shaft of an ensiform spicule has lost its point 
and acquired a rounded termination like that of the mucronate 
spicules of C. mucronata, only without the mucrone ; at the 

* In reference to Marshall's conception of the structure of Sclerotham- 
mis, I may here point out that, when spicules grow together by anJkylosis, 
their axial canals do not become continuous by opening into one another; 
on the contrarj', while two or more spicules may become one, their canals 
always remain separate and distinct. 



64 Mr. W. J. SoUas on two new and 

same time it has become shorter ; and in fig. 25 the diminution 
in length has gone a step further, while the shaft has become 
straight and cylindrical, so that, but for the absence of a ter- 
minal mucrone, it would almost exactly resemble the typical 
spicule of C. mucronata. In the last-mentioned species we 
have the spicule of fig. 4 showing a very considerable shorten- 
ing in the long direction ; in fig. 5 the spicule tapers from its 
wide neck, instead of enlarging from a constricted neck 
towards its rounded extremity. Fig. 2 appears to be inter- 
mediate between figs. 1 and 5. 

These mucronate spicules are quite distinct from any form 
of spicule yet figured or described ; and it is therefore exceed- 
ingly interesting to find varieties of them in Avhich the mucrone 
is changing its character, and, by enlargement, tending towards 
the fusiform outline of C. ensifera. The instances in which 
this change is well marked were not discovered till after the 
plates were drawn ; and so a sin- 
gle example is represented in Tip:. 1. 
the woodcut (fig. 1). Here, then, 
while G. ensifera shows spicules 
tending towards C. mucronata^ 
a mucronata on the other hand y^^i^^y ^f mucronate spicule of 
presents us with a variety of c. mucronata. x 435. 
its staple spicule which almost 
passes into the staple spicule of C. ensifera. 

But the difiference between the other spicules of these two 
species, viz. the slender acuates (figs. 6, 12) and the flesh- 
spicules (figs. 9, 15), is so slight that no one would think of 
founding species on them alone. The main diflference be- 
tween C. 7nucronata and C. ensifera exists only in the form 
and size of the staple spicules (fig. 2, 11) • and this distinction, 
as we have already indicated, is half or more than half bridged 
over by varietal modifications. It hence appears to me that 
in these two forms of Cliona we may actually witness, so to 
say, the transformation of species ; for of the claims of each of 
the species we have described to distinction no one can for a 
moment doubt, while, at the same time, the forms by which 
one might pass into the other are also sufficiently obvious. 

The flesh-spicules of both species are very interesting, as 
they appear to exist in all stages of growth. Their first appear- 
ance, so far as I can make out, is in the form of a simple 
straight rod about 0*0004 inch in length ; this soon becomes 
sinuous and spined at each end with three or four conical 
spines ; additional spines then appear along its sides, Avliile 
by unequal lateral growth and by the unequal development 
of lateral spines the multicurved forms (figs. 15, 18) are 



remarkable Species o/'Cliona. 65 

brought about. Fig. 19 represents a very unusual form, in 
which the spines of the spicule have become bifurcate at their 
ends. 

Cliona suhulata. 

Associated with the Isis which furnished the preceding spi- 
cules, is a patch of Alelohesia, in which also Cliona-hnrYOws 
occur ; but these, curiously enough, are occupied by a third 
species, the spicules of which are represented in PI. II. figs. 
26-28, and appear to belong to a new species, for which 
I propose the name of C. suhulata. I should state that bur- 
rows of the two preceding species occur in the Melohesia along 
with this. 

Note. — While writing this paper I had occasion to refer 
to a specimen of Cliona occupying burrows excavated in a 
solid piece of limestone rock, which I had brought away with 
me from Dawlish. I had always taken my specimen to be 
G. celata^ and referred to it in order to determine whether it 
possessed diaphragms of any kind like those of C mucronata. 
As to this my results were negative ; but an examination of its 
spicules showed that it differed from G. celata in the form of 
its flesh-spicules, while its skeleton-spicules are essentially the 



Fiff. 2. 



tv 0= 






J'~\_ 



d cO= 




Spicules of C. linearis : a, skeleton-spicule ; b, variety of a, with rounded 
end and produced spine ; c and d, varieties of a, with rounded ends 
(a-d X 140); e, flesh-spicules (X 435). 

same as those of G. celata, Rajihyrus Griffithsii, and Hali- 
cJiondriaJicus. The flesh-spicule, instead of remaining rela- 
tively short and becoming spined, attains, as if by the sacri- 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 5 



66 On neio and remarhable Species o/'Cliona. 

fice of its spines, a great length (0'0033 inch) relative to its 
breadth, which is too small for measurement, and remains 
smooth. 

This must be regarded as a variety of C. celata ; and I pro- 
pose for it the name of C. linearis. 

Cliona linearis^ var. of C. celata. 

Skeleton-spicule as in C. celata (fig. 2, a). Flesh-spicule a 
long filiform acerate (fig. 2, e), straight or tricurved; length 
0*0033 inch, breadth so narrow as scarcely to exhibit a double 
outline under a magnification of 500 diameters. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. A fragment of Isis, sp., with C/?'o««-burrows : ?n, m, chambers of 

C. tminronata; e, e', of C. ensifera (natural size). 
Figs. 2-7. Outlines of chambers (A, B, C) of C. mucronata, showing 

various forms of diaphragms («, b, c, d, d^, d^, d^) : d\ diaphragm 

seen in plan, concealing an aperture beneath it ; ?f, walls of a 

chamber. X 30. 
Fig. 8. Hemispherical pittings on the walls of the C/2o?«a-burro1vs. 

X 60. 
Fig. 9. Imperforate conical form of diaphragm ( C mucronata) , seen from 

its convex or exterior surface. X 30. 
Fig. 10. Tubular diaphragms {C mucronata) : /, film of dried sarcode 

containing spicules ; /, lumen. X 30. 
Figs. 11-13. Diaphragms of C. ensifera: f, film of attached membrane; 

c, cells contained in the membrane, x 30. 
Fig. 14. View of the edge of a diaphragm of C. mucronata. X 140. 
Fig. 15. Superficial view of the inner sm-face of a diaphragm of C. mucro- 
nata mounted in Canada balsam, x 140. 
Fig. 16. Openings in the walls of chambers of Cliona leading into tubular 

processes. X 30. 
Fig. 17. Openings on the exterior of the C/iona-containing 7s«s, leading 

into the chambers of C. mucronata within : j'^, openings for pores ; 

o, for oscules ? x 30, 
Fig. 18. Cells from the membranous films found lit the chambers of C. 

ensifera : b, vacuole. X 435. 

Plate II. 

[All the figures on this Plate are magnified 435 diameters.] 

Figs. 1-9. Cliona mucronata. 

Figs, 1-3, mucronate spicules ; figs. 4 and 5, varieties of the preceding ; 
figs. 6 and 7, slender acuate spicides ; fig. 8, variety of figs. 6 
and 7, having two shafts, a short cylindrical one with rounded 
ends and a slender pointed one, both proceeding from the same 
head ; fig. 9, various forms of flesh-spicules. 

Figs. 10-25. Cliona ensifera. 

. Figs. 10, 11, and 22, normal ensiform spicules exhibiting different degrees 
of curvature. 



On a new Species o/' Spatangidte. '67 

Figs. 12, nnd 13, slender acuate spicules; fig. M, a variety of figs. 12 
and 13. 

Fig. 15, flesh-spicules in various stages of gTOwth, «, 6, c, d, and e. 

Figs. 16-25. Varieties of the ensiform spicule. 

Fig, 16. Variety with two shafts diverging at an angle of about 60°, and 
proceeding from a common head. 

Fig. 17. Variety in which the shaft has become straight and cylindrical 
and rounded at the end, so as to resemble mucronate forms of 
C. mucronata. 

Figs. 18-21. Various forms of inflated terminations of the ensiform spi- 
cules, ■i 

Fig. 22. Exti-emely curved variety of ensiform spicule. 

Fig. 23. Two ensiform spicules joined together, with an angle of diver- 
gence of about 150". 

Fig. 24. Variety with a conical spine. 

Fig. 26. Variety similar to fig. 17. 

Figs. 26-28. Cliona suhulata. 

Figs. 26 and 27. Skeleton-spicules of Cliona si(bulata. 

Fig. 2S. Flesh-spicule of same. 



VIII. — Description of a new Species of Spatangida. Bj 
Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., Zoological Department, British 
Museum. 

The record of the existence of another species of the genus 
Linthia is very interesting, since up to the present time it 
comprised but a single I'ecent form. Unfortunately I cannot give 
the locality whence the specimen was obtained with any degree 
of certainty ; however, there is some evidence which tends to 
show that it was brought either from the Pacific Islands or 
from the west coast of South America, since it was found in a 
collection of shells which consisted almost exclusively of 
species which are well-known inhabitants of those regions. 

Linthia rostrata. 

Test, seen from above, cordiform, narrowed posteriorly, 
viewed laterally much beaked behind through the prominence 
of the hinder interambulacral region above the anus, and a deep 
well-marked excavation beneath the beak ; lower surface a 
little convex ; viewed endways the sides appear rather flat, 
converge to an obtuse apex, and gradually round off below, 
joining the somewhat convex base. Genital openings four, 
central, very small, equal, subequidistant ; posterior pair 
scarcely wider apart than the anterior ones. Ambulacra very 
unequal, anterior lateral pair almost double as long as the 
posterior ones, moderately deeply sunken, inclined consider- 
ably towards the anterior end, yet arcuated in the opposite 

5* 



68 Mr. E. A. Smith on a new Sjpecies 0/ Spatangidge. 

direction ; posterior petals equally deep as the anterior, a 
little narrower, very short, sinuous, diverging at their extre- 
mities ; pores rather larger than in the recent type of the 
genus {L. mistralis), connected by a shallow groove; the nar- 
row ridges separating them bear a few minute tubercles on 
their outer half. Peripetalous fascicle narrow, very angular 
and sinuous ; in the posterior lateral interambulacrum it 
passes close to and almost parallel with the hinder furrows 
for about eight ninths of their length, then descends suddenly, 
forming an acute angle, and running close to the anterior 
lateral furrow, with two slight bends in its course, passes 
round the termination of the furrow in an abrupt curve, and 
rises in a straight line somewhat obliquely towards the ante- 
rior ambulacrum, where it suddenly descends at a right angle 
and parallel wnth the furrow, and then, after a short distance, 
a little above the ambitus, crosses in a curve the shallow 
groove. The lateral follows a similar course to that of aiis- 
tralis. Anterior ambulacral groove almost as deep as the 
others, becoming gradually shallower towards the ambitus, 
with a series on each side of remote and very minute double 
pores, alternating with one another on each side, those just 
above the fasciole being about two millimetres apart. Tuber- 
culation very like that of L. avstralis. Plastron narrowly 
cordate, convex, not much narrowed towards the mouth, and 
not reentering at the aboral end. Mouth broad, narrow. 
Anal opening ovate, acuminate above and below. The colour 
is that of cork, mottled with a darker hue in the middle of the 
plates. 

Length nearly 1^ inch, width at ambitus 1^, height 1. 

Hah. Pacific Islands (probably). 

This species, of which I have only seen a single spineless 
specimen, has much of the general character of L. australis of 
Gray. Still there are so many differences, which, although 
perhaps small individually, in the aggregate become of much 
importance, that I certainly think they point out the specific 
distinctness of the form above described, and show that it 
passes the limits of an individual variation. 

The position of the apex and genital pores is very different ; 
the form is totally distinct, resembling very considerably that 
of the fossil Micraster cor-miguinum, var. 'rostratus ; the pro- 
portion and inclination of the ambulacra and the course 
of the fasciole also show considerable variation. Besides 
these differences there are others — namely, the greater depth 
of the anterior ambulacrum and the remoteness and minute- 
ness of the pores on each side of it ; and in specimens of equal 
size of the old species the pores of tlie other ambulacra are 



Mr. E. A. Smith on a new Species o/" Spatangidas. 69 

decidedly smaller and much more numerous, whilst the geni- 
tal pores are larger. On the lower surface there are differ- 
ences also : the plastron is conspicuously narrower and the 
oral aperture is considerably broader transversely. 

The course of the peripetalous and lateral fascicles in L. 
ausiralis is subject both to variation in different specimens 
and also to irregularity in the same individual. In normal 
specimens the hrst forms but a single angle some distance 
within in each interambulacral space; but in others, as is the 
case in the variety figured by Gray (Cat. Recent Echinida, 
1855, pi. vi. fig. 2 a), it becomes biangular at its highest part 
both in the anterior and lateral interambulacra. 







Linthia rostrata. 
a, actinal view ; b, abactinal ; c, lateral ; d, anterior. 

The lateral fasciole in the same specimen is also irregular. 
On one side its position is normal ; but on the other, from the 
point of contact with the peripetalous fasciole, it rises obliquely 
for the distance of nearly three quarters of an inch within the 
posterior lateral interambulacrum, then forming a sudden bend 
descends at right angles for half an inch, and, again bending 
less acutely, pursues the ordinary course, passing under the 



70 M. C. Mereschkowsky on a neio Genus of Sponge. 

anus in a broad curve. Exactly the same irregularity exists 
n another specimen ; only in this instance it occurs on the 
opposite side of the test. 

In otlier characters L. australis does not seem to he a 
species subject to much variation, judging from the specimens 
(fourteen in number) which I have seen. The form, direction, 
and length of the ambulacra and position of the vertex differ but 
very sliglitly in any of them ; and this constancy of characters 
strengthens the supposition that the present, which offers such 
marked differences, is decidedly specifically distinct. 



IX. — On Wagnerella, a new Genus of Sponge nearly allied 
to the Physemaria of Ernst Hdckel. By C. Meeesch- 
KOWSKY*. 

[Plate VI.] 

I HAVE just received the October number of the ' Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History/ which contains an article by 
Mr. Carter, entitled " Remarks on Professor E. Hackel's Ob- 
servations on Wyvillethomsonia Wallichii and SquamuUna 
scopula.'''' 

M. Hackel, in his monograph on the Physemaria, has been 
very hard upon Mr. Carter, and reproaches him with having 
imperfectly observed the facts of which he speaks. Mr. 
Carter, in the article above mentioned, complains bitterly of 
the want of delicacy on the part of M. Hackel, and brings 
against him the same charges as to the want of exactitude 
which his works display, and their bad illustrations, which he 
regards as " more fitted for a caravan at a fair than for 
scientific purposes." 

It is clear that impartial logic has taken leave of both 
writers in this matter, and that feeling interferes in the deci- 
sion of the scientific question. In such cases it becomes more 
than ever necessary to stand exclusively upon facts, and to 
allow nothing but reason to say a word. Hence every new 
fact that may serve to throw light upon the question becomes 
very desirable. 

My opinion is, that we must neither "laugh" nor "be angry," 
and that, instead, both sides must repeat their observations, 
criticise them better, and, taking into consideration all the facts 
acquired, bow to the power of truth, remembering that he alone 
never deceives himself who never thinks. 

* This paper must be considered as a preliminary note of a memoir 
on White-Sea Sponges. 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on a new Qenus of Sponge. 71 

It is with the purpose of adding some new facts which may 
serve to ehicidate the nature of the creatures in question that 
I have set myself at once to describe my observations niade at 
the White Sea upon a new organism very nearly allied to the 
Physemaria of Hackel, and especially to Haliphysema ecld- 
noides = Tisiphonia agaricifornns, but which, at the same 
time, must undoubtedly be placed among the sponges. I 
shall therefore pass at once to the description of this inter- 
esting creature. 

In my first journey to the White Sea in 1876, I found in 
two localities*, upon the stems of Sertularice, a singular 
organism, which I met with again in 1877, in my last visit 
to this sea, so. fertile in unknown and often very remark- 
able animals. This time I found it seated upon a branch 
of a Bryozoon, quite close to the islands of Solowetzky, at a 
depth of 2 fathoms. 

At first, considering its small size (the sponge measures 
only about 0'5 millim.), I thought I had to do with some Rhizo- 
pod, such as the graceful ClathruUna elegans of Cienkowski 
for example, and the more as the form of this sponge, which 
consists of a spherical head placed upon a long and thin pedun- 
cle, very much resembles that of the above-mentioned fresh- 
water organism. But closer acquaintance convinced me that 
the object in question was nothing but a very small sponge. 

The entire sponge is composed of two very distinct parts — 
namely, a very long and very fine peduncle, and a round ball 
placed at one extremity of the peduncle, the other end serving 
to attach it to Hydroids or to Bryozoa. The peduncle itself 
is composed of two parts, one of which is a very long and fine 
cylinder, sometimes a little enlarged at its upper extremity 
where the ball is attached (PI. VI. fig. 1). The approximatef 
width of this cylinder is 0*02 millim. ; at its lower extremity it 
passes into the second part of the peduncle, which is nothing 
but a conical enlargement by means of the base of which the 
sponge is attached to foreign objects. This basal cone, as 
well as the cylinder, which is simply a prolongation of it, is 
composed of a very thin layer of organic material, probably 
consisting of syncytium, and of a great quantity of very small, 
rather stout spicules, which are placed horizontally in this 
organic layer, the whole forming together a fine although 
tolerably firm and elastic membrane, which serves as a wall 

* Once between the islands of Solowetzky and the town of Kem, 
at 35° 25' longitude, at a depth of 12 fathoms, on a stony bottom ; a 
second time in the Bay of Onega, not far from Belogoiisicha, at a depth 
of 10 fathoms on stony gromid. 

t I shall give more exact measurements further on. 



72 M. C. Mereschkowsky on a new Genus of Sponge, 

to the internal cavity of the sponge. This cavity passes 
without interruption through the whole body, from the basal 
cone all along the cylinder, to join the cavity of the globe, in 
such a manner that the whole organism presents us with a 
combination of a hollow cone with a hollow cylinder and a 
hollow globe. This great cavity, no doubt, corresponds to the 
gastral cavity of the other sponges, which would thus differ 
from Wagnerella (as I propose to name this sponge) only by 
their much thicker walls. The average length of the peduncle 
is 0*4 millim. ; in most cases it is completely straight or 
very slightly curved : by force it may be bent at a right 
angle without breaking ; but the moment the pressure 
ceases it returns again to its original rectilinear position. 
The head or globe is about O'l millim. in diameter, making 
only one fifth of the whole length of the animal. As I 
have already stated, the head is nothing but the direct con- 
tinuation of the general cavity which passes through the 
peduncle, covered like it by a fine membrane. In fact, this 
head, as is shown by young individuals (PI. VI. fig. 2), 
may be regarded as a dilatation of the peduncle at its 
extremity, which would render it analogous to the conical 
dilatation situated at the other extremity of the peduncle. 

The most striking character of the head is the presence 
of long and excessively fine spicules (PI. VI. fig. 5, a-d), 
which stand out all over the surface of the ball in a 
radiating manner, and give it a spiny aspect, like that of 
a sea-urchin. It is owing to these spicules that it is im- 
possible to see distinctly the surface of the globe, and to 
determine whether there are or are not pores establishing a 
communication between the general cavity and the external 
water. The walls of the head are also furnished Avith small, 
short, and comparatively stout spicules (PL VI. fig. 6, a-c), 
only differing by their greater length from those which are 
implanted in the peduncle. Here, as in the peduncle, these 
fusiform spicules are implanted in the thin organic layer, 
so that their extremities do not project ; but their position is 
not regular in the head, the spicules being arranged in all 
possible directions, although always in a position parallel to 
the surface. 

As in all the Calcispongice, the spicules are composed of 
calcareous salts which dissolve in hydrochloric acid. Glycerine 
may also serve as a good reagent for determining the nature 
of the spicules without the necessity of destroying the speci- 
men. On putting the animal, or merely a fragment of it, into 
glycerine, it is easy to see whether the contours of the spicules 
become more distinct than when seen in water or in alcohol. 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on a new Genus of Sponge. 73 

If this is the case, we may be sure that we have to do with a 
calcareous body ; on the contrary, when the contours gradually 
disappear and the spicules can hardly be perceived, we may 
conclude that they are siliceous. 

The' following are the comparative measurements of this 
sponge : — 

millim. 

Total length of the sponge 0-5-0*8 

Diameter of the liead in an adult individual . . 0*1012 

„ „ a young individual . . 0-05885 

Average tbickncss of the peduncle 0-018 

Length of the large spicules of the head 0-01175-0-05875 

Thickness (sometimes not measurable) 0-00047-0-00117 

Length of the smaU spicules 0-00964-0-01605* 

It remains for me to explain the reasons which have led 
me to regard this animal as a sponge. It ^vill be noticed 
that I have said nothing about pores, and this because I have 
found it impossible to find any. In spite of all my endeavours 
I have been unable to discover, either in the individual which I 
selected to study in the living state, or in those preserved in 
alcohol, any trace of pores ; but it must not be forgotten that 
even if they existed, which is more than probable, it would be 
perfectly impossible to see them through the forest of innume- 
rable spicules which cover the whole surface of the head and 
conceal its surface from the eyes of the observer. It must also 
be taken into consideration that the pores are not constant, and 
that the least irritation, especially the action of spirits of wine, 
is sufficient to close them, which would perfectly explain their 
absence. The same spicules coupled with the slight transpa- 
rency of the head generally have also rendered it impossible 
for me to ascertain the existence of a buccal orifice at the 
extremity of the body, although I suppose such an orifice must 
exist from the analogy of what we see in the Physemaria. 

But even if we admit that the existence of pores in Wagne- 
rella is a fact unproved and even improbable, their absence 
cannot in any way lead us to doubt its spongiarian nature. 
In fact we are acquainted with several sponges the spicules 
of which have been described, but of which the pores, for 
different reasons, have not been discovered (see, for example, 
Bowerbank's monograph) ; and nevertheless we no not hesi- 
tate to admit that these are true sponges. Moreover we are 
acquainted with a marvellous sponge described by G. O. 
Sars in his interesting book ' On some remarkable Forms of 
Animal Life from the Great Deeps off the Norwegian Coast ' 

* Tlie latter number refers to the head. 



74 M. C. Mereschkowskj on a new Genus of Sponge. 

(1872). I refer to the GladorMza ahyssicola of M. Sars. 
This sponge, which lives only at great depths, and which 
resembles rather a Hydroid or a Bryozoon than a sponge, has 
as a characteristic feature that the whole of it is entirely 
massive, absolutely without even traces of canals or of any 
cavity, and consequently without either buccal orifice or 




Cladm-hiza ahyssicola, M. Sars*. 

pores ; and yet every one who reads M. Sars's description will 
be convinced that he has to do with a true sponge. In the 
White Sea also I have met with an Efiperia (?) with long, 
filiform processes, like roots, which anastomose and form a 
network covering seaweeds and other bodies. Througliout 
their length, however, these are destitute not only of pores, 
but in general of canals or cavities, and are entirely composed 
of " syncytium " with spicules. 

It is with the support of these facts that I cannot be of the 

* Sars, ' On some Remarkable Forms of Animal Life, &c.,' pi. vi. 
fig- 17. 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on a neiv Genus of Sponge. 16 

opinion of M. Hack el that in order to be a sponge an organism 
must have not only spicules but also pores. 

With respect to the spicules of Wagnerella^ we have seen 
(and I hope it is unnecessary to dwell upon this fact) that these 
spicules cannot by any means be regarded as foreign to the 
organism and borrowed from some other sponge (besides, 
the White Sea has no sponges furnished with spicules re- 
sembling those of Wagnei-ella), but that, on the contrary, 
we are led to the opinion that these spicules are produced by 
the sponge itself. 

It is therefore evident that Wagnerella belongs to the 
Calcareous Sponges, and notably to the family Ascones. As 
regards the genus, I find that the system of M. Hackel, which 
is founded exclusively upon the spicules, is sometimes too 
artificial, and will become still more so in course of time. This 
system is founded principally upon the fact that the form of 
the sponge is a character too variable and inconstant to enable 
a system to be based upon it. Although in general terms this 
may be true, we nevertheless know, among the sponges, plenty 
of exceptions in which the form acquires so great a constancy 
that it may be employed not merely to characterize a species, 
but may even lead to the formation of distinct genera, as, for 
example, in the case of CJadorhiza. It is the same with our 
Wagnerella^ of which the extreme smallness, the globular 
head supported by a long peduncle dilated into a cone at its 
base, are all constant characters, and consequently sufficient 
to bear one out in establishing a distinct genus. The few 
species of the genus Ascyssa, to which the animal might 
otherwise belong, are so little like Wagnerella that one 
would not hesitate in ordinary circumstances to form a sepa- 
rate genus for this organism. 

M. Hackel, who has founded his genera upon different com- 
binations of three kinds of spicules, has by this means re- 
stricted for ever the number of genera ; for all the possible 
combinations have been employed by him ; but it may be 
foreseen that Calcispongife will probably be found so diff'erent 
from the known forms, that it will be perfectly artificial to 
range them in one of M. Hackel's genera, and that, conse- 
quently, sooner or later it will be necessary to break through 
the boundaries laid down by him, and to found genera not 
only upon the combinations of the spicules, but also on their 
forms, the form of the body, and other characters. 

I propose to name this genus, which has the habit of Tisi- 
plionia agariciformisj and is furnished only with simple 
spicules, Wagnerella. The diagnosis of the genus and that 
of the species will be as follows : — 



76 M. C. Mereschkowsky on a new Genus of Sponge. 

Wagnerella, gen. nov. 

Sponges furnished with simple, long, calcareous spicules. 
Their body consists of a head or upper part, which is more or 
less globular, and of a long and slender peduncle which sup- 
ports the former part, and at the opposite exti-emity is fur- 
nished with an enlargement of conical form, by means of which 
it adheres to foreign objects. Habit resembling that of the 
Physemaria [Haliphysema). 

I give this sponge its generic name in honour of Professor 
Nicolas Wagner of St. Petersburg. 

Wagnerella horealis^ sp. nov. 

Head regularly rounded into the form of a ball, placed on a 
very long and slender peduncle, the whole never exceeding 
1 millim. in length (often 0'5 millim.). The cone of the 
peduncle as broad as high ; the peduncle of uniform thickness 
throughout its whole length (sometimes a little wider above) , 
nearly five times as long as the diameter of the head. All 
these parts (head, peduncle, and cone) have an interior cavity 
communicating freely throughout. The walls of the body are 
composed of a fine organic membrane, with spicules. The 
spicules are of two kinds : some long and excessively fine, 
tapering towards the two ends, adorning the head, in the sur- 
face of which they are implanted in a radiating fashion only 
by one end ; the others shorter and stouter, fusiform, placed 
both in the head and the peduncle, entirely implanted in the 
organic layer without projecting from it at all, and all, without 
exception, arranged horizontally in the foot. No grains of 
sand or any other foreign objects adhering to the surface of 
the sponge. Length (average) of the long spicules 0'035 
millim., of the shorter ones 0"01 millim. 

Locality. White Sea, neighbourhood of the islands of Solo- 
wetzky, near the monastery (at a depth of 2 fathoms) and near 
Kem (at a depth of 7 fathoms). 



Lastly, with regard to the two doubtful Physemaria, namely 
Halipliysema ecMnoides and Gastrophysema scopula^ C, my 
opinion is as follows : — 

Halipliysema echinoides. — When this is compared with 
Wyvillethomsonia Wallichii) Wright *, we see that we have 
to do with one organism, or, at any rate, with two varieties of 
a single organism, which, indeed, is admitted by M. Hackel 
himself. But if this be the case, it is perfectly evident that 

* Qucart. Jouni. Microsc. Sc. 1870, vol. x. pi. ii. 



On new Species of Heterocera from Japan. 11 

we have nothing more than one sponge bearing the three 
names Wi/vi(lethomsonia WalUchii, Wright, = Z)o?'u?;7^ia aga- 
ricifornns, K.ent, = Tt'pJiisonta agaric fonnis^ Wyv. Thorns, 
Its spongiose nature may he further confirmed by comparing 
it witli my Wagnerella horealis^ to which it bears much 
resemblance and which is a true sponge. 

Witli respect to Gastrophysema scapula, it is impossible to 
decide definitively whether it is a Physeraarion or a Rhizopod. 
On the one hand, the presence of pseudopodia, which Mr. Carter 
has himself observed, leads us to believe in its Foraminiferous 
nature; on the other, its great resemblance to the other species 
of Gastrophysema observed by Hackel would make us think 
that both organisms belong to the Physemaria. In any case 
fresh observations upon Squamidina scopula can alone finally 
decide the question. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 

[All the figures enlarged and drawn by tlie camera lucida.] 

Fig. 1. An adult individual of average size of Wagnerella borealis. The 

peduncle is a little wider above, the head regularly rounded. 

There are more spicules than are here represented. 
Fig. 2. A young individual with the head not yet round, and differing 

but little from the peduncle. 
Fig. 3. Part of the peduncle, more highly magnified, with the small kind 

of spicules. 
Fig. 4. Form sometimes pre-^ented by the ba-^al cone of the peduncle, 

which, however, usually has the f irm shown in fig. 1 . 
Fig. o. Difterent forms of the long spicules vsrhich adorn the head : 

a, immeasurably fine ; b, stouter, but straight ; c, long and 

curved ; d, shorter and curved ; e, zigzag. 
Fig. 6. Different forms of spicules of the second category, fusiform, 

shorter and stouter : «, typical ; b, curved ; c, typical, with a 

bubble of air (?). 



X. — Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from Japan. 
— Part II. Noctuites. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., &c. 

CymatoplioridsB. 

59. Gonophora clerasoides, n. sp. 

Nearly allied to G. derasa, but of a greyer tint ; the mark- 
ings (particularly on the white costal streak of primaries) less 
defined ; the reniform and other discoidal spots narrower and 
more transverse ; the area between the oblique white stripe 
and the zigzag lines pale stramineous, with darker and lunated 



78 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

spots upon it, the zigzag lines wider apart, only three in num- 
ber • the outer border white, the intersected semicircular mar- 
ginal spots pale buff instead of ferruginous, the outer border 
of secondaries white, not yellowish. Expanse 1 inch 8 lines. 
Hakodate {Whiteley). 

60. Cymatopliora ampliata, n. sp. 

Allied to C. or^ but considerably larger, the primaries of a 
silvery grey instead of AAdiity-brownish tint, the inner band 
darker, straighter, with more dentated limiting lines, the outer 
band with an additional angle towards the costa, and with the 
outer line more regularly undulated, blackish, and parallel to 
the inner line ; fringe darker ; secondaries darker ; thorax 
greyer ; head, collar, and antennae testaceous. Expanse 2 
inches. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

61. Cymatophora octogesima, n. sp. 

Allied to C. ocularis, but much larger, of a dark silvery 
grey tint, with the transverse lines and margins of the 80-like 
reniform and orbicular spots deep black, the lines near the 
base more dentated, the central band wider and its external 
limiting line irregularly zigzag ; fringe of secondaries paler. 
Expanse 1 inch 11 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

Bombycoidse. 
62. Acronycta leucocuspis, n. sp. 

Closely allied to A. cuspis, but the primaries of a darker 
grey tint, and the secondaries white instead of greyish brown, 
the discal line and external border darkest on the veins ; 
thorax much darker; abdomen irrorated with black to the 
base. Expanse 1 inch 9 lines. 

Var, Differing from the dark form of A. cuspis in the 
shining slaty grey tint of primaries, the spots upon which are 
only indicated by black annular markings, and in the paler 
greyish white colouring of the secondaries, on which the 
transverse discal line and outer border are easily distinguish- 
able. Expanse 2 inches. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

63. Acronycta increta, n. sp. 

cJ. Closely allied to A. tridens, but noticeably larger, the 
primaries much darker and shining, the fringe shorter, less 



of Heterocera from Japan. 79 

distinctly black-spotted ; secondaries similar. Expanse 1 
inch 10 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

Leucaniidse. 
64. MytJiimna placida, n. sp. 

Nearly allied to the North-American M. pseudargyria, but 
with the primaries and thorax pale sandy greyish, the orbicu- 
lar and reniform spots less distinct, and the double discal 
series of black dots less complete ; secondaries deep grey, 
blackish externally, with whitish fringe : primaries below 
blackish, with the costal and external borders whitish, crossed 
near the apex by a black dash ; a marginal series of black 
dots ; secondaries whitish, irrorated with black, a dot at the 
end of the cell, a discal series and a marginal series black ; 
body below whitish. Expanse 1 inch 10 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas, Pryer). 

65. Mythimna rufipennis, n. sp. 

Allied to M. turca, but with barely an indication of the 
transverse lines on primaries, and with the secondaries and 
abdomen shining whity brown with rosy margin; below much 
paler than M. turca. Expanse 1 inch 6 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

66. MytMmnd grandis, n. sp. 

Allied to M. turca, but considerably larger ; the male 
greyish, with the two transverse dusky stripes indistinct. In 
this species the inner stripe runs parallel to the outer as far as 
the middle of the discoidal cell, and then diverges abruptly 
inwards to the costal margin, the outer stripe is regularly den- 
ticulated : the under surface is whity brown, with a pink 
tinge ; a dot at the end of each cell and a discal transverse 
stripe grey ; a marginal row of black dots. Expanse ^ 2 
inches 1 line, $ 2 inches 4 lines. 

^ ? , Hakodate {Whitely) ; ? , Yokohama {Jonas). 

67. Mythimna divenrgens, n. sp. 

Allied to the preceding, but darker, the reniform spot of 
primaries larger ; the male brownish sericeous, or like the 
female ; the female with a large central ochraceous nebula on 
the primaries, and an ill-defined red-brown patch immediately 
beyond the reniform spot ; the inner transverse stripe of pri- 
maries slightly irregular, but diverging throughout from the 



80 Mr. A. G. Butler on neio Species 

outer stripe ; the reddish fringes of a deeper tint : the under 
surface deep dull reddish, the transverse line on the disk of 
the wings more slender, more continuous, and darker ; the 
primaries with a dusky nebula just beyond the cell. Expanse, 
(^ 2 inches 2 lines, ? 2 inches 3 lines. 
S ? , Hakodate {Whitely). 

68. Leucania salehrosa^ n. sp. 

Nearly allied to the North- American L. insueta^ but smaller, 
the body more uniformly whitish, the collar with two trans- 
verse grey lines, the tegulte longitudinally streaked with red- 
dish and speckled with black ; the white spot at the end of 
the cell in primaries more elongated : primaries below with 
the discoidal area greyish ; secondaries below white, with a 
black dot at the end of the cell. Expanse 1 inch 3-4 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

Belongs to the L. putrescens group, but has grey dusky- 
bordered secondaries. 

69. Leucania singiilari's, n. sp. 

Primaries above sandy whitish, with two connected grey 
patches, one apical, the other filling the basal half of the 
median interspaces and emitting a streak along the median 
vein (somewhat as in the L. putrescens group) , a silvery white 
spot at the inferior angle of the cell, and a black dot just 
inside the angle; two deeply crinkled divergent transverse 
grey lines dotted externally with black ; a submarginal series 
of brown lunules, and a marginal series of black dots ; fringe 
sericeous grey, tipped with white, and intersected by an indis- 
tinct dusky line ; secondaries grey, with brown marginal 
spots ; costal area and fringe whitish ; body above sandy 
whitish: under surface white, primaries with a wide-spreading 
central greyish nebula, two whitish spots at the end of the 
cell, a dusky discal line and a series of black marginal dots ; 
secondaries with a dot at the end of the cell, a discal series 
and a marginal series black. Expanse 1 inch 4-6 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

Unlike any species known to me. 

70. Leucania cerata, n. sp. 

Primaries above brassy brownish, a longitudinal streak 
along the median vein, and a subapical dash dark brown ; a 
spot in the cell, a discal angulated series and a marginal 
series black ; reniform spot pale yellowish ; fringe greyish 
externally ; secondaries white, Avith faint indications of a 



of Ileterocera from Japan. 81 

discal series of dots and a submarginal streak dusky ; a mar- 
ginal series of black dots ; thorax reddish brown, abdomen 
sordid whitish : wings below shining cream-colour j a black 
dot at the end of the cell, and a marginal series, largest and 
most continuous on primaries ; the apical discoidal and disco- 
median areas of primaries and a streak near the external angle 
greyish ; body whity brown, becoming darker towards the 
head ; palpi and anterior cox^ smoky brown. Expanse 1 
inch 7 lines. 

Hakodate {WMtely). 

Nearest to L. aureola. 

MiCARDiA, nov. gen. 

Allied to Leucania^ but altogether less robust, the abdomen 
much more slender, the thorax less elevated, the palpi com- 
paratively longer and more slender, the primaries broader, the 
style of coloration quite dissimilar. Type M. argentata, 

71. Micardia argentaia, n. sp. 

Primaries sericeous whity brown with a tinge of olivaceous; 
a large silvery-white cuneiform patch, filling the greater part 
of the discoidal cell and extending a little below it ; central 
area olivaceous, varied with rose-colour, bounded by an oblique 
white line, also an olivaceous streak from the latter to the 
apex ; a submarginal whitish line and a marginal series of 
black dots ; secondaries pale greyish brown, with dusky mar- 
ginal dots and whitish fringe ; body corresponding in colour 
with the wings, thorax crossed by a white belt : primaries 
below silky greyish, costal border sandy whitish, outer and 
inner borders silky creamy white ; secondaries silky white ; 
body below greyish. Expanse 1 inch 2-3 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

72. Micardia pulehi-a, n. sp. 

Primaries whity brown, the whole central area and a discal 
streak (bounded internally by a white-bordered lilac streak, 
and externally by a submarginal white line) more or less 
tawny ; a large subquadrate blackish patch bounded by the 
orbicular and reniform spots, which are lilac and white-edged; 
a large white-bordered elliptical spot of ochreous on the costa 
near apex ; an interrupted black marginal line ; fringe tipped 
with grey ; secondaries silvery greyish, w^ith an interrupted 
dusky marginal line and whitish frmge ; body corresponding 
in general tint with the opposite wings: under surface shining 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 6 



82 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

creamy white, primaries greyish in the centre. Expanse 1 
inch 2-3 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

Mr. Moore has described a third species as Leucania pul~ 
cherrima. 

73. Alysia grisea^ n. sp. 

6 . Above greyish brown, with a shining cupreous tinge ; 
primaries with the external two fifths rather darker than the 
rest of the wing, the orbicular and reniform spots also rather 
darker, indications of an annular spot on a darker nebula near 
the base of the cell ; costa spotted with darker colour ; three 
white costal dots towards the apex ; a patch of pale colour 
at the apex bounded on the costa by an elongated white spot ; 
indications of a discal series of dusky -bordered semicircular 
pale spots ; a series of black marginal lunules ; fringe pale ; 
secondaries much paler than primaries, with the exception of 
a broad external border ; thorax darker than the abdomen ; 
head and antennse pale : under surface pale and shining, an 
irregular greyish disco-submarginal fascia; body below whity- 
brown, the pectus dusky in front. Expanse 2 inches 1 line. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

This species somewhat resembles Ochropleura flammatra ; 
but it is evidently a Leucaniid allied to the genus Nonagrna, 
and apparently belonging to Gu^nde's genus Alysia, with 
which it agrees in the structure of the antennae and palpi, 
neuration, and the width of the primaries. 

GlottulidsB. 

74. Dandaca senex, n. sp. 

S . Primaries above pale bluish grey, becoming greenish at 
base and on costal area, basal area crossed by an ill-defined 
sprinkling of raised white scales ; a spot in the cell, the mar- 
gins of the reniform spot (which is indicated by a black litura) , 
a sigmoidal discal stripe, a subapical spot and zigzag submar- 
ginal line, all of raised white scales ; a black irregular line 
across the basal area ; two central slender black lines, the 
outer one deeply dentated, a >■- shaped black marking and 
two spots near the external angle ; costa black-spotted ; fringe 
white, spotted with brownish ; secondaries sericeous greyish 
brown, with a broad pale-edged blackish outer border, fringe 
pale, margin black-dotted ; thorax greenish grey, abdomen 
sericeous whitish : wings below Avhity brown, with a broad 
black-edged irregular discal band ; outer border broadly 
blackish ,• body below whitish. Expanse 1 inch 8 lines. 



of Heterocera frovi Japan. 83 

rker 
Yokohama (Jonas). 



? . Larger, darker ; abdomen brown. Expanse 1 inch 
10 lines. 



Apamiidse. 
75. Ochriafortis, n. sp. 

$ . Nearly allied to 0. Jlavar/o, the primaries with the yel- 
low areas considerably paler, the line interrupted by the reni- 
form spot forming a semicircular arch ; the orbicular and reni- 
form spots much larger, the transverse subbasal brown belt 
greatly constricted below the median vein and darker ; sub- 
marginal band, excepting at apex, suffused with brown and 
consequently indistinct ; secondaries greyish brown, sordid 
whitish in the middle and at the base ; thorax and head 
brown, collar stramineous, abdomen sordid whitish : wings 
below pale shining sandy brownish ; the fringe and discocel- 
lulars of primaries, and two transverse streaks (the outer one 
of primaries diffused) dusky. Expanse 1 inch 10 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

In some respects more nearly allied to 0. cataphracta of 
Grote. 

76. Gortyna acuminata^ n. sp. 

Structure of O. nitela from North America. Above brown, 
shot with a faint lilacine gloss and clouded with grey ; pri- 
maries with the costal margin and two diverging straight 
internally whitish-bordered transverse lines golden brown ; 
basal area pale, bounded externally by a whitish line ; outer 
border pale, with irregularly zigzag inner edge ; orbicular and 
reniform spots greyish, bordered internally with whitish and 
golden brown ; a marginal series of blackish lunules ; fringe 
grey ; secondaries with a broad triangular greyish patch from 
the middle of the cell to the abdominal margin, an ill-defined 
discal band of the same colour ; costal area testaceous ; palpi 
and antennae burnt sienna; abdomen with the segmental mar- 
gins, sides, and anus ochraceous : under surface reddish ochra- 
ceous, shining ; primaries with an ill-defined darker discal 
streak. Expanse 1 inch 9-10 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

The primaries are acuminate and subfalcate. 

Xylophasiidae. 

77. Xylophasia sodalis^ n. sp. 

Intermediate between X. rurea and A^ hepatica^ with the 

6* 



84 On new Species of Heterocera from Japan. 

pattern of the former, but the deeper coloration of the latter ; 
it is, however, darker and more glossy than either, and the 
dark marginal spots of the primaries have a dull lilacine gloss; 
on the under surface the wings are not suffused with rose- 
colour as in X. liepatica^ and the fringes are grey (dark in 
primaries), spotted with ochraceous nearly as in X. rurea. 
Expanse 1 inch 9 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

This species is also closely allied to X. flavistigma of 
Moore. The Mamestra duhkans of Walker, which I believe 
to be the dark form of Xylophasia Ugnicolor^ bears a close 
resemblance to the X. comhusta type of the above species ; 
we have this variety both from Yokohama and Hakodate. 
Mamestra opposita is the dark form of a Ceylonese species. 

78. Apamea conciliata, n. sp. 

Intermediate in colouring and pattern between A. connexa 
and A. gemina, with the form and general coloration of the 
latter, but with the irregular transverse band identical in shape 
with that of ^. connexa^ although much further from the outer 
margin and less oblique, the lower half of the band limited 
externally by an oblique white line, and followed by a whitish 
diffusion ; apical area as in ^. gemina^ but without the pale 
spot at apex ; secondaries as in A. connexa : wings below as 
in A. gemina, but darker, and with the dusky stripe across the 
secondaries nearer to the middle of the wing broadly convex 
(not 3-shaped) ; no dark spot at the end of the cell. Expanse 
1 inch 6 lines. 

Yokohama [Joiias). 

The Xylopliasia indocilis of Walker is the paler form of 
A. gemina J X. libera is identical with Apamea finitima, a 
species near A^ connexa. 

79. Miana vulnerata, n. sp. 

Primaries greyish black, with the discal area brown ; 
crossed by two very irregular black lines, widest apart on the 
costa and nearest just below the cell ; two black >-shaped 
markings at the base 5 orbicular and reniform spots pale 
brown, enclosing an oval grey annulus and margined with 
black; an N -shaped band, testaceous, speckled with carmine, 
on the disk jugt outside the external black line ; indications of a 
submarginal grey streak ; a marginal series of black liturte ; 
fringe grey, intersected by a testaceous line ; secondaries pale 
brown, with a marginal black line ; fringe whitish, with a cen- 
tral grey line ; body above greyish brown, abdomen whitish 



On an apparently new Species of Hornhill. 85 

at the sides : primaries below sinning grey, the borders spotted 
with whitish ; secondaries shining whitish ; margin and a 
spot at the end of the cell black ; two discal grey lines ; 
fringe as above ; body whitish. Expanse 1 inch. 
Yokohama [Jonas). 

80. Miana segregata., n. sp. 

Primaries brown, crossed before the middle by a broad 
pale-edged darker band, its inner margin angulated and undu- 
lated, its outer margin nearly straight, but with a shallow sinus 
below the first median branch ; a subquadrate costal sepia- 
broAvn white-edged spot near the apex, continued as an indi- 
stinct irregular band to the middle of the disk and enclosing a 
longitudinal black dash ; a marginal series of black dots ; an 
indistinct sigmoidal pale line near the base ; fringe greyish, 
dusky below the middle ; secondaries paler, with white costal 
margin, fringe partially white-tipped ; body brown, whitish 
at the base of abdomen : primaries below greyish sericeous, 
internal area whitish, costal and external areas whity brown, 
speckled with darker brown ; costa beyond the cell flecked 
witli creamy- white ; two indistinct parallel discal lines, the 
inner one angulated near the costa ; secondaries whity brown, 
darker towards the apex, a dusky spot on discocellulars and 
an angulated discal line ; body brown, pectus clothed with 
whitish hair. Expanse 1 inch 2 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

[To be continued.] 



XI. — Description of an apparently neiv Species of Hornhill 
from Cochin Ghina^ of the Genus Anthracoceros. By D. G. 
Elliot, F.E.S.E. &c. 

Anthracoceros fraterculus. 

Male. Bill light yellow, with a black spot at base of man- 
dible. A casque rises from base of culmen, extends back- 
wards over the centre of the head, then curves forwards and 
returns to the culmen, at almost a right angle, at about one 
third its length from the tip of the maxilla. This is com-' 
pressed laterally both at its anterior and posterior termina- 
tions, swelling outwards in the centre, but inclining to a keel- 
shape on top along its whole length, ^'his casque is yellow 
like the bill, black on its anterior face, and with a broad black 
patch occupying nearly half the anterior portion, but which 



86 On an apparently new Species of Hornhill. 

does not reach to the maxilla. Naked skin around the eye 
and on sides of the throat flesh-colour. Head, neck, throat, 
upper part of breast, back, wing, and central tail-feathers 
black, with dark green reflections. Entire underparts, thighs, 
and tips of the secondaries and primaries pure white. Lateral 
tail-feathers have their apical third pure white, rest black, 
with green reflections. Tarsi and feet black. Total length 
from base of maxilla to end of central rectrices 23^ inches ; 
wing 10| inches ; tail 11^ inches ; bill along gape b^ inches; 
casque on top 4f inches, height at base of maxilla Ij inch ; 
height of bill and casque at base 2| inches ; tarsus If inch. 

Hah. Cochin China. 

The present bird bears the same relationship to A . mala- 
haricus as A. convexus does to A. coronatus, and appa- 
rently represents the A. malabaricus in Cochin China. It is 
much smaller than A. malabaricus in all its dimensions, has the 
casque much more compressed at the ends ; and the black 
mark on the anterior portion does not reach the maxilla, but is 
confined to the casque as is seen in A. coronatus ; whereas in A. 
convexus and malabaricus the black mark always extends on- 
to the maxilla. The lateral rectrices, however, being only 
white for their apical third, indicates that the relationship of 
this species is with A. malabaricus and not with the others 
named. In order that the difference in size between the two 
species may be more clearly perceived, I add the measure- 
ments oi A. f rater cuius J as given above, and those of a fine 
adult male specimen, in the Paris Museum, of -4. malabaricus 
for comparison : — 

Anthracoceros fraterctdus. Anthraeoceros malabaricus. 

From base of maxilla to end of From base of maxilla to end of 

rectrices 23| inches. rectrices 26 inches. 

Wing lOf. Wing 13. 

Tail Hi Tail 13. 

Bill along gape 5^. Bill along gape 6^ 

Casque on top 4|-. Casque on top 7|. 

Height of casque at base of max- Height of casque at base of max- 
illa If. ilia 2._ 

Height of bill and casque at base Height of bill and casque at base 

2f. 3|. 

Tarsus 1-|-. Tarsus 2. 

The type was brought from Cochin China, and is now in 
the Paris Museum ; and for the opportunity of describing it I 
am indebted to Prof. A. Milne-Edwards, who in the most 
liberal manner does every thing in his power to facilitate in- 
vestigations in the magnificent collections under his charge. 

It would appear, therefore, that there are four species of 
Hornbills belonging to the genus Anthracoceros j differing from 



Prof. R. Owen on the Solitaire. 87 

each other both in the shape and markings of their casques, 
and also in the distribution of the colours of the pkimage. 
They can be distinguished as follows : — 

Key to the Species. 

A. Median pair of rectrices black, with] green reflec- 
tions. 
a'. Lateral rectrices pure white. 

a". Size large ; black mark on casque never 

reaching the maxilla \. A. coronatus. 

b". Size small ; black mark on casque extend- 
ing onto the maxilla 2. A. convexus. 

h'. Lateral rectrices with their apical third white. 
a". Size large ; blaclf mark on casque reach- 
ing onto the maxilla 'S. A. malabaricus. 

b". Size small ; black mark on casque not 

reaching the maxilla 4. A. fraterculus. 



XII. — Onthe Solitaire (Didus solitarius, Om.-y Pezophaps soli- 
taria, Strhl). By Prof. R. Owen, C.B., F.R.S., &c. 

[Plates VII. & VIII.] 

Bones of this extinct bird collected in the island of Rodriguez 
during the " Transit- of- Venus " expedition, and now in the 
British Museum, have supplied materials for the articulation 
of the entire skeleton, and the subjects of the following notes. 

In the skeleton of both male (PI. VII. fig. 1) and female 
Pezophaps, the number of cervical vertebree is 12, that of the 
dorsal 6, a 7th free-rib -bearing vertebra being made " sacral " 
by ankylosis with the rest of that coalesced group of bones. 

So much of the vertebral formula thus accords with that of 
Didunculus *. As in that dove, also, the three middle dorsal 
vertebree (third, fourth, and fifth) have coalesced, and their 
square truncate spines form a strong bony crest. Four pairs 
of ribs are connected, by ossified ha3m apophyses, with the 
sternum ; and this bone deviates mainly from the columba- 
ceous type by the minor development of the keel, in relation 
to the atrophy of the chief muscles of flight. 

Sixteen coalesced vertebrse constitute the sacrum of Pezo- 
phaps as of Didiis ; and seven free vertebras beyond tlie pelvis 
support the tail-feathers. Thus the vertebral formula of 
Pezophaps is : — 

C. 12, D. 6, S. 16, Cd. 7, = 41. 



* See the figure of the skeleton of the didif orm species of the Samoan 
Isles in my 'Memoir on the Dodo,' 4to, 1866, pL iii. fig. 2. 



88 Prof. E. Owen on the Solitaire. 

There is one free-rib-bearing vertebra less, and one sternal 
rib less, than in Didus ] and this difference accords with the 
proportional larger trunk of the heavier Ground-Dove of the 
Mauritian Island. 

In the atlas and third vertebra the interzygapophysial bar, 
with the foramen it defines, is present *. The neural spine 
subsides to a pair of tuberosities in the fifth cervical; and this 
bifid condition is triaceable to the ninth, where each division 
degenerates to the beginning of a ridge leading to the hypera- 
pophysis. This process fj conspicuous and large on the axis 
and third vertebra, subsides in the following, but rises from 
its rudimental state in the ninth and following cervicals. 

The protuberance from the under part of the par-pleur- 
apophysis of the fifth and sixtli cervicals shows as the " cat- 
apophysis" of Mivart in the seventh; and, each converging 
towards its fellow, the pair of infei'ior processes become distinct 
in the ninth, approximate in the eleventh, and blend into the 
single median hypapophysis in the twelfth cervical vertebra. 
This process'increases in vei-tical and fore-and-aft extent to the 
middle of the three coalesced dorsals, and almost disappears in 
the hindmost (fifth dorsal) ; it is similarly represented as a 
low median ridge in the last free dorsal (sixth). 

The sternum of Pezophaps, as of Didus^ accords with the 
didunculine modification of the Dove's breast-bone, in the 
breadth, for example, of the ectolateral processes and the 
absence of entolateral ones. The median hinder end of the 
sternum is narrower, more " xiphoid " in character, than in 
Didunculus. The four articular ridges and depressions in 
each costal border are close-set, especially the third and 
fourth. 

The costal process is both broad and thick, presenting a 
trihedral subconcave facet towards the ribs. The thin ecto- 
lateral plate overlaps the two hinder heemapophyses joining 
the sternum. The median pneumatic fossa at the anterior 
part of the sternal concavity communicates by a canal with 
the convex or outer surface. The convex contour of the ster- 
nal keel is due to the suppression of the anterior subangular 
extension which is present in the volant Dodlet. 

The first and obvious character in which the great extinct 
Ground-Doves differ from the smaller existing: volant kinds is 
in the small proportion of the brain-case to the rest of the 
skull. If the length of tlie cranium be taken from the back 
of the occiput to the front of the frontal bone, it is, in Pezo- 

* •' On Dinornis.—Vi. XXL," Tians. Zool. Soc. vol. x. p. 152, fig. 11, r, s, 
third cervical of D. maximus. 
t Ibid p. 15], tig. 4, hp. 



Prof. R. Owen on the Solitaire. 89 

phapSj rather more than half that of the skull ; in Didus it is 
little more than one third. 

The difference is not due to the small relative size of the 
orbits, but to the great relative length of the beak, especially 
of the narial part, in Didus. This part, which includes the 
lateral bony external nostrils, is relatively shorter in Pezo- 
phaps than in Didus. 

The interorbital septum is entire in both genera. 

In both Didus and Pezophaps the upper grooved border of 
the foramen magnum extends further back than the condyle. 
The occiput, in Pezophaps (PI. VII. fig. 2) , is vertical, feebly 
convex vertically and transversely, divided by a pair of 
arched insertional depressions from the rugose, somewhat 
overhanging hind tract of the parietal region (ib. 7). The 
temporal fossa is larger, relatively and absolutely, in Pezo- 
phaps than in Didus ; it resembles that of Treron. The 
elevation of the frontal region is due, in Pezophaps^ as in 
Didus and Treron^ to excess of bony cellular diploe, and 
takes place in advance of the orbits in all Columbid^. The 
interorbital tract of the cranium (PI. VIII. fig. 1, 11) rises 
from the prsemaxillo-nasal platform (ib. is, 22) more abruptly 
in Pezophaps than in Didus ; but it sooner subsides, and the 
fronto-parietal tract, or vertex, is flatter. This tract is smooth, 
but surrounded by a broad rugose elevated border, continued 
from the superorbital ridge backward over the temporal fossa, 
then across the postparietal region (ib. i) to meet the ridge 
on the opposite side. The superorbital tracts converge for- 
ward to form the frontal convexity. This, however, is 
mesially cleft, exposing a deeper-seated smooth tract, over 
which a bony fringe projects on each side. This structure 
exists in a minor degree in the female. The superorbital 
tract is more rugose in the male than in the female Pezo- 
phaps. 

The chief difference between Didus and Pezophaps in cra- 
nial structure is the degree in which the cancellous tissue is 
developed between the outer and inner " tables," the minor 
quantity of that tissue in Pezophaps causing less elevation 
and convexity of the frontals above the orbits as compared 
with that part of the cranium in Didus. 

The lacrymal, coalesced with the prefrontal part of the 
frontal, curves down and back in front of the orbit ; it is 
impressed by a deep, wide, smooth longitudinal channel exter- 
nally, conducting the duct to the naso-lacrymal orifice ante- 
rior to the orbit. 

To view the neurapophyses of the nasal vertebra, the nasals, 
pfemaxillary, and coalesced part of the frontals must be 



90 Prof. E,, Owen on the Solitaire. 

removed ; and then the homologue of the " os en ceinture " of 
batrachotomy and of the " gethmoid " of anthropotomy is 
brought into view, with part of the confluent olfactory capsules. 

The essential elements of the anterior terminal segment 
have undergone extreme modification and travelled far from 
the almost typical condition which they present in most 
fishes*. 

In the bird strong processes answering to diapophyses are 
extended outwards from the neurapophysial or essential 
parts of the prefrontals ; and to these the name " prefrontal '' 
is restricted by some who retain the term " ethmoid " for the 
plates transmitting the olfactory nerves from the rhinencepha- 
lon. In Macropus and most other marsupials the corre- 
sponding extension is grooved longitudinally, as in Didus and 
Fezopliaps ; but the fissure transmitting to the nose the lacry- 
mal duct, anterior to the grooved lacrymal bone, in the bird, 
is reduced to a fossa with one or two foramina in the impla- 
cental mammal. 

The maxillary sends up a strong nasal process confluent 
with the outer branch (is') of that bone, which articulates with 
the swollen fore part of the frontal, outside the base of the 
inner division (is) of the nasal bone. The common coalesced 
bases of the nasals and nasal process of the premaxillary rise 
as a transverse bar (PI. VIII. fig. 1, a), with a convex ante- 
rior border, above the rostral divisions of those bones ; in this 
character Pezophajps resembles Treron and Didunculus] while 
in Didus the premaxillary and nasal portions of the elevated 
basal tract are indicated by grooves therein. In both genera, 
as in recent doves, is and 22' are confluent with 11. Beyond 
the confluence the divisions of the nasal pair are separated by 
the nasal process of the premaxillary (22'). The inner divi- 
sion or normal part of the nasal is 1 inch 8 lines in length ; 
it extends forward for half that length along the outside of 
the premaxillary, then inclines niesiad beneath that bone, 
coming into contact with its fellow for six lines extent of their 
terminal pointed end ; they underprop the nasal process of 
the premaxillary ; and thus we have, in the exti-eme variation 
of an extreme segment of the vertebral axis, the ha?mal spine 
closing the tubular series by overlapping the neural spine of 
its own segment. The under surface of the nasal process of 
the premaxillary is impressed by the shallow channel re- 
ceiving the underpropping fore part of the midnasals. 

The basi-presphenoid (PI. VIII. fig. 2, s, 9) is 2 inches 
long in the male ; it has no pterapophyses. 

* See, e. //., the prefrontals of XipJiias in my ' Arclietype of the Ver- 
tebrate Skeleton,' pi. i. fig. 5, u. 



Prof. R. Owen on the Solitaire. 91 

There is, as is well-known, no " maxillo-palatine or pre- 
vomerine bone " in the bird's skull distinct from the proper 
maxillary or proper palatine. The latter bone (ib. ib. 20) 
speedily coalesces with the premaxillarj (22) in front, and 
the maxillary (21') above, as does this with the premaxil- 
lary in front and with the malar bone behind. Their respec- 
tive limits are definable by their unconfluent condition in the 
immature bird. 

In Pezophaps the persistent linear suture between the pala- 
tal part of the maxillary and the palatine commences 1 inch 
10 lines from the tip of the beak ; it defines a linear tract of 
the maxillary of 1 inch 3 lines extent. External to this 
suture is the palatine tract, coalesced with the maxillary, in 
breadth 2 lines, in length 10 lines ; when the palatine be- 
comes free, it is twisted on itself, forms a vertical plate of 3 to 
4 lines depth, and sends off" from the median side, of a hinder 
extent of 7 lines, the horizontal plate, which bends mesiad. 
Between these right and left median plates of the palatines is 
an interval of 2^ lines. The interpalatine vacuity in advance 
of the horizontal plates is 4| lines across. The upper parts of 
the hinder five lines of the palatines are applied to the convex 
sides of the presphenoids. The pterygoids (21) abut against 
the basisphenoid immediately behind the palatines, each 
pterygoid diverging and expanding to abut against the tym- 
panic. The maxillo-palatal cleft is long and of moderate and 
uniform width ; the interpalatal cleft is wider until the inner 
plates are developed. 

The beak of the bird serves as both hand and mouth ; the 
apex of the wedge, in these functions, is driven against re- 
sisting bodies sometimes of considerable hardness. In all 
birds the opening and closing of the bill are acts of prehen- 
sion. In many birds these latter movements are not limited 
to the lower jaw, but a mechanism exists for raising the upper 
jaw as well. The joint between the base of the bill and the 
cranium is made flexible by diverse modifications. The tym- 
panic is fashioned in relation therewith. It is connected by 
two beams or columns of bone on each side of the skull with 
the fore part of the upper jaw. The outer beam, commencing 
forward at the side of the maxillary, is continued by the malo- 
squamosal style to the outer side of the transversely expanded 
lower part of the tympanic. The inner beam, commencing 
by the palatal process of the premaxillary, is continued back- 
ward by the palatine and pterygoid bones to the inner side of 
the lower end of the tympanic. Any swinging to and fro of 
this bone upon its single or double upper ball-and-socket joint 
is transferred to the '^ core " by the four beams converging 



92 Prof. R. Owen on the Soh'tat7-e. 

thereto. The action of the outer beam upon the maxillary is 
conjoined with that of the lower beam upon the premaxillarj 
by the overlapping broad palatal plate of the maxillary, 
which is more or less confluent with the palatine and pre- 
maxillary bones beneath. 

The movements of the mandibular part of the bill are 
transferred by the long bar-like rami of the lower jaw to the 
lower end of the tympanic, with which those rami are movably 
articulated by a combined double ball-and-socket and also 
trochlear articulation. 

When the tympanies are swung forward they communicate 
that motion by their six converging bony bars to the upper 
and lower cores, raising the former, depressing the latter — in 
short, opening the mouth. When the tympanies swing back- 
ward, opposite movements are transferred forward by the con- 
necting bars, and the beak is shut. 

But when in this state it is used (as by the Woodpecker) as 
a pick or wedge, the strength of the blow transferred back- 
wards by the three divergent pairs of bars is met, not by a 
rigid basis, which might have involved fracture of those bars 
or of some of them, but by a yielding one, as in the butts with 
elastic buffers terminating a railway line, for arresting and 
receiving the shock of a train. 

The beak as a whole, and especially its outward and visible 
portions, have suggested to ornithologists characters of groups 
with good and accepted descriptive terms ; the modifications 
of a part of the mechanism, a single beam, seem inadequate to 
sustain a new nomenclature. 

The basisphenoid (PI. VIII. fig. 2, s) in advance of the 
ridge or process which underhangs the bony outlets of the 
Eustachian tubes loses breadth and seems narrowest where 
impressed by the abutting ends of the pterygoids (21) . 

The postarticular end of the mandible of Didus difi*ers from 
that in most Columbidge in not being abruptly truncated, but 
produced in the form of a short right, or rather open, angle 
with the apex obtuse*. That of Pezophaps (PI. VII. fig. 1) is 
more columbaceous ; it is produced a short way behind the 
articulation, and is vertically truncate, without loss of depth. 
It agrees in this respect with Didunculus. 

There is nothing extraordinary in the conformation of the 
pelvis of Pezophajjs. The acetabulum is situated in the ante- 
rior half, as in Didus. The ischium (PL VII. ea) coalesces 
with the ilium (62) at two points, circumscribing a moderate 

* 'Dodo and its Kindred,' pi. viii.; ^Memoir on the Dodo,' pi. i. 



Prof. R. Owen on the Solitaire. 93 

subelliptic " foramen ischiadicum " {h) as in Didiis. The 
pubis (64) does not send upward a process to meet the down- 
ward one from the ischium, and so define the " tendinal " (0') 
from the " obturator" (0) interspace. 

The pelvis in the male skeleton shows the whole extent of 
the entire lower border of the ischium ; and its slender hinder 
termination is produced into contact with the pubis (64) , from 
which bone a rough low tuberosity rises to form the syndes- 
mosis with the ischium (es). On the left. side the extremity 
of the ischium is broken off; but tlie syndesmotic process of 
the pubis testifies to an original union like that on the right 
side. 

Here, therefore, we have an acceptable proof of an osteo- 
logical correspondence with existing doves, which the imper- 
fect examples of the pelvis previously acquired did not exhibit. 

The scapula of Pezophaps repeats, in a minor degree, 
the angular beginning of the hinder thin border above 
the elongate neck of the bone, but projects less as a pro- 
cess than in Didus * ; the distal or free end expands as in 
Didus. The straightness of the bone is more marked than 
in Didus. 

The metacarpus of the male (PI. VIT. fig. 1, 11.) repeats the 
tuberous process figured by Prof. Newton in pi. xix. figs. 87- 
90 of his richly illustrated memoir t, and testifies, as he 
shows, to the value of Leguat's record, and to the accuracy of 
that original observer of the living bird. 

If a single specimen of a metacarpal bone of some unknown 
animal, such as is figured in PL VII. fig. 1, il., had previously 
come to the hands of a paleontologist, he would have con- 
cluded the bony tumour to have been of morbid nature and 
origin, and set it down as an exceptional pathological pheno- 
menon. Any other opinion (above all, one liolding such 
tumour to be a constant structure, functional in the healthy 
individual, and of moment in guiding to a knowledge of the 
species or sex) would have hazarded the estimate of such 
palaBonlogist's standing in his science. 

In the rich collection of bones of Pezophaps^ the subject of 
Prof. Newton's instructive paper [torn, cit.), there were not fewer 
than thirty-two specimens of the metacarpus. '' That it 
would be very short was a safe inference from what we know 
of it in other flightless birds ; but it could hardly have been 
expected to obtain from it such a singular confirmation of 
Leguat's statement regarding a remarkable peculiarity in the 

* ' Memoir on the Dodo,' ut suprd, pi. viii. figs. 6, 9, 51. 
t Phil. Trans. 1869. 



94 Prof. R. Owen on the Solitaire. 

' Solitaire ' as observed by him, nor that it should furnish an 
explanation of the curious bony growth on the distal end of the 
ulna and radius already mentioned as presented by the speci- 
mens of supposed males. All the perfect specimens of the meta- 
carpal have on the radial side a more or less spherical bony 
knob or callus-like mass developed immediately beyond the 
proximal end and the pollex. . . . The appearance of the knob 
is much that of diseased bone ; it has probably been covered 
by a cartilaginous integument " (ib. p. 342). The author then 
repeats the quotation given by Strickland in his excellent 
work : — " L'os de I'aileron grossit a I'extrdmitd, & forme sous 
la plume une petite masse ronde comme une balle de mousquet : 
cela & le bee sont la principale defense de cet oiseau "*. 

The specimens of metacarpus of the larger, combative 
sex of Pezopha'ps in the British Museum show the same 
structure, which may be seen in the articulated skeleton of 
the, probably, male Solitaire now there exhibited (PI. VII. 
fig. 1, II.). 

This hard, irregular, prominent mass, which holds the place 
of the spine in the Spur- winged Goose, may be compared to a 
^^knuckle-duster;" with it the combative sex delivered his 
blows, in the hard and well-contested fights to which Leguat 
testifies : — "lis ne volent point, leurs ailes sont trop petitespour 
soutenir le poids de leurs corps. lis ne s'en servent que pour 
se battre, & pour faire le moulinet, quand ils veulent s'appeller 
I'un I'autre." 

I here infer the writer to mean that one function of their 
stunted wing was to do battle with each other ; and the pecu- 
liar development in question I take to have been the com- 
bative weapon. The entire wings were in action in executing 
the amorous pirouettes : — " lis font avec vitesse vingt ou trente 
pirouettes tout de suite, du meme cot^, pendant I'espace de 
quatre ou cinq minutes." 

Of the bones of the hind limbs, the greater relative length 
of both femur, tibia, and metatarsus, as compared with the 
skull and sternum, is first notable in Pezophaps in contrast 
with Didus. 

The columbine characters of the metatarsus are manifested 
in both species. These characters in Pezophaps are recorded 
in Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii. pi. Ixvi., and are repeated in that 
bone of the subject of Plate VII. 

The following are admeasurements of the skeleton of the 
two extinct species of Ground-Doves : — 

* Strickland, 'The Dodo and its Kindred,' 4to, 1848, quoting the 
'Voyage et Avantures de Francois Leguat,' 2 vols. 12mo, 2nd ed. 1720, 
vol. i. p. 98. 



Prof. R. Owen on the Solitaire. 95 

Pezophaps Didus 

solitaria. ineptiis. 

ft. in. liu. ft. in. lin. 
Length of vertebral axis, from tip of 
■ beak to end of coccyx, following the 

curves Mas. 2 110 3 2 

I^ength of vertebral axis, from tip of 

beak to end of coccyx, following the 

curves Fein. 2 7 

Height in easy standing position Mas. 2 7 2 

Height in easy standing position Fern. 2 2 

Length of leg. from proximal end of 

tibia to sole .' Mas. 14 6 12 

Length of leg, from proximal end of 

tibia to sole Fern. 110 

The Solitaires were found living in great numbers by the 
colony of Huguenots who settled in the island of Rodriguez, 
under their leader M. Francois Leguat, in 1691. 

PezophapSj according to the testimony of Leguat, laid but 
one "^gg at the breeding-season ; and the same was probably 
the case with Didus^ as it is with the existing species of fruit- 
eating doves [Carpophaga) and the passenger pigeons [Ecto- 
pistes) . 

The Moas appear to have been similarly restricted, as their 
living representatives, the Kivis, also are, in the number of 
the eggs of each brood. 

The condition of the existence of Pezophaps^ and probably 
that of its flightless structure, was the absence of any extirpa- 
ting enemy in the island to which the species was restricted. 
Feeding on the date, the plantain, and other tropical products 
of a rich vegetation encumbering the soil when ripe and fallen, 
their flesh was sapid as well as nutritious ; and the early Hugue- 
not colonists commenced the work of extirpation, which their 
successors and the quadrupeds (cats and pigs) which they 
introduced completed. 

In assigning the origin of the species Pezophaps solitaria 
to the operation of a primary law, by way of direct 
creation of a primitive pair, the osseous tumour on the 
wrist of the male, and the fore pair of limbs in both sexes, 
framed on a pattern fitting them to exercise the faculty of flight 
and for no other kind of locomotion on land, but of too small 
a size for that end, are among the incidents of this " thauma- 
togeny," or inconceivable mode of genesis. 

The other alternative is a reference of the species to the 
operation of a secondary law, by no means implying disbelief 
in, or involving denial of, the Lawgiver. In speculating on 
the mode of operation of such law, the following facts pre- 
sent themselves : — 



96 Prof. R. Owen on the Solitaire. 

Pezophaps solitaria was the largest kind of land bird ob- 
served by the first settlers in the island of Rodriguez. 

It differed in no other respect from the class-characters of 
the other birds of that island save in the inability to fly by the 
action of its wings. 

There were no enemies native to the island able to take 
advantage of that disablement, 

" II ne s'y trouve aucune animal a quatre pieds, que des 
rats, des lezards, & des tortues de terre, desquelles y a trois 
differents esp^ces," writes Leguat in his interesting little 
book *. 

The Solitaires had no call for practising or endeavouring 
to effect that hardest and most strenuous mode of locomotion 
to obtain sustenance or fulfil any of the conditions of preser- 
vation of the individual or of the species ; they were never 
scared into such violent exercise. 

Upon these facts I found a conclusion as to how the specific 
character of wings, useless as such, came to be ; and this con- 
clusion as to Fezojyhaps solitaria is the same which I have set 
forth more at length in relation to Didus ineptus f, and which 
I deem to be applicable to the still larger terrestrial birds 
discovered, as in the case of u^Epyornis^ Dinornis^ Aptorms, 
Notorms, Cnemiornis^ in similar geographical and associated 
zoological conditions — these birds, like the Dodo and Soli- 
taire, having become extirpated through alterations of the 
latter conditions, i. e. by introduction of species new to their 
island-homes, and with dispositions and powers destructive of 
such flightless birds. Thus is illustrated the origin of species 
by a condition of the way of work of a secondary law sug- 
gested by Lamarck. 

Two alternative hypotheses have been propounded. One 
by Mr. Darwin, is discussed and conjecturally exemplified by 
the authors of the paper " On the Osteology of the Solitaire " 
{loc. cit. pp. 49-51). The other hypothesis assumes that the 
Iguanodon, Megalosaurus^ Scelidosaurus, and other Dinosau- 
rian reptiles walked on the hind pair of legs, like birds, and 
initiated that class by becoming transmuted into the warm- 
blooded, feathered, but wingless species. No suggestion has 

* Voyage ec Avantures de Fran9ois Leguat, & de ses Compagnons, 
en deux isles desertes des Indes Orientales. Avec la relation des choses 
les plus remarquables qu'ils ont obser^ees dans I'lsle Maurice, a Batavia, 
au Cap de Bonne-Esperance, dans I'lsle St.-Helene, & en d'auk-es en- 
droits de leur Route. Le tout enriche de Cartes &, de Figures. Tome Pre- 
mier & Tome Second (12mo). A Londres, cliez David Mortier, Marchand 
Libraire. 1708. 

t 'Memoir on the Dodo,' 4to, 1866, pp. 49-51. 



Prof. R. Owen on the Solitaire. 97 

been made by the author or acceptors of this hypothesis as to 
the way of operation or conditions of the transmutation. 

In most of the instances of wingless birds affinity to more 
favoured or normal members of the feathered class has been 
traced. 

The Penguins [Lnpennes) cannot be dissociated from the 
smaller UrinatoreSj which retain the volant function of the 
wings. 

Alca impennis is not generically separable, in judicious taxo- 
nomy, from the swiftly flying Alca tor da. 

The genera Aptornis and Notornis, with keelless breast- 
bones, cannot be divorced from the family of Coots. 

Cnemiornis, although also with a '' ratite " or uncarinate 
sternum, must stand, besides Cereopsis^ in the Anserine group 
of Anatidffi. 

The Didines are but generic modifications of a great natural 
division of Rasores, the existing members of which, of smaller 
size, retain their faculty of flight. 

Dinornis shows the consequence of disuse of wings in a 
greater degree than does A'pteryx. But, although the winged 
forms from which the Kiwi, the Cassowary, the Emu, the Rhea, 
the Ostrich, and the JEpyornis have severally degenerated 
remain to be determined, they each have structural character- 
istics encouraging the quest, and testifying against the artifi- 
cial group {Megistanes^ Vieillot ; Proceri^ Illiger ; Ratitce^ 
Merrem ; Struthionidce^ Vigors) based upon modifications of 
the breast-bone and scapular arch, the consequences of disuse 
and degeneration of the muscles of flight, and with which a 
loose character of plumage is more or less associated. 

The results of the researches which have determined the 
real affinities of extinct birds with keelless breast-bones and 
low-angled scapulo-coracoids, devoid of acromial and clavi- 
cular processes, supports a reasonable expectation that the 
existing wingless genera, which have been shown to differ 
from one another considerably in important anatomical struc- 
tures, in correlation w^th their distinct and remote habitats, 
will be ultimately referred to as many distinct natural groujis 
which now are, or which formerly have been, represented by 
volant and typical members of the feathered class. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Reduced side view of the skeleton of the male Solitaire. 
Fig. 2. Occipital surface of cranium, natural size. 

Fig. 3. Copy of a figure of the living Solitaire, from the frontispiece to 
Leguat's -work, above cited. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol i. 7 



98 Mr. D. G. Elliot on a new Species of Water-bird. 

Plate VIII. 

Fiff. 1. Top view of tlie skiiU of the male Solitaire. 
Fig. 2. Under view of the skull of the female Solitaire. 
Both fiorures are of the natm-al size. 



XIII. — Description of a neio Species of Water-bird from 
Cochin China belonging to the Genus Porphyrio. By D. G. 
Elliot, F.E.S.E. &c. 

Porphyrio Edwardsi. 

Adult. Ear-coverts, lores, and round the eyes greyish 
white. Back of head brown, darkest in the centre, where it 
is almost a brownish black with a purple tinge, shading off to 
a greyish white towards the frontal plate and the sides of the 
head. Cheeks bluish white. Chin and throat brownish, 
with a bluish shade. Back and sides of neck, lower part of 
breast, and flanks dark violet-blue. Front of neck and upper 
part of breast, shoulders, and under wing-coverts deep tur- 
quoise-blue. Back, rump, wings, secondaries, primaries, and 
tail uniform gi-eenish black. Middle of abdomen and crissum 
brownish black. Under tail-coverts pure white. Bill, frontal 
plate, legs, and feet apparently bright red. Total length 16^ 
inches, wing lOf , tail 4-5, bill along gape 1|, width of frontal 
plate at posterior margin f , tarsus 3|, middle toe 3f , claw |. 

Young. Top and back of head covered with downy black 
feathers ; sides of head grey ; chin and throat white ; breast 
dark turqoise-blue, flanks and abdomen violet-blue. Crissum 
and thighs brownish black, streaked in certain places with 
white. Wings and back greenish black. Rump brownish 
black. Bill red, with the culmen and lengthened spots on the 
mandibles near the commissure black. Frontal plate small, 
apparently red. Legs and feet pale red. Total length 10^ 
inches, tarsus 2|, bill at gape 1. 

Hah. Cochin China; Saigon [Germain) ; Bangkok [Bo- 
court) . 

Four specimens of this fine species are in the collection of 
the Paris Museum, three adults and one young bird, obtained 
in different localities in Cochin China. It has probably been 
confounded with the P. poliocephalus^ Lath., of India, which 
it resembles in certain portions of its plumage. The present 
species differs in being darker on the back of the head, in 
having the blue of the breast of a darker shade, and especially 
in having the upper parts, including the entire wings, greenish 
black, instead of the purple back and rump and pale greenish 
blue wings of P. p'oliocephalus. This colouring of the upper 



Bibliographical Notice. 99 

partf? is so conspicuously different in the two species, that 
either one can be recognized at a glance. Two of the adult 
specimens are precisely alike ; the third is a little paler upon 
the sides of the head ; but all possess the uniform greenish 
black back and wings. 

It gives me great pleasure to bestow upon so handsome a 
bird the name of my friend Professor Alphonse Milne- 
Edwards, so well and favourably known for his many and 
highly important contributions to natural science, and who, 
in the kindest manner, has placed at my disposal all the speci- 
mens of this genus contained in the collection of the museum 
to assist me in my investigation of the group. 



BIBLIOGEAPHICAL NOTICE. 

The American Palceozoic Fossils, Sec. By S. A. Millek, Large 8vo. 
Pp. 253. Published by the Author : Cincinnati, TJ. S., 1877. 

This work consists of a catalogue of the genera and species of 
Palaeozoic Fossils found in North America, giving the names of 
authors, dates, places of XDuhlication, groups of rocks in which the 
fossils occur, and the etymology and signification of the words, 
together with a preliminary discourse, by Prof. E. W. Claypole, on 
the construction of systematic names in paliBontology, and an Intro- 
duction by the author, on the stratigraphical geology of the Ame- 
rican Palceozoic rocks. 

This, we believe, is the latest of many useful catalogues of fossils 
prepared by geologists of different countries, and devoted to the 
consideration of either particular groups or the world-wide distri- 
bution of organic remains. In this case the fossils treated of are 
limited to those of the Palaeozoic Rocks of North America, and form 
an extensive list of at least 1000 genera and 8000 species, besides 
very many names (upwards of 2000) which are either synonyms or 
not well determined. 

The organic remains here enumerated are grouped according 
to their Orders, the Families of which are mentioned for each 
division. 

A special feature in this work is a most praiseworthy attempt to 
produce the names with correct etymology and derivation. But 
besides those errors mentioned in the lists of corrigenda at pages 
64 and 2-16, there are many that have escaped the author's notice; 
and some of them go to prove how true his observation is that the 
mistake of the original name of a species is perpetuated in succes- 
sive transcripts ; whilst others show, as usual, the difficulty found 
by any one in trying to express himself in a language unknown to 
him. 

Prof. Claypole, both in his excellent essay on nomenclature and 
in revising a great portion of the Catalogue, has evidently worked 



100 Bibliographical Notice. 

hard to improve the orthography of the palaeontologists ; and he 
well observes that the unfamiliarity of many with Latin and Greek, 
the carelessness of some who know better, and the misprints in press 
have been, and still are, powerful agents in making and keeping 
errors in sftientific nomenclature. In some of the classes of fossils 
Mr. Miller found 25 per cent, of the names defective. False con- 
cord between the generic and specific words is the most frequent 
source of error, on account of the worker's ignorance of Latin ; and, 
even if the original name be correctly rendered, a subsequent writer 
often alters the genus and does not adapt the trivial name to the 
gender of the new generic word. As Mr. Claypole had not the 
opportunity of seeing all the sheets of the catalogue whilst going 
through the press, he has carefully formed an accurate Index of the 
Palaeozoic genera (pp. 247-253) as to their genders — a great boon to 
many non-classical writers. Phlegethontia, however, is set as 77iasc. 
instead of /em., probably by misprint; and we think that the 
Latinized form Macrocluilus might pass as masc, although the Greek 
MacrocheUos would be neuter, and should be used instead of the 
former if the latter gender be desirable. So also TemnocJieilus. 

The use of diphthongs is attended to more carefully in this than in 
some other palajontological works ; but Leptena (at page ^), pygmea 
(p. 59), hemispliericus (pp. 44, 137, and 244), meandrina (p. 56), 
and Phillipastrea (p. 251) are wrong, for want of the diphthong. 
This is dropped by some French writers, who then make the single 
letter strong with an accent in their own language, and unfortu- 
nately ignore the diphthong in the Latin. 

Both French and German titles are badly quoted at pages 48, 56, 
95, 193, 219, and at pp. 166, 209, 215, 220, &c. Hence a wider 
knowledge of these modern tongues is evidently desirable. 

There are many slips in the etymology of names, which may be 
advantageously corrected in the next issue of the " Catalogue." 
Thus Aristides is surely historical, and not "mythological" (p. 166). 
It must be umbel-bearing and not " umbrella-bearing " that is 
intended at page 60 ; amplii (p. 209) means " around " or " on 
both sides," and not "doubtful." "Lithofactor" and "petrifactor " 
are meant for mahers of and not " made of" stone (p. 212) ; and 
Favosites has less to do with any " proper name " (p. 244) than 
with favus, a honeycomb. Some etymologies are stretched, as 
" insignificant," instead of " useless," for miitilis (p. 130) ; securis, 
" axe-shaped," instead of " axe " ; sigUlate, not " sealed," but 
" adorned with figures " (p. 212); and why should rer;t(Z«m mean 
" formed in bars " ? 

These slips and misprints constitute, however, but very slight 
drawbacks in the profitable use of this excellent, well-considered 
book by those wishing to refer to it as a trustworthy epitome of 
Paleozoic fossils ; and the student will here find very much to help 
him in recognizing the value and estimating the right form and 
status of their scientific names. The hard pedantry, however 
(adopted by others besides the author of this work), of denying 
initial capitals to all specific names, whether nouns, proper names, 
or adjectives of the latter, takes away many a good and useful sign 



Miscellaneous. 101 

from the non-classical student, whereby he might have been guided 
among ai^parently similar words of bewildering construction, and 
have seen at a glance, not only the grammatical value of the trivial 
name, but often the history of the determination of a species, now 
obscured in the featureless dog-Latin of ill-recognized nouns, and 
personal or geographical adjectives of doubtful aspect. 

In the use of proper names it woilld be well if nomenclaturists 
would always apply the genitive in the case of the species being 
named after its discoverer ; and the adjective form when some other 
relationship is in view, such as when a species is named in honour 
of some one connected with the study of the group or of the locality. 

Mr. MiUer's Introduction on the Stratigraphj- of the North- American 

Palaeozoic rocks is full of information on the nature of the strata 

and their characteristic fossils, as elucidated by the many excellent 

geologists of the United States, Canada, Nova Scotia, &c. The 

maximum thickness of the stratal groups constituting these old 

rocks, as here shown, is : — » ^ 

' feet. 

Carboniferous strata 24,100 

Devonian 15,235 

Upper Silurian 8,000 

Lower Silurian 48,745 

Huronian 20,000 

Laurentian 32,750 



148,830 
Even if the thickness of some of these groups be overestimated, 
and should portions of them be contemporaneous, yet. as some strata 
may have been omitted and others undervalued, the author thinks 
that the hypothetically vertical thickness of the whole is not likely 
to be less than 28 miles, and may be more, and that all but the 
lowest three miles are fossiliferous. He draws strong inferences as 
to the upspring and progress of the organic world by " processes of 
evolution and the survival of the fittest," and insists on the enor- 
mous lapse of time necessary for the accumulation of the strata 
under notice. 

We are sure that this careful and well-printed Catalogue will be 
welcomed by all palaeontologists ; and it will be especially useful in 
the comparative study of Silurian fossils as treated in Dr. Bigsby's 
* Thesaurus Siluricus ' (see Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. iii. 
pp. 314-317), and those of the Devonian and Carboniferous forma- 
tions, amassed and annotated in his forthcoming elaborate volume 
devoted to those fossils. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Preliminary Notice of a Species of Phasmidae apioarently possessing 
all the Structural Arrangements needed both for Aerial and Aqiuitic 
Respiration. By J. Wood-Mason, F.G.S. 

My attention has just been drawn by my friend Mr. Charles 0. Water- 
house, of the British Museum, to a Phasmidan insect which, of the 



102 Miscellaneous. 

many remarkable forms of animal life that the great island of Borneo 
has yielded, is certainly not the least remarkable. The insect in ques- 
tion is closely related to the Frisopi*, but is even more profoundly 
modified for an aquatic life ; for it breathes not only in the ordinary 
fashion amongst insects by means of tracheae opening by stigmata 
on the exterior of the body, but also by the structures known as 
tracheal gills. Prom each side of its body, in fact, along the lower 
margins of the sides of the metathorax, there stand straight out five 
equal small but conspicuous ciliated oval plates, which, when the 
insect is submerged and its stigmata are closed, doubtless serve to 
bring the air that is thus shut up within the bod)' into such intimate 
relation either with the oxygen dissolved in, or with the air in 
mechanical mixture with, the water as to render diffusion and con- 
sequently respiration possible. 

The only other insect known to me in which during adult life 
ordinary aerial respiration and respiration by tracheal gills coexist 
is Pteronarcys regalis, one of the Orthoptera Amphibiotica. 

For this remarkable form I beg to propose the name Cotylosoma 
di^oneusticum. 

The insect, which is a female with rudimentary organs of flight, is 
between three and four inches in length. 

Auriferous Sand in the NeiglihourTiood of the Seychelle Islands. 
By H. J. Carter, P.R.S. &c. 

Belonging to the late Dr. Bowerbank was a little pill-box partly 
filled with sponge-spicules, and labelled " Dust from the Base of 
Dr. Farre's Euplectella, 26th Feb. 1857." This sponge, designated 
by Prof. Owen " Euplectella cucumer" was stated by Dr. A. Farre 
(in whose possession it is or was) to have been " given with other 
presents, by the king of the Seychelle Islands, to Captain Etheridge, 
P.N., in acknowledgment of some friendly services, with an intima- 
tion that it was one of the rarest products of these regions " (Trans. 
Linn. Soc. vol. xxii. p. 122) ; and inferring, from actual experience 
(' Annals,' 1873, vol. xii. p. 463), that the " dust " would be found 
to contain a variety of spicule forms, indicative of so many of the 
sponges that must now live, or have lived, in this locality, it was 
boiled during siv minutes in strong nitric acid to rid it from all cal- 
careous and soft substances previously to mounting in Canada 
balsam for more deliberate observation with the microscope. Six 
slides were thus made, bearing material of different degrees of fine- 
ness, from the most subtle that could be preserved to the coarsest in 
the box, when it was found to contain, as might have been expected, 
a quantity of sand (for the " dust " came from a mass of sea- 
bottom still held together in the root-spicules or beard of the 
Euplectella). 

But what was most striking, when this sand (about, perhaps, a 
grain in weight) came to be examined, was the presence of minute 

* For an account of the habits of these animals see Andrew Murray in 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1866, 3rd ser. vol. xviii. p. 265. 



Miscellaneous. 103 

fragments of gold and blue sapphire, to the amount apparently of 
one fiftieth part — the former often united with quartz, and more 
or less covered by an opaque uncrystalline substance of a yellow- 
red colour, like that about the " gold-quartz " of California. 

This is the first time out of the many " sea-bottoms " examined 
from different parts of the world that I have found gold present ; and 
as the Seychelle Islands are composed of granite, it seems to me 
desirable, when the opportunity offers, that they should be pro- 
spected for " auriferous quartz." 

To the different forms of sponge-spicules, which prove to me that 
the " dust " came from this Euplectella, I shall advert on a future 
occasion. 

On a neiv Marsupial from Australia. 
By Prof. R. Owen, F.R.S. &c. 

The Australian marsupial, the subject of my note in the 'Annals 
and Magazine of 2^atural History' for December 1877. I have since 
found described in the ' Proceedings of the Linnean Society of 
New South Wales,' Sydney, 1876, p. 33, under the name of Hijpsi- 
j)ri/)unodon moschutus, by the accomplished Curator of the Australian 
Museum, Sydney, E. Picrson llamsey, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. 

Metamorjpliosis of the Cantharis (Cantharis (Lytta) vesicatoria). 

Br M. LiCHTENSTEIN. 

For a long time the entomologists of all countries have sought to 
discover the transformations of the Cantharis. In 1837 M. Mul- 
saut, of Lyons, said, in his ' Histoire dcs Vesicants,' "The study 
of the metamorphoses of the Cantharides will furnish the subject of 
a curious chapter to the naturalist who shall succeed in tracing their 
development." 

Since this period I have investigated this question ; and now, at 
length, I believe I can give the entire history from the egg to the 
pupa. 

On the 27th of June I took numerous Cantharides from the ash, 
selecting fecundated females having the abdomen distended with 
eggs. Two or three days afterwards they set to work to dig into 
the earth in the vessel in which I kept them, and, in the little 
cylindrical holes they formed, deposited masses of from fifty to sixty 
eggs and more, agglomerated together, and of a hyaline whiteness. 
About seven days after the oviposition there issued from these eggs 
larvae, called by Leon Dufour Triungulini, and figured by Reaumur, 
Ratzeburg, and Mulsant. They arc 1 millim. in length, and of a 
dark brown colour, with the two segments of the meso- and meta- 
thorax and the first segment of the abdomen whitish. The abdo- 
men is terminated by two long filaments. This was previously 
known. 

After a thousand fruitless trials, I succeeded in getting these 
larvae to accept an artificial nourishment, consisting of the stomachs 
of bees which had just sucked the juices of flowers. These larvae 



104 Miscellaneous. 

increased in size ; and five or six days afterwards their skin split. 
There then appeared a perfectly different larva, of a milk-white 
colour, without caudal appendages, and having only very soft inte- 
guments in place of the coriaceous envelope which it had just 
thrown off. Here, again, I was obHged to feel my way to find an 
acceptable food ; and supposing that in nature the larvae live on the 
concreted honey of the subterranean bees of the genera Halictus, 
Andrena, and their aUies, I offered them honey of Osmia, and espe- 
cially of Ceratina, the only one I had at hand in my apiaries. 

Although considerably objecting to this nutriment, which evi- 
dently is not that intended for them by nature, my larvae, finding 
nothing else in the glass tubes which served as their prison, ate the 
honey of Ceratina, grew, and moulted three times. Gradually the 
jaws, at first smooth and much pointed, acquire first one, and then 
two teeth on the inner side ; the antennae change in form ; the eyes, 
at first very visible, disappear by degrees ; and finally, in about 
thirty days, a larva, arrived at its full development (about 2 centims. 
in length), moved uneasily in its tube, indicating sufficiently that it 
wanted a condition indispensable to its transformation, namely the 
earth. 

I was willing enough to furnish it with this, but wished at the 
same time to be able to continue to observe it. I therefore took a 
glass tube about 2 centims. in diameter, stopped at its extremity by 
a piece of sponge, and 3 inches long ; this I buried in the moist 
earth of a vessel ; then, after filling it with garden mould, I put my 
larva into it. The latter soon set to work with ardour ; by the aid 
of its strong legs and horny mandibles, it quickly buried itself and 
concealed itself from my view. This was on the 7th of September ; 
after waiting eight days I carefully drew out the glass tube, and, to 
my great joy, saw against its walls a small rounded cell in which 
the larva reposed. But the next day (16th September), and there- 
fore nine days after it had buried itself, the skin of this last larva 
split in its turn and left me in presence of the pseudoni/mph, which 
is common, I believe, to all the Vesicantia ; that is to say, there is a 
true chrysalis with a coriaceous envelope surrounding the actual 
nymph, which will be afterwards marked out. 

I ought, perhaps, to have waited for the exclusion before making 
the present communication to the Academy ; but as the last trans- 
formation will not take place till towards the spring, I thought 
that it would be of interest to make known the Cantharis in its 
different forms from the egg to the pseudonympli. The latter is 
slightly arched, of a light brown colour, with the head and feet 
showing themselves in the form of obtuse mamillae. The skin of 
the larva is completely thrown off, whilst in Ileloe it half envelops 
the pseudonymph, and in Sitaris covers it entirely*. — Comptes 
Bendus, October 1, 1877, p. 628. 

* This summary wiU be completed in a memoir that I am preparing 
with M. Valery Mayet, who is at present busy making the drawings of 
the different states of the insect. This paper will appear in the ' Annales 
de la Society entomologique de France.' 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

[FIFTH SERIES.] 
No. 2. FEBKUAEY 1878. 



X IV. — Notes on British Spiders^ with Descriptions of some 
new Species. By the Rev. O. P. Cambridge, M.A., 
C.M.Z.S., &c. 

[Plate XI.] 

My last communication on British spiders was made two years 
ago (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1875, xvi. pp. 237-260, pi. 
viii.). Since that time numerous other avocations have pre- 
vented any very extended researches in British arachnology. 
The results, however, of my own observations, and of the kind 
help of some other naturalists, are subjoined. From these 
results I have now to record five species supposed to be new 
to science, and five others previously described, but only dis- 
covered in Great Britain during the last two years. Ten species 
are thus added to our list of indigenous spiders, which now 
reaches a total of 484 species. Details of all these additions 
will be found below, as well as some rectifications of syno- 
nymy, with observations on habits and other points conceived 
to be of interest to araneologists, both in respect to the new 
additions and to some other species also. 

In the communication mentioned above, I remarked upon 
the very scanty materials extant for any list or history of Irish 
spiders ; and an appeal was made to Irish naturalists to collect 
and send me spiders from Ireland. I have had one kind 
response to this from Mr. T. Workman of Belfast, who has 
sent me a good many spiders during the last year, all of them, 
however, belonging to species already known, and one only 
being of any rarity — Drepanodus alhipunctatus^ Cambr. {vide 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 8 



106 Kev. 0. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

inf)-h, p. 115). I now await further collections, kindly pro- 
mised to me by Mr. Workman ; and I venture again to ask 
other Irish naturalists to collect and send me spiders from 
their several localities, so that after a while I may have a fair 
amount of material for a " List of the Spiders of Ireland." 
Collectors need not be at the trouble of separating their cap- 
tures ; all I desire is some of every kind ; and these can be 
safely sent to me by post in strong half-ounce or one-ounce 
phials. 

Order Aran E IDEA. 
Fam. Theraphosides. 
Genus Atypus, Latr. 

Atyjpus piceus. 

Atypus piceus, Sulzer, Cambr. Ann. & Mag. N. PI. 1875, xvi. p. 238, 

pi. viii. fig. 2. 
Atypus Sulzeri, Blackw. Spid. Great Biit. & Ireland, p. 14, pi. i. 

fig. 1. 

Since the publication of my last notice of this species (Z. c. 
su^jra) no further materials have come before me for the more 
satisfactory determination of the synonymic position of this 
and our other species of the genus Atypus. I have, however, 
lately found a strong colony of this spider under the over- 
hanging ledges of a heathy bank on Bloxworth Heath ; and 
examples of both sexes in the adult state have been kindly 
sent to me not long since from Hampstead by Mr. F. Enock of 
London. The remarks made {t. c. p. 240) upon the nests of 
A. Sulzeri^ have been fully confirmed by the observations made 
since upon the nests dug out here, and upon those received 
from Mr. Enock. On one point, however, I am still in doubt ; 
and that is, in regard to the branch occasionally found leading 
into, or out of, the main tube. Out of ten tubes dug out on 
Bloxworth Heath, four were furnished with a branch ; but no 
two of them exactly resemble each other, either in the size or 
in the position of the branch. In one instance the branch 
issued from the tube at about 2g inches from its lower extre- 
mity, and, running upwards at an acute angle, protruded from 
the surface among the heather-stems, exactly like the main 
tube and at about 3 inches from it, the branch, however, 
being about half the size of the tube, which measured 8^ inches 
in length. In another instance the branch issued from the 
tube at about the same distance from its lower extremity, but, 
instead of running upwards, it ran downwards, at an acute 
angle, to a depth of about 2 inches, being, however, as large as, 



Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 107 

if not rather larger than, the tube itself. In another instance 
(one of Mr. Enock's Hampsteacl examples) the branch issues 
close to the surface of the ground, and appears to form merely 
a short supernumerary entrance to the tube : in this case the 
branch is no more than an inch long. I am unable to conjec- 
ture what the significance of these branched tubes may be. 
In regard to the trapdoor spiders of South Europe, the researches 
of the late Mr. Moggridge appear to prove that the presence 
or absence of branches to the main tubes indicate specific dis- 
tinctions in the spiders by which they are formed ; in the 
present instance, however, this is certainly not so. A some- 
what similar branching has been found to exist occasionally 
in the tubes of a New-Zealand species of Nemesia [N. 
QilUesu, Cambv.) ; but in this instance I have conjectured that, 
the main tube having become choked (as has been the case) 
with debris of insects and other extraneous matters, the for- 
mation of a fresh portion of tube became necessary. In 
the branched tubes of Atypus picens the branches have not 
been in any way choked. The enlargements met with in all the 
larger tubes are probably intended for the reception of the egg- 
cocoon, and subsequently for the accommodation of the infant 
brood until such time as they leave the home nest and form 
separate tubes for themselves. In all cases that have come 
before me the upper (and projecting) extremity of the nest has 
been devoid of any perceptible orifice. It struck me at first 
that there might be an elasticity in that portion of the tube, 
which, while permitting the spider to effect its exit and return, 
would cause the orifice again to close. I am now inclined to 
think that the spider gnaws its Avay out, and after its return 
closes the orifice by fresh threads with its spinners, an opera- 
tion which it would perform without difficulty in a very few 
minutes. 

Before separating and spinning tubes for themselves, the 
young brood appear to leave the home nest and take up their 
residence in an irregular web spun among the surrounding- 
herbage. This, at leasts is the conclusion I come to from 
Mr. Enock's finding a considerable number of young in a web 
on a broom-bush close to the colony in April 1876, These 
young were much smaller than 129 others found, in the No- 
vember following, within a tube. One of the tubes dug out 
on Bloxworth Heath in September 1877 contained, in the 
enlargement near its lower extremity, about 100 very small 
young ones. 

The three adult males found by Mr. Enock were all in 
tubes. 

8* 



108 Rev. 0. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

Farm. Dictynides. 

Genus Lethia, Menge. 

Lethia patula, sp. n. 

Lethia patula, Sim. {in Uteris). 

Adult female, length 2 lines. 

Cephalothorax oblong-oval, moderately convex above ; caput 
rather long ; lateral margins at its junction with the thoracic 
segments strongly constricted, fore part rather broad and trun- 
cated ; occipital region rounded, and forming the highest part 
of the cephalothorax ; hinder slope gradual ; height of the 
clypeus greater than the diameter of one of the fore central 
eyes, but less than half the height of the facial space ; the 
normal grooves and indentations are visible, but not strongly 
marked. The colour of the cephalothorax is yellow-brown, 
darkest on the caput, glossy, and with a few coarse hairs on 
the upper part, chiefly towards the fore part of the caput, and 
on the clypeus. 

The eyes are of moderate dimensions, and not very unequal 
in size ; they are disposed in four pairs, forming two nearly 
straight lines not far removed from each other. Those of the 
anterior row are separated from each other by equal intervals 
of about an eye's diameter. The interval between those of 
the hind central pair is rather less than that between each and 
4:he lateral eye of the same row on its side ; those of each 
lateral pair are seated obliquely on a tubercle, but are dis- 
tinctly sepai'ated from each other, though by a rather less in- 
terval than that which separates the fore and hind central 
pairs. 

The legs are short and not very strong, and their relative 
length is 4, 1, 2, 3. They are of a brownish-yellow colour 
with a very faint trace of darker annulations, which may 
perhaps be more marked in some examples than in others ; 
they are furnished with numerous coarse bristly hairs ; and the 
posterior side of the metatarsi of the fourth pair have a cala- 
mistrum which runs throughout almost the whole length of 
the joint. 

The palpi are of moderate length, and are similar in colour 
and armature to the legs. 

The falces are strong, of moderate length, prominent at 
their base in front, straight, and perpendicular ; they are of a 
dark yellow-brown colour, furnished with bristly hairs, and 
armed at their extremities on the inner side with several small 
teeth of different sizes. 



Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. .100 

The maxillce are rather large, of an elongate-oblong form, 
obliquely truncated on the outer sides at their extremity, and 
inclined towards the labium ; they are of a yellow-brown 
colour, tipped with a paler hue, and furnished with coarse hairs, 
some of which (of a papilliform nature) from a kind of tuft 
at their extremities. 

The labium is of an oblong form, rounded at its apex, and 
about two thirds as long as the maxiilai, to which it is similar 
in colour. 

The sternum is heart-shaped, furnished with coarse hairs, 
and similar in colour to the cephalo thorax. 

The abdomen is oval, and of considerable convexity on the 
upperside ; its colour is yellow-brown with various indistinct 
markings of a paler hue, many of them, however, being fur- 
nished with coarse whitish hairs ; it has thence a more distinctly 
mottled appearance. Two pale longitudinal, rather broken, 
curved and opposed lines occupy the fore part of the upperside, 
and are followed (to the spinners) by several transverse 
angular lines or chevrons, formed of small pale spots, the 
terminal spot on each side being a small patch or blotch ; the 
pale spots and markings on the sides assume a rather obliquely 
linear form. In front of the ordinary spinners, which are 
short and of a yellow-brown colour, is the supernumerary 
mamillary organ common to the genus. The genital aperture 
presents the appearance of two roundish reddish-brown open- 
ings rather widely separated in a transverse line, and nearly 
concealed by coarse, dark, bristly hairs. 

Although very nearly allied to Letliia puta (Cambr.), and 
resembling it closely in general colours and appearance, this 
spider is easily distinguished by its much larger size and a 
different form of the genital aperture. 

The specimen from which I have made the above descriji- 
tion was kindly given to me by Mons. Eugtjne Simon, by 
whom it was found in the summer of 1870, at Newhaven, in 
Sussex. I have retained for this species the nom de cabinet 
under which it was sent to me by M. Simon. 

Letliia albispiraculis^ sp. n. (PI. XI. fig. 1.) 

Adult female, length 1^ line. 

This spider is nearly allied to L. ijatida^ resembling it 
closely in its general form, hue, and appearance ; it is, how- 
ever, smaller ; and the three examples examined are all of a 
darker hue and of a more closely freckled look upon the abdo- 
men, upon which also the spots of white hairs are very dis- 
tinct, though liable to be rubbed off, and so to leave only the 
brownish-yellow hue of the markings. A very tangible dis- 



110 Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

tinction is furnished by tlie spiracular plates beneath the 
tore extremity of the abdomen : these are of a bright white 
colour, and in some examples are shining and very con- 
spicuous. 

Three examples, all females, were found under stones on 
the Chesil beach, close to the Isle of Portland, in June 1875. 
This spider is also nearly allied to L. puta, Cambr. ; but it is 
rather larger, darker- coloured, and of a shorter, stouter form ; 
it is also easily distinguished from that species by the white 
spiracular plates. 

Fam. Drassides. 
Genus Gnaphosa, Latr. 

GnapJiosa cmglica. 

Gnaphosa anfflica, Cambr. Linn. Trans, xxvii. p. 410, pi. 54. fig. 10. 

Adult and immature examples of both sexes of this rare and 
local species were found in parts of Bloxworth Heath from 
the 7th to the 16th of June, 1877. This spider secretes itself 
under stones, but chiefly under the dry crust formed by the 
desiccation of the small muddy puddles which abound wher- 
ever the turf has been previously pared off for fuel. In these 
situations there is generally, until after midsummer, the 
amount of dampness so essential to the life of many spiders. 

Genus Drassus, Walck. 

Drassus delinquens. 

Drassus delinquens, Cambr. Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1875, xvi. p. 245, 
pi. viii. fig. 4. 

An adult male and two adult females were found in similar 
situations to those in which the last species was found, on the 
7th of June, 1877. 

The male differs very little in size, colour, or markings 
from the female (though both sexes vary considerably in re- 
spect to size) ; as, however, the male has not yet been described, 
it will be well to make one or two observations upon it. With 
regard to size, the length of the male found is 2| lines, that of 
one of the females very nearly 3 lines, the other female being 
just 2 lines. 

The palpi of the male are moderately long and tolerably 
strong, of a dull yellow colour, the radial and digital joints 
being tinged with dull orange-brown ; the radial and cubital 
joints are short ; the former is rather the shortest, and has its 
fore extremity on the outer side produced into a strong tapering 



Rev. 0. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. Ill 

apophysis as long as the joint itself, and rather dilated at its 
extremity, very nearly resembling in this respect that of 
Drassus troglodytes^ C. Koch. The digital joint is large, of 
an oval form, and longer than the radial and cubital joints 
together. The palpal organs are well developed, of a tumid- 
oval form behind, marked with two parallel fine brown circum- 
ferent lines ; and there are some rather prominent processes 
towards their fore extremity. 

This spider is nearly allied to Drassus minusculus^ L. Koch 
(which appears to be rather common in France) ; but, I think, 
on a careful comparison of the two species, it is quite dis- 
tinct. The diiferential characters are slight ; but among them 
may be mentioned the closer proximity to each other of the eyes 
of the hind central pair, and a slight difference in the form of 
the genital aperture of the female. The only examples I have 
seen of D. mimisculusj L. K., are also considerably smaller 
than those of D. delinquens. 

Drassus ^uhescens. 

Drassus puhescens, Tkor. Recensio Critica Aran. Suec. p. 100, and Syu. 
Europ. Spid. p. 203 ; L. Koch, Die Arachn.-Fam, der Drassid. 
p. 123, tab. V. figs. 77-79; O. P. Cambridge, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
xxviii. p. 439. 

A adult male of this rare and distinct spider was found, under 
the dry crust formed in small hollows on Bloxworth Heath, 
by the drying up of the muddy water contained in them, on 
the 16th of June, 1877. This is only the second example of 
the species yet found in England ; and it enables me to fix the 
time of its occurrence, which I was unable to do in regard to 
the former example recorded in Linn. Trans. [1. c. supra). 

Drassus hulbifer. 

Drassus hulbifer, Cambr. Proc. Zool. Soc. June 1874, p. 386, pi. li. 
fig. 13. 

An adult male of this spider was found at Lulworth, in 
Dorsetshire, in June 1877, and kindly sent to me by Mr. C. 
AV. Dale, of Glanville's Wootton. The type of the species, 
described I. c. supra, was received among a number of spiders 
of many kinds collected by the late Mr. Richard Beck, of 
Cornhill, London. Being, at the time when these were sent 
to me, under the impression that some of them were obtained 
on the continent of Europe, I concluded that the example of 
D. hulbifer was a continental one. I have since had occasion 
to doubt this, and I feel convinced now that they were all 
English specimens. Some were, I know, found near London 
and others at Hastings ; it is probable that the example 



112 Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

referred to of the present spider was from this latter locality ; 
at any rate the example found by Mr. Dale settles the ques- 
tion of its being a British spider. So far as I am aware, it is 
not yet known on the continent. It cainiot be mistaken for 
any, as yet known, British species of Drassus ; its black abdo- 
men marked with six pale spots clothed with white hairs on 
the upperside, and its yellow legs, the femora of the first two 
pairs being black, render it a very striking and distinct- 
looking spider. Between the four anterior white spots on the 
abdomen is a large, oblong-oval, shining, deep-brown-black 
patch. 

Genus Clubiona, Latr. 

Cluhiona ccerulescens. 

Clubiona cfBvulescens, L. Koch, Die Arachn.-Fam. der Drassid. p. 331, 

pi. xiii. figs. 213-215. 
Clubiona valuta, Cambr. Joiirn, Linn. Soc. xi. p. 533, pi. xiv. fig. 3. 

When this spider was described under the last-mentioned 
name I had not had an opportunity of examining the female 
of C. ccerulescens^ L. K. ; 1 have now no doubt of the identity 
of these two spiders. A second British example of the female 
was found at Bloxworth several years ago, and overlooked for 
the time among a number of others of the same genus. 

Genus Cheieacanthium, C. Koch. 
Cheiracanthium nutrix. 

Cheiracanthium nutrix, Westr. Aran. Suec. p. 378 ; Cambr. Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xxviii. p. 531, pi. xlvi. fig. 4. 

The only British examples of this spider yet recorded were 
found in Lancashire and in Scotland ; lately, in September 
1877, one was found on Bloxworth Heath, by my son Robert 
Jocelyn. 

Genus Agrceca. 

Agroeca hrunnea. 
Agelena brunnea, Bl. Spid. Great Brit. & Irel. p. 159, pi. x. fig. 102. 

This is the spider to which is attributed the little white 
pear-shaped egg-cocoons attached to grass-stems, rushes, and 
other portions of low herbage, and frequently found in nume- 
rous localities. It is probable, however, that (in the south of 
England, at all events) the greater number of these are formed 
by an allied species, ^. ^roa;^»^a, Cambr., this last species 
being an abundant one, while A. hrunnea is very rare. During 
many years I have never found more than three or four ex- 



Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British S^yiders. 113 

araples of A. brimnea, A. proxima being for a long time 
mistaken for it. In spite of the frequent occurrence of the 
little egg-cocoons referred to, as well as of the last-mentioned 
spider, I have never yet been able satisfactorily to connect 
them together. The cocoons are covered over, very soon after 
they are made and the eggs deposited in them, with a coating 
of clay, which effectually destroys all their form and beauty. 
This coating of clay answers probably two ends: — first, the con- 
cealment of the cocoon and its protection from insect enemies ; 
and, secondly, the protection of the eggs from the too powerful 
rays of the sun, dry clay being (as is well known) one of the 
best non-conductors of heat. 

An adult female of A. brunnea was found at Bloxworth, 
Dorset, on the 2nd of June, 1876, and an adult male was 
received, in November 1877, from Mr. C. W. Dale, by whom 
it was found a short time previously at Glanville's Wootton, 
Dorset. 

A. W. M. Van Hasselt, in a long paper upon the little 
pear-shaped cocoons referred to (Tijdschr. Ent. xix. pp. 28-42, 
pi. i. 1876), comes to the conclusion that there are certainly two, 
if not more, species of Agroeca by which they are con- 
structed ; the cocoons differing perhaps in size, and the external 
coating of clay being possibly of specific importance. 

Genus Leioceanum, L. Koch. 

Leiocranum prcelongipes. 

Drassus pr(^longipes, Cambr. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. June 1861. 
Leiocranum prcelongipes, Cambr. Trans. Linn. Soc. xxviii. p. 439, 
pi. xsxiii. fig. 4. 

On the 22nd of June, 1877, I met with this hitherto very 
rare spider in abundance among the coarse star-grass on the 
sand-hills close to the sea at Studland, Dorsetshire. Both 
sexes were present ; but none had quite attained maturity. 

Fam. Agelenides. 
Genus Tegenaeia, Latr. 

Tegenaria cam'pestris. 

Tegenaria campestris, Walck. Ins. Apt. torn. ii. p. 9 ; C. Koch, Die 
Aracbn. viii. p. 34, ^1. 263. figs. 615, 616 ; Cambr. Zool. for 1861, 
p. 7559, and Trans. Linn. Soc. xxviii. p. 443, 

Adults of both sexes were found under old casks and among 
logs of wood in a fuel-house at Bloxworth in December 1876. 
Up to that time I had met with this spider but rarely, and 
always out of doors. I have more lately received it from Mr. 



114 Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders, 

C. W. Dale, by whom adult females were found at Glanville's 
Woottouj Dorset. 

Fam. Pholcides. 

Pholcus phalangioideSj Fuessl. 

An opportunity occurring not long since of observing the 
mode in which this spider secured its prey, the following 
notes upon it will perhaps be worth recording. 

A fly of tolerable size became entangled among the outer 
lines of the snare ; the spider immediately approached, but no 
nearer than just to reach the fly with the legs of the hinder 
(or fourth) pair ; it then drew silken lines from its spinners, 
and secured them to the fly with the same legs ; this was 
immediately followed by a rapid alternate winding action upon 
the fly, effected also by the hinder pair of legs, occasionally 
assisted by one of those of the third pair ; the fly was thus 
quickly and completely wound up, and then at once carried 
off" to the recesses of the snare in the claws of the fourth pair 
of legs. No bite was inflicted upon the fly, which possibly 
may have been thus kept a living captive for days to come in 
the spider's larder. A very similar mode of securing their 
prey is also adopted by some species of Epeirides. 

Fam. Theridiides. 

Genus Pholcomma, Thor. 

Pholcomma gihhum, Westr. 

Theridion projecttan, Cambr. Zoologist, 1862, p. 7962. 

An adult male and female of this curious little spider were 
found in the sheltered angle of a verandah at Bloxworth on 
the 19th of February, 1877, and another male in the same 
situation on the 10th of April following. These examples 
had probably lived through the winter in the adult state ; 
those captured in former years were generally found adult from 
the beginning to the end of summer, and at the roots of 
heather. 

Genus Theridion, Walck. 

Theridion familiar e. 

Theridion familiare, Oambr. Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvii. p. 418, pi. 55. 
fig. 15. 

Adults of both sexes were found in the angles of the wood- 
work of doors of outbuildings at Bloxworth Rectory on the 
12th of July, lb77. I have not met with this spider in any 



E,ev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 115 

other locality ; nor has it yet been noted upon the continent of 
Europe. 

Theridion tepidariorum. 

TherlcHon tepidariormn, C. Koch, Die Araclin. ; O. P. Cambridge, 
Entomologist, July 1877, vol. x. p. 175. 

On the 12th July, 1877, I met with an adult male of this 
species in the porch of Bloxworth Rectory. This example is 
very much smaller than those usually found in greenhouses 
and hothouses, and it is only the second example I have 
ever found in any other than these situations [conf. ' Entomo- 
logist,' X. p. 175, where an adult male is recorded as found 
in a carrot-bed in the kitchen garden at Bloxworth ; this spe- 
cimen is still smaller than the one found in the porch). It is 
probably a spider of great delicacy of constitution, and there- 
fore of great rarity, except in such favourable situations as a 
greenhouse or hothouse, where it would naturally thrive well 
and grow to a comparatively large size. 

Genus Eeigone, Savigny. 

Erigone [NerienCj Bl.) longipalpis. 

Neriene lonqqmlpis, Sund. ; Oambr. Linn. Trans, xxviii. p. 447, pi. 34. 
figs. 23, 24. 

Adults of both sexes of this spider were found, under ddbris 
&c., on the sands near the seashore at Studland, on the 22nd 
of June, 1877. I have hitherto found this species very rarely 
in the south of England, the more abundant (though very 
closely allied) forms being Erigone dentipalpis, Westr., and 
E. atra^ Bl., both of which also occurred at Studland and in 
a similar situation. 

Erigone [Neriene) Clarkii. 

Neriene Clarkii, Cambr. Linn. Trans, xxvii. p. 441, pi. 56. fig 20 and 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Oct. 1876, p. 246. ' 

An adult male of this rare spider was found under a piece 
of old board in the garden at Bloxworth, on the 24th of May 
1877. ^' 

Erigone {Drepanodus, Menge) albipunctata. 

Neriene albipunctata, Cambr. Linn. Trans, xxviii. p. 451, pi. 34. fig. 15 
and p. 541. 

An adult male and female were found among the coarse 
star-grass and other herbage on the sand-hills near the sea at 
Studland in June 1877. These are the first females I have 
met with ; and they differ from the male only in the absence 



116 Rev. 0. P. Cambridge on British Sjjiders. 

of the great development of the falces so conspicuously cha- 
racteristic of that sex. I have lately received an adult male 
of this spider from Mr. T. Workman, by whom it was found 
and kindly sent to me from the neighbourhood of Belfast. 

Erigone {Walckenaiira , Bl.) erythropus. 

Walchena'era harealis, Cambr. Zoologist for 1862, p. 7967. 
W. enjthropus, Menge, Cambr. Linn. Trans, xxviii. p. 453. , 

An adult male of this rare species was found among star- 
grass on the Studland sand-hills in June 1877. 

Erigone {Walckenaera, Bl.) affinitata. 

Walchena'era affinitata, Cambr. Zoologist, 1863, p. 8691 ; id. Linn. 
Trans, xxviii. p. 454. 

In company with the last spider I also found a single 
example of the adult male of this very rare and distinct 
species. 

Erigone {Walckenaera) atro-tihialis, sp. n. (PI. XI. fig. 3.) 

Adult female, length 1 line. 

The ceplialothorax is oval ; the lateral constrictions on the 
margins of the caput are not very strong ; but when looked at 
in profile there is a deep curved ]iotch or indentation, caused 
by the slight elevation of the upper part of the caput and the 
rather unusual elevation of the thoracic junction. The colour 
of the cephalothorax is yellow ; the caput and normal 
indentations strongly suffused with black. 

The eyes are on black spots and in two transverse and 
almost equally curved rows, forming an oval figure ; the fore- 
most row is the shortest. The interval between those of the 
hind central pair is slightly less than that between each and 
the hind lateral eye next to it. The eyes of the fore central 
pair are nearly but not quite contiguous to each other, and 
appear to be rather the largest of the eight, the rest being 
very nearly of equal size. The fore laterals are very near to 
(though distinctly separated from) the fore centrals ; those of 
each lateral pair are contiguous to each other and are placed 
obliquely on a slight tubercle. The height of the clypeus is 
equal to half that of the facial space. 

The legs are moderately long, slender, not greatly differ- 
ing in length; their relative length appears to be 4, 1, 2, 3; 
they are furnished with coarse hairs and a few erect slender 
bristles, and are of a yellow colour, the tibiaj of all four pairs 
' being black. 

The palpi are moderate in length and strength ; the radial 



Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 117 

joint is nearly equal in length to the digital, and enlarges 
gradually from its hinder to its fore extremity, where its size 
is the same as that of the base of the digital joint. Their 
colour and ai*mature are like those of the legs. 

The/a^ces are moderately strong, rather long, perpendicular, 
and a little divergent at their extremities, and their colour is 
yellowish suffused with sooty brown. 

The inaxillce^ labium^ and sternum are similar in colour to 
the falces. The maxillce are rather strong, short, inclined to 
the labium, but straight. 

The abdomen is oval, thinly clothed with hairs, and of a 
sooty-black colour, strongly tinged with dull yellowish on the 
sides and underneath. The form of the genital aperture 
(fig. 3, c) is characteristic and conspicuous. 

A single adult female of this species was found, on the 14tli 
of June 1876, among dead leaves in a wood at Bloxworth. 
It differs rather from the typical Walckenaerce in the form of 
the maxillse, but in no other respects sufficiently to justify its 
removal from that group. 

Genus LiNYPHiA, Latr. 
LinypMa ? incerta^ sp. n. (PI. XI. fig. 2.) 

Adult female, length 1 line. 

This spider is very nearly allied to L. ohlonga^ Cambr. 
(Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvii. p. 433). It is, however, larger and 
darker-coloured, though resembling tliat species very closely 
in general form and appearance. It may be distinguished 
readily by the larger size of the eyes, which, instead of being, 
as in L. oblonga^ all of a pearly-white colour, have those of 
the fore central pair of a dark hue. The relative position of 
the eyes is the same in both species. The height of the 
clypeus exceeds half that of the facial space. 

The legs are long, slender, their relative length being 
4, 1, 2, 3. They are furnished with bristly hairs and long, 
fine, prominent spines ; the length of the spine near the poste- 
rior extremity of the tibise of the fourth pair is equal to (if it 
does not exceed) three times the diameter of the joint. 

The palpi are rather long, slender, and furnished with hairs 
and spine-like bristles. 

The falces are long, strong, prominent at their base in 
front, and strongly directed backwards towards the maxillce. 
These, as well as the labium and sternum, are similar to those 
of L. oblonga. 

The abdomen is of an oblong-oval form, rather flattened, 
and projects considerably over the base of the cephalothorax. 



118 Rev. 0. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

It is of a dull brownish-yellow colour, with a somewhat 
darker tapering stripe along the middle of the fore half of the 
upperside. It is fairly clothed with coarse hairs of a darker 
colour than the abdomen itself. The genital aperture is large 
and conspicuous ; its form is that of a circle with a portion 
(less than half) cut oif ; and it is suffused with red-brown and 
placed at the hinder part of a circular shining prominence. 
The spinners are partially concealed by the projecting around 
them of the somewhat folded integument of the hinder extre- 
mity of the abdomen, which shows very strongly several suc- 
cessive transverse folds of the skin, indicating doubtless the 
once segmented condition of the abdomen in the primseval 
spider. 

A single example of this species was found by myself on 
the wall of the village school at Bloxworth, on the 5tli of June, 
1877. 

I have included this spider doubtfully in the genus Liny- 
phia^ to which L. ohlonga was referred by Dr. L. Koch on 
account of the spines on the legs. I have still, however, the 
same doubts as to the generic position of the present spider 
which I expressed in the description of L. ohlonga {I. c. 
luprh). 

Linyph ia furtiva . 

Linyphia furtiva^ Cambr. Linn. Trans, xxvii. p. 425, pi. 55. fig. 20. 

An adult male and two females were found among star- 
grass on the Studland sand-hills in June 1877, I had only 
met with it previously (and that very rarely) on Bloxworth 
Heath. 

Linyphia parvula, Westr. 

Linyphia lo7igipes, Cambr. Linn. Trans, xxvii. p. 430, pi. 55. fig. 24. 

Two adult males were found among low herbage in a plan- 
tation on Muston Down, near Bloxworth, on the 11th of 
June, 1877. It had previously only been found (as British) 
in Lancashire. It is nearly allied to L. aeria, Cambr. {vide 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1875, vol. xvi. p. 252). 

Linyphia linguata. 

Linyphia linguata^ Cambr. Linn. Trans, xxviii. p. 537, pi. 46. fig. 8. 

During the summer of 1877 I received an adult female of 
this spider from Mr. C. W. Dale, by whom it was found at 
Glanville's Wootton ; the only previous occurrence of it was 
near Berwick-on-Tweed, in the spring of 1872 (/. c. suprh). 



Rev. O. P. Cambridge 07i British Spiders. 119 

Fam. Epeirides. 
Genus ZiLLA, Koch. 

Zilla acalt/pha, var. (PI. XI. fig. 4.) 

Epeira acalypha, Walck. Ins. Apt. ii. p. 50 ; Thorell, Syn. Eur. Spid. 
p. 454. 

Female adult, length 2 lines. 

The cephalothorax is rather strongly constricted on the 
lateral margins at the junction of the thorax and caput j this 
latter is rather produced, and the thoracic portion rounded, 
with the normal grooves and indentations well-marked ; the 
highest point of the thorax is (when looked at in profile) 
rather higher than the upper part of the caput, the interval 
being depressed. The height of the cljpeus is about equal to 
half that of the facial space. The colour of the cephalothorax 
is yellow. The margins, as well as a strong central longitu- 
dinal tapering bar reaching from just behind the eyes to the 
thoracic junction, black. 

The eyes are in four pairs, seated on black tubercles : those 
of the two central pairs form a rectangle whose length is 
greater than its width, the hind centrals being larger than the 
fore centrals : those of each lateral pair are rather further from 
the hind laterals than these are from each other; when looked 
at sideways the lateral pairs range more nearly in a straight 
line with the hind than with the fore centrals, these latter 
being placed on a rather strong prominence. 

The legs are moderate in length and strength ; their relative 
length (as well as strength) is 1, 2, 4, 3 ; they are similar in 
colour to the cephalothorax, and are armed with not very 
strong spines; the femora are longitudinally but obscurely 
marked on the outer side with two almost confluent or diffused 
sooty lines ; and the rest of the joints, particularly the tibiae, are 
spotted and blotched Avith black. 

The palpi are rather slender, moderate in length, and similar 
in colour and markings to the legs. 

1l\\& falces axe, short and moderately strong, conical, directed 
backwards, and strongly suffused with brown. 

The maxillce and labium are of normal form, of a dark 
black-brown colour, tipped with yellowish. 

The sternum is also of a similar colour. 

The abdomen is large, of an oval form, rather pointed in 
front, where it projects greatly over the base of the cephalo- 
thorax ; the upperside is of a yellowish- white or cream-colour, 
marked with a very distinctly defined, black marking, oblong 
behind, and continued almost to the fore extremity in the form 



120 Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

of a stripe, wliose fore part runs off to a point and has a pro- 
minently projecting point on each side, making it of a some- 
what ^^eitr-fie-Zj/s form ; on each side near the fore extremity 
is also another cm'ved black marking ; the oblong black area 
has four white spots near the middle in two pairs, forming an 
oblong figure ; the foremost pair are much the largest. The 
sides are dark brown, marked obscurely, but somewhat ob- 
liquely, with two black stripes towards the hinder part ; the 
underside forms a black area bounded on each side with a 
broken longitudinal stripe formed by some yellowish-white 
blotches. 

The example above described was found and kindly for- 
warded to me by Mr, C. W. Dale from the Isle of Portland, 
in September 1877. It appears to me to be only a variety of 
Zilla acalypha, Walck. ; but its markings are so very distinctly 
and strongly defined that I have been induced to figure it and 
to describe it at length : out of many hundred examples of 
the species that have come under my notice (both British and 
continental European) no such variety has ever been before 
observed. 

N.B. The legs of the first two pairs in the figure (fig. 4, 
PL XI.) are rather too short. 

Epeira Westringii. 

Epeira Westrmqii, Thorell, Recensio Critica Aranearum, p. 106 ; id. 
Syn. Eur. Spid. pp. 22, 648. 

This spider is closely allied to E. cucurhitina^ Clk., resem- 
bling it remarkably in general appearance, structure, and 
colour 5 it may, however, be distinguished without difficulty 
(in the male sex at least) by the absence of the two dark longi- 
tudinal bands on the cephalothorax, and by the smaller size 
of the digital joints of the palpi (including the palpal organs) ; 
these latter are also a little different in their structure. I 
cannot at present lay hold of any such tangible distinctions 
between theyB??2aZe5 of -£/. West7'ingii sm^ E. cucarhitina. Dr. 
Thorell remarks (Syn. Eur. Spid. p. 549) upon the difficulty 
of distinguishing these, and the more especially as there is 
another species (not yet found in England), E. alpica., L. 
Koch, equally closely allied to both those other spiders. 

An adult male and, I believe, a female also were received 
at the end of June 1877 from Mr. C. W. Dale, by whom 
they were found at Glanville's Wootton. This is its first 
record as British. 

Epeira adianta^ C. Koch. 
Males and females of this beautiful spider (all, hoAvever, im- 



Rev, O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 121 

mature) were found, in their orbicular snares, at Lulworth, in 
June 1877. I have met with it also in various other localities ; 
and probably it would be found sparingly in most of the wild 
heathy districts of the south of England. 

Epeira diademata, Clerck. 
It would be interesting to ascertain exactly at what period 
the young of this common spider begin to construct the 
orbicular snare characteristic of the family to which it be- 
longs. On the 18th of May I found a brood of young 
which had effected their first change of integument ; but they 
were still living in a certain sort of community, and spinning 
only irregular lines fixed in various directions to the sur- 
rounding plants. 

Genus Cyrtophoea, Sim. 

Gyrtophora conica. 

Ejmra eonica, Walck., Blackw. Spid. Great Brit. & Irel. p. 362, pi. xxvii. 
fig. 261. 

On the 30th of May 1876 I discovered a very beautiful and 
perfect web of this spider, spun between the leaves of a pear- 
tree, the adult female occupying, as usual, the centre of the snare. 
Observing an unusual appearance in the web near her, I 
found on a close examination that a space above an inch in 
length, both above and below the centre of the snare, and en- 
closed iDCt ween two adjoining radii, was warped across andacross 
and wound about with white flocculus of an adhesive nature, 
very similar to that found on the lines of the sna.re of Amaui^ohms 
ferox, C. Koch. On a very slight movement of the web the 
spider raised itself upon the extremities of its tarsi, and by 
means of a strong muscular movement, aided no doubt by its 
own weight, imparted to itself a rapid vibratory motion for 
half a minute or more, repeating it on each disturbance of the 
web. I have noticed similar vibrations in some other Epeirids 
and also in Pholcus phalangioides. The vibration is proba- 
bly intended to shake any insect entangled slightly in the 
outskirts of the snare still further into it ; and the adhesive 
flocculus is doubtless to aid in the entanglement when the final 
struggle comes. 

Genus Xysticus, C. Koch. 

Xysticus versutus. 

Thomisus versutus, Blackw. Spid. Gr. Brit. & Irel. p. 83, pi. iv. fig, 49. 
Thomisus pallidum, Bl. /. c. p. 82, pi. iv. fig. 48. 

Xysticus horticola, C. Koch, Die Arachn. iv. p. 74, tab. 129. figs. 296- 
298. 

After a very careful examination of the types of this spider 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol.'i. 9 



122 Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

and a comparison with the type of Xysticus pallidus, Bl., and 
examples of X horticola, C. Koch (the latter received from 
Dr. L. Koch), I feel no doubt whatever that these three 
species are identical. The form of the projections at the outer 
extremity of the radial joint of the male palpus is very stri- 
king, and presents a curiously differing appearance from every 
fresh point of view. This has, no doubt, in great measure, led 
to the mistaking of the different individuals for different species. 
X. pallidus is simply the pale (and only slightly spotted) 
variety. Dr. L. Koch agrees with me in considering the 
three spiders mentioned above to be of one species ; but Dr. 
Thorell still doubts the identity of T. versutus, Bl., and X. 
horticolaj C. Koch. 

Xysticus sanctuarius. 

Xysticus sancttiarius, Cambr. Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvii. p. 405, pi. 54. 
fig. 8. 

Several examples of the adult male of this spider were 
received in September 1877 from Mr. C. W. Dale, by whom 
they were found at Lulworth, Dorset. It had previously only 
been found at Bloxworth. It appears to have been also found 
recently in several localities in France. (See Oxyptila sanc- 
tuariaf E. Simon, ^ Arachnides de France,' vol. ii. p. 217.) 

Genus Thomisus. 

Thomisus onustus, Walck. 

Thomisvs abbreviatiis, Bl. Brit. & Ir. Spid. p. 90, pi. i^-. fig. 54 ; Walck. 
Ins. Apt. torn. i. p. 516. 

An immature female and male of this rare and pretty spider 
were received, in September 1877, from Mr. C. W. Dale, by 
whom they were found near Wareham, Dorset. 

Genus Philodromus, Walck. 
Philodromus lineatipes^ sp. n. (PL XI. fig. 5.) 

Female immature, length 1 line. 

In its general form and structure this spider resembles P. 
aureolus^ Clk. The cephalothorax is of a dull brownish- 
yellow colour, marked on the sides (and on the upper part 
of the caput, between the eyes) with rather reddish brown, 
chiefly following the direction of the normal indentations ; the 
ocular region has a few strong bristly hairs upon it. 

The eyes are placed on slight tubercles, in the form of 
a crescent ; they are small and differ very little in size. 
The interval between those of the hind central pair is greater 



Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 123 

than that between each and the hind lateral eye on its side j 
and a similar relative distance (though not to so great an 
extent) obtains in regard to the eyes of the front row. The 
four central eyes form a quadrangular figure, whose foremost 
side is the shortest, and its posterior side the longest. 

The legs are short and moderately strong ; those of the 
hinder pair were wanting ; but those of the first are rather 
shorter those of the second and third, while these last two 
appear to differ very little in length ; their colour is pale 
yellowish tinged with brown, the femora, genua, and tibias 
being pretty distinctly marked with one or two longitudinal 
reddish-brown stripes, and they are furnished with hairs and 
bristles. 

The palpi are similar in colour and armature to the legs. 

The falces, maxillce, labium, and sternum are similar in 
colour to the legs. 

The abdomen is of a short oval form, broader towards the 
hinder part than in front ; it is of a dull yellowish red-brown 
hue marked with some whitish markings on the upperside: those 
on the fore part leave a longitudinal tapering central stripe ; 
and those on the hinder part form several ill-defined transverse 
curved lines. 

A single example was contained among the spiders for- 
warded to me several years ago, from Scotland, by Mr. J. W. 
H. Traill. I have hesitated hitherto to describe it as a new 
species, owing to the immaturity of the specimen. It is evi- 
dently allied to P. aureolus, Clk., and to P. cespiticolis, 
Walck. ; but the striped legs appearing to me to distinguish 
it satisfactorily from these species, I now describe it, in the 
confident expectation that, when adults have been found, ray 
view of its specific distinctness will be fully confirmed. 

Genus Thanatus, C. Koch. 

Thanatus hirsutus. 

Philodromus Imsuttis, Cambr. Zoologist, 1863, p. 8565 ; id. Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xxviii. p. 438. 

An adult male and several adult females were found on the 
22nd of June, 1877, at the roots of star-grass and other 
herbage on the Studland sand-hills. The male being new to 
science, I add here a few notes upon it. 

Adult male, length rather over 1^ line. 

The pattern on both the cephalothorax and abdomen is simi- 
lar to that of the female (fully described /. c. supra) ; upon 
the abdomen, however, it is much obscured by the paler parts 
being of a sliglitly sooty-grey hue, caused in some measure by 

9* 



124 Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

grey hairs ; and the whole spider is of a rather darker hue ; 
the legs also are longer. The palpi are short ; the radial and 
cubital joints are very short ; the former is a little shorter than 
the latter, and has not, so far as I can make out, any promi- 
nence or apophysis at the outer extremity ; the digital joint is 
of a narrow oval form, and exceeds in length the radial 
and cubital joints together ; the palpal organs are simple, con- 
sisting of a largish rather prominent oval lobe, with a small 
prominent corneous process near their fore extremity. 

M. Simon writes (' Arachnides de France,' ii. 1875, p. 330), 
*' This species is common on the sand-hills ' de la bale de 
Somme ;' it takes up its abode on the sand at the base of 
large grassy tufts* The male is unknown." 

Fam. Lycosides. 

Genus Pirata, Sund. 

Pirata Knorrii^ Scop. 

Pirata Knorrii, Cambr. Entomologist, 1877, p. 204. 

Dr. L. Koch, of Nuremberg, has kindly sent me an example 
of this species, received by him from the Isle of Arran. It 
is nearly allied to, but quite distinct from, P.piraticus, Clk. & 
Blackw. Dr. Thorell (Syn. Europ. Spid. pp. 343, 344) gives 
the distinctions between P. Knorrii and P. piraticns at full 
length, as well as the difference of the former from P. hygro- 
philus, lLh.OY.,^= Lycosa ^yiscatoria, Bl. 

This spider will probably be found dispersed over the 
marshy districts of the Scotch Highlands. 

Genus Tarentula, Sund. 

Tarentula aculeata, Clerck. 
Tarentula acuJeata, Cambr. Entomologist, 1877, p. 205. 

This spider has hitherto been confused with T. pulverulenta, 
CW.=L7/cosa rapax, Blackw.; it is, however, a much larger 
spider, though resembling it very nearly in colours and mark- 
ings ; the legs are also proportionally longer. The differ- 
ences in this latter respect are given in full detail by Dr. 
Thorell {vide Syn. Europ. Spid. p. 327). 

It is only lately {l. c. supra) that T. aculeata has been 
recorded as a British species, from examples found at Braemar, 
and kindly given to me by Mr. J. W. H. Traill, of the Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen ; it will probably be some day found 
generally dispersed over the Highlands of Scotland. Dr. L. 
Koch, of Nuremberg, has received it from the Isle of Arran. 



Rev. 0. P. Caiubritlge on British Sjjiders. 125 

larentuJa trabalis^ Clerck. 
Lycosa trahalis, 01k., Simon, Araclin. de France, iii. p. 2-57. 

An immature female of this distinct species was received iu 
January 1877 from Mr. Edward Partitt, of Exeter, by whom 
it was found near that city, and kindly sent to me for determi- 
nation. 

Mons. Eugene Simon, to whom it was subsequently sub- 
mitted, is also of opinion that it is the same as L. trahalis^ 
Clk., found by himself abundantly in France [vide I. c. supra). 
It has not before been recorded in Great Britain. 

The only known British species to which it bears any near 
resemblance in the general character of its markings is Taren- 
iula pulverulenta, Clk. {=■ Lycosa rapax^ BL). 

It may, however, be easily distinguished from that species, in 
all its stages, by the yellow hue of the whole spider, and espe- 
cially by the clearly defined, broad, dark, yellow-brown, lateral 
longitudinal bands on the cephalothorax. The legs are yellow, 
the femora being annulated with brown. In the adult state 
its much larger size will distinguish it without difficulty from 
L. rapax^ Bl. 

Genus Lycosa, Latr, (Cambr.). 

Lycosa proxima. (PI. XI. fig. 6.) 

Pardosa proxima, C. Koch, Die Arachn. xv. p. 53, pi. 517. figs. 1453, 
1454. 

This spider is nearly allied to L. obscura, Bl., L. riparia, 
C. Koch, and L.prativaga, L. Koch ; and a close comparison 
of its palpi and palpal organs is necessary in order to distin- 
guish it satisfactorily. It is, however, quite distinct from all 
these ; and among other marks of distinction may be noted 
the longer and more slender palpi of the male and the legs 
only annulated on the femoral joints. In the figure given of 
the palpal organs (fig. 6, h) the peculiar structure of those parts, 
which dificrs distinctly from that of the other species men- 
tioned, may be seen. 

This spider occurs not uncommonly in my kitchen-garden 
at Bloxworth, in the months of April and May ; and I met 
with both sexes in abundance among low herbage on damp 
flats near the sea at Studland on the 22nd June, 1877. 

It is now recorded for the first time as a British species. 

Lycosa monticola^ Clerck. 
Lycosa monticola, Clk., Cambr. Linn. Trans, xxvii. p. 398. 
Until this year (1877) I have met with this spider only 
occasionally in Dorsetshire; but on the 11th of June last 



126 Rev. O. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 

I found it in abundance, botb males and females, in the adult 
state, running about actively on the closely fed and extensive 
downs between Blox worth and Blandford ; none had yet their 
egg-sacs attached to the spinners. 

Lycosa lierhigrada^ Blackw. 

On the 15th and 16th of June, 1877, I had opportunities 
of observing the egg-sacs of this spider shortly after their 
commencement ; these consisted each of a hollow disk of pure 
white silk ; some were further advanced towards completion 
than others ; and although the parent spider was with each of 
the cocoons, none had been yet attached to the spinners. The 
deposition of eggs in the cocoon probably takes but a very short 
time, and is most likely effected soon after the sac has at- 
tained a hemispherical form. The operation of spinning the 
opposite silken hemisphere over the eggs would be quickly 
performed ; and the egg-sac is no doubt then at once attached 
to the spinners. The sac is of a pure white colour until the 
eggs are placed in it ; it then assumes the greenish-olive tint 
usually observed when afterwards the spider bears it about 
with her until the young are hatched. The operation of 
making the egg-sac, laying the eggs in it, and completing 
it takes place usually under a stone, or beneath the dried crust 
of previous muddy puddles. 

Lycosa herhigraday although local, is an abundant spider 
on some parts of the heaths in the south of England, and is 
one of the prettiest and most distinctly marked of all our indi- 
genous species. 

It has been found in Sweden and Germany, but does not 
appear to have been yet met with in France [vide E. Simon, 
Arachn. de France, tome iii. p. 323). 

Lycosa annulata. 

Lycom annulata, Thor., Cambr. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 18^5, xvi. 

p. 256, pi. viii. fig. 10. 
Panlosa hortensis, Sim. Araclinides de France, iii. p. 343. 

When this spider was first recorded as a British species I 
was not able to fix any special locality for it. The examples 
found in my collection were obtained from Portland and at 
Bloxworth, or in the neighbourhood, but were mixed up with 
and mistaken for Lycosa amentata, Clk. ; I have, however, 
during the past season, from the 11th to the end of May, found 
both sexes in the adult state, in tolerable abundance, in Bere- 
wood, near Bloxworth, at the Yarrells, Lytchett Minster, near 
Poole, and in other wooded localities in the neighbourhood. 
It will probably be found to be one of the most abundant 



Rev. 0. P. Cambridge on British Spiders. 127 

species of Lycosa in the woods and waste grounds of the south 
of England, as it also is, in similar situations, in most parts of 
France. 

Fam. Salticides. 

Genus Hasarius, Simon. 

Hasarius citus. 

Salticm citus, Cambi*. Zoologist, 1863, p. 8561. 

An adult male of this spider was kindly sent to me in a 
living state for determination, in 1873, by Mr. F. Smith 
(of the British Museum). This example was found, I 
understood, among the botanical collections in the museum, 
and hence miglit be considered to have been imported from 
abroad among some dried plants. In October last (1877) 
another adult example of the same sex was received from the 
Kev. A.E.Eaton; this latter example was captured in an orchid- 
house at the Kew Gardens, where it was most probably intro- 
duced with exotic plants. This spider must tlierefore, so far as 
our present evidence goes, be considered merely an imported 
species. It is very nearly allied to Hasarius Adansonii, 
Savigny, but, I tliink, is distinct from it. This latter species 
is found in France, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Greece, 
Mauritius, and Bombay. I have undoubted examples of H. 
citus from Manilla ; and it is possible that it may eventually 
turn out to be only an unusually distinctly marked variety of 
H. Adansonii. 

Genus Marpessa, C. Koch. 

Marpessa pomatia. 

Marpessa pomatia, Walck., Simon, Arachn. de France, iii. p. 26. 
Salticus Blackwallii, Clai'k, Blackw. Hist. Spid. Great Brit, and Irel. 
p. 62, pi. iii. fig. 34. 

I have lately received from M. Simon both sexes of M. 
pomatiaj Walck. ; and, after a careful comparison of the two, 
I feel no doubt whatever that it is identical with Salticus 
Blackwallii, Clark. The single example found at Southport, 
Lancashire, and which formed the type of Mr. Hamlet 
Clark's species, still remains the only recorded British speci- 
men. It is also a rare spider in France. The palpi and 
palpal organs of the male are exceedingly remarkable in their 
development. 

List of the Sp>iders noted and described. 

Atypus piceus, Sulz., p. 106. Lethia albispiractdis, sp. n., p. 109, 

Lethia patula, sp. n., p. 108. PI. XI. fig. 1. 



128 



Mr. H. J. Carter on Sponges from the 



Gnaphosa anglica, Cambr., p. 110. 
Drassus delijiquens, Cambr,, p. 110. 
—— puhescens, Thorell, p. 111. 

bulbtfer, Cambr., p. 111. 

Cluhiona cceriilescens, L. Koch, p. 

112. 
Cheiracanthium mdi'ix, Westr., p. 

112. 
Agrosca hrunnea, Blackw., p. 112. 
Leiocranum prcelongipesj Cambr., p. 

113. 
Tegenaria ccwi^es^rts, Walck., p. 1 1.3. 
Pholcusphalangioides, Fuessl., p.ll4. 
Pholcomtna gibbum, Westr., p. 114. 
Theridion familiare^ Cambr., p. 114. 

tepidarioruniy C.Koch, p. 115. 

Erigone longijjalpis, vSund., p. 116. 

Clarkii, Cambr., p. 115. 

albipunctata, Carnbr., p. 115. 

eri/thropus, Cambr., p. 116. 

affinitata, Cambr., p. 116. 

(ttro-tibialis, sp.n., p. 116, PI. 

XI. fig. 3. 
Linyphia incerta, sp. n., p. 117, PI. 

XL fiff. 2. 



Linyphia fm-tiva, Cambr., p. 118. 

parmda, Westr., p. 118. 

linguata, Cambr., p. 118. 

Zilln acalypha, Walck.,var., p. 119, 

PL XI. fig. 4. 
Epeira Westringii, Thorell, p. 120. 

adianta, C. Koch, p. 120. 

diademata, Clerck, p. 121. 

Ci/rtophora conica, Walck., p. 121. 
Xysticus versutus, Blackw., p. 321. 

sanctuarius, Cambr., p. 122. 

Tliomisus onustus, Walck,, p. 122. 
Philodrornus lineatipes, sp. n., p. \'22, 

PI. XL fig. 5. 
ThafiatKs hirsuttts, Cambr., p. 123. 
Pirata Enorriiy Scop., p. 124. 
Tarentvla acideata, Clk., p. ]24. 

■ trnbalis, Clk., p. 125. 

Lycosa proxima, C. Koch, p. 125, 

'Pl. XL fig. 6. 

monttcola, Clk., p. 125. 

herbigrada, Blackw., p. 126. 

anmdata, Thorell, p. 126. 

Hasarius citus, Cambr., p. 127. 
Marpessa pomatia, Walck., p. 127. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 

Fig.\. Lethia albispiraculis, sp.n., 5, p. 109: a, spider, magnified; 6, 
profile of cephalothorax ; c, eyes and part of falces, from in 
fi^ont ; d, tarsus and metatarsus of right leg of fourth pair, 
showing calamistrum ; e, natural length of spider. 

Fig. 2. Linyphia incerta, sp. n., $ , p. 117 : a, spider, enlarged ; b, profile ; 
<?, eves and falces, from in front ; d, genual and tibial joints of 
leg of fourth pair, showing the spines; e, maxiUse and labium; 
/, genital aperture ; g, natural length of spider. 

Fig. 3. Erigone utro-tibialis, sp, n., $ , p. 116 : o, spider, magnified ; 
b, profile ; c, genital aperture ; d, natural length of spider. 

Fig. 4. Zilla acalypha, Walck., var., 5 > P- 119 '■ <^i spider, enlarged ; 
b, profile ; c, eyes, from in front ; d, natural length of spider. 

Fig. 5. Philodrornus lineatipes, sp. n., $, p. 122: a, spider, enlarged; 
b, eyes, from behind ; c, natural length. 

Fig. 6. Lycosa proxima, C. Koch, J, p. 125: a, spider, enlarged; b, 
digital joint and palpal organs, highly magnified ; c, genital 
aperture of $ ; d, natm'al length of <S . 



XV. — Mr. James Thomsori s Fossil Sponges from the Carbo- 
niferous System of the Sonth-ivest of Scotland. By H. J. 
Carter, F.R.S. &c. 

[Plates IX. & X.] 

Of these fossils I have given a preliminary notice in the 
' Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' for September 



Carboniferous of the S.W. of Scotland. 129 

last (vol. XX. p. 176), since which Prof. J. Young and Mr. 
J. Young have conjointly published an account of the sarco- 
hexactinellid sponge to which I have therein alluded, under the 
name oi ^^ Hyalonema SmitMi'''' ('Annals/ vol. xx. p. 425, 
pis. xiv., XV.). Their right of priority is undisputed; at 
the same time my promise to Mr. Thomson, F.G.S., to 
describe his fossils must now be fulfilled. 

It is not, however, necessary for me to do this at length with 
Hyalonema Sviitlm, as this has already been done {I. c.) ; hence 
what I have to state will be chiefly confirmatory of what has 
gone before, having from the commencement, viz. Sept. 1876, 
been plentifully supplied with fragmentary remains of its 
accompanying spicules by Dr. J. Millar, who obtained them 
from Mr. J. Armstrong of Glasgow, in addition to the speci- 
mens subsequently sent me by Mr. J. Thomson of the same 
city. Mr. Armstrong obtained these fragmentary remains, 
which in many instances are nearly perfect spicules, in great 
numbers from the rotten detritus with which the crevices of 
the limestone where Hyalonema Smithii abounds are filled ; 
hence my figures must be regarded as partly restored. 

Besides Hyalonema Smithii, Mr. Thomson has sent me 
specimens of other fossil sponges from the same system, viz. : — 
one for which I propose the name of " Pulvillus Thomsonii^'' 
from Arbigland ; and two others, which will be named respec- 
tively ''^ Dysidea antiqua''^ and '"'' Rhaphidhistia vermiculata^'' 
from the same beds as the Hyalonema. These will now be 
described and illustrated successively. 

Hyalonema SmitMi, Y. & Y. 

Of this sponge the separate spicules which I possess were 
furnished, as before stated, by Dr. Millar ; and those which 
appear to belong to Hyalonema Smithii have been identified 
in situ through specimens supplied by Mr. Thomson ; while 
there are others which appear to have belonged to other species 
of the Sarcohexactinellida, as will be seen hereafter. 

Of the cord or stem three fragmentary specimens have been 
sent to me by Mr. Thomson, two of which are about the same 
size and also close together in the same piece of limestone. 
The largest is five inches long and about one inch wide by one 
sixth of an inch thick, composed of spicules, once long and 
continuous, but now much fractured transversely, indeed com- 
minutely in some parts ; varying in diameter from one twenty- 
fourth of an inch downwards and presenting distinct although 
slight undulation (PI. IX. fig. 1). Moreover the cord is com- 
pressed so that in the end view from Avhich the proximal or 
upper portion has been broken off, and it has thus become ex- 



130 Mr. H. J. Carter on Sjwnges from the 

posed by the fracture of the limestone in which it lies im- 
bedded, it does not exceed in the tliickest part more than one 
sixth of an inch, as before stated ({ig. 2). 

In the smallest of the three specimens, which is not more 
than an inch long- and in which the spicules are much reduced 
in size and spread out, indicative of the free end of such a 
cord, is an instance of the terminal or anclioring extremity in 
situ^ presenting the same inflated, club-like form we shall find 
hereafter to be so common among the separate fragments, but 
with the sliaft at its junction with the anchor-like end only 
l-120th inch in diameter (fig. 4, a). 

It is not uncommon, as we shall presently see, to find the 
cord-spicule grooved longitudinally, in one part singly, or 
generally and in great plurality throughout its circumference 
(fig. 13, 5, c/, e), which has been attributed by the Messrs. 
Young to pressure from the " adjacent rods" [1. c. p. 427) ; 
but on examining the end of one of Mr, Thomson's speci- 
mens with the microscope, two rather large spicules may be 
seen close together with a single groove in each, and the material 
between them and the neighbouring spicules entirely composed 
of the white granular calcite Avhich fills u]) the intervals be- 
tween these spicules, and thus, in the transverse section, 
contrasts strongly with the dark end of the transparent mate- 
rial of which the spicule is formed, without the presence of 
any small spicules whatever (fig. 13, a a)) so that this groov- 
ing would appear to be original and not produced by " adja- 
cent rods." Besides, where there are small spicules in distinct 
contact with larger ones, there is no groove at all observed in 
the latter, which therefore may be natural although of casual 
occurrence. 

The fragments of the surface of the body of a sarcohexac- 
tinellid sponge, attributed to Hyalonema Sinithn, were also 
sent to me by Mr. Thomson, in which the characteristic spicu- 
lation of the surface in this species is obvious together with 
the lattice-like structure formed by the intercrossing of the 
spicules in the Sarcohexactinellida generally. The largest of 
these pieces is about half an inch long by a quarter of an inch 
broad (fig. 7), in which there is one of the circular fenestral 
spaces (now a hole) forming the interstices of the lattice-like 
structure, also characteristic of the recent Sarcohexactinellida, 
together with remains of others on the circumference (fig. 7, b b), 
and the peculiar " nail-like " spicules described by I)r. Young 
(?. c. p. 426) of all sizes below l-6th of an inch in diameter 
across the head, which is possessed by the few that chiefly 
bind down the rest with sloping outspread arms, after the 
manner of this kind of spicules generally (fig. 7, a a). 



Carboniferous of the 8.W. cf Scotland. 131 

So much for Mr. Thomson's interesting specimens of 
Hyalonema Smithii. Let us now see what the supply of 
separate spicules by Dr. J . Millar affords. 

1. Fragments of the spicules of the cord. — These vary in 
size from half an inch in length downwards, and the largest 
of the smooth ones l-24th of an inch in diameter, while the 
largest of those grooved all round the circumference are 
l-24^tli of an inch thick. There is nothing remarkable 
in the smooth form ; but the longitudinal lineation of the 
grooved one may be single or in variable plurality, as 
before stated — that is, confined to one part only (fig. 13, Z>), 
or spread more or less equally round the whole circum- 
ference of the spicule to the number of thirty-two in a 
spicule possessing a diameter of the thirty-second part of an 
inch (fig. 13, c7, e), or may not exceed four at unequal distances 
from each other in a circumference double this size (fig. 13, c). 
Although I have seen the single groove chiefly in the 
smaller spicules, I have only seen the entire circumference 
grooved in the larger ones, with the intervals convex like the 
fascis of a Roman lictor, not fluted or concave like an Ionic 
column. Whether, however, this grooving, in its extreme 
degree, belongs to the spicules of Hyalonema Smithii or 
not, the more simple one does, as Mr. Thomson's specimen 
demonstrates in situ ; and reasons have already been assigned 
for its seeming to be original, and not produced by the pres- 
sure of surrounding smaller spicules, whose absence is evi- 
dent Avhere the groove is equally present. Again, although 
the largest spicules I have seen were grooved througliout the 
circumference, it does not follow that the grooved spicules 
are always the largest, as has already been shown. 

2. Fragments with four-armed anchor-like ends. — These 
are of two kinds, viz. : — the larger, with inflated or rounded 
extremity and moderately recurved thick short arms (fig. 5) ; 
and the smaller, with pointed extremity and much recurved, 
longer, and less stout arms (fig. 6). Both kinds have four 
arms opposite. In the former the shaft is slightly reduced 
in size to the point where it expands into the arms (fig. 3), 
or it may be constricted just before this termination, while the 
arms, which in the normal or more regularly formed ones are 
thick conical spines of nearly equal length, and nearly crucial 
or opposite in position, arc somewhat recurved (fig. 3, a, b) j 
but they may vary in length and obtusencss, in the angle at 
which they separate, and in their degree of recurvation, still 
always parting from an obtuse or rounded club-like extremity. 
This is the character of the anchor end in situ (fig. 4, a), to 
which I have before alluded ; so that we may fairly assign it 



132 Mr. H. J. Carter o?t Sponges from the 

to Hyalonema Smithii. How far the other form, which, in its 
largest examples, is not much smaller than the club-shaped 
end, belonged also to H. Smithii^ I am not prepared to state ; 
but although some of its largest examples may surpass in size 
the smallest club-shaped ones, the smallest of the former that 
has come under my observation does not exceed the 1 -360th 
part of an inch in diameter, and is therefore microscopic, while 
the largest club-shaped anchoring end reaches 1-1 6th of an 
inch, and the smallest that I have seen is still visible to the 
unassisted eye. Where the shaft is constricted close to the 
end, the arms are also constricted respectively, so that there 
is no club-like or rounded extremity, so far as my observation 
extends, but in its place a crucial depression ; hence this is 
either a variety of the club-shaped anchor end or the anchoring 
end of a spicule which belonged to another hexactinellid 
sponge. 

3. Fragments of the " nail-lihe " spicule. — One of these, 
viz. the ^'nail-like" spicule of {?) Hgalonema S77iithn, is smooth 
throughout and consists normally of a shaft with four arms, 
more or less opposite each other, surmounted by a round head 
(figs. 8, 9). In size the largest measure about 4-12ths inch 
across the arms, each arm, which is shai'p-pointed, being about 
2-12ths inch long, with a thickness at the base of about l-48th 
inch ; the shaft is about the same, or perhaps a little less, and 
the round or globular head, which represents a continuation of 
the shaft, about l-36th inch in diameter. But all these mea- 
surements, as well as the spicules themselves, are subject to 
great variety, inasmuch as the arms, individually or collectively, 
may be more or less inclined towards the shaft, and thus not 
all at the same angle ; or they may depart from the shaft at 
different angles laterally and thus be not opposite ; while, in 
form, one or more may vary from an obtuse point to a short 
round knob like the head, or be constricted where they join 
the shaft (fig. 9) ; while the shaft, which is in a line with the 
head, varies very little in shape (like the globular head), being 
for the most part straight and pointed, although sometimes 
both head and shaft, individually or collectively, like the arms, 
may be more or less constricted at the base. The position of 
these spicules in the sponge is illustrated by Mr. Thomson's 
fragment (fig. 7, a a) , where the shaft is directed inwards, the 
head or knob externally, and the arms spreading out laterally 
slope inwardly, so as in the largest forms to bind down the 
rest of the structure as in the Sarcohexactinellida generally, all 
of which, even to the minutest spicule observable on the 
surface, present the same characteristic head and figure as 
that above described with its modifications. 



Carboniferous of the S.W. of Scotland. 133 

Besides the " nail-like " spicule of Hyalonema Smithii, 
small sexradiates with straight, simple, smooth arms, more or 
less varying from a right angle in their departure from the 
centre, are observed ; but as yet I have not seen any in situ 

Add to this spicules with stelliform heads of two kinds, viz. 
smooth (fig. 10, a) and tubercled (fig. 10, 5), the former of 
which are much the smallest of the two. All appear to me to 
have had from six to eight arms or rays spread umbrella-like 
over a central shaft, while seven seems to be the most constant 
number. The ray of the smooth stelliform spicule in its largest 
forms that I have seen does not exceed l-12thinch in length, 
thus giving l-6th of an inch for the whole diameter of the 
head ; while that of the tubercled stelliform spicule is double 
that length, with a diameter at the base of l-4Sth of an inch, 
thus giving a total diameter for the head of l-3rd of an inch 
in the largest forms, which is that of the largest " nail-like " 
spicules of Hyalonema Smithii; while each ray is covered with 
a number of minute tubercles on its convex or outer side 
(fig. 10, b)j which, increasing in size from near the point 
inwardly, become more prominent as they pass into the con- 
tinuous area formed by the union of the rays with each other 
towards the centre (Dr. Young's nos. 19, 27, 29). The rays, 
which are not straight like those of the '^ nail-li'ke " spicule, 
but, as before stated, are incurved like the ribs of an umbrella 
when open, often vary in length in the same spicule, and 
depart from the centre at difi'erent angles in both the smooth 
and tubercled forms, so that, instead of all being of the same 
length and equidistant, as in the normal or more regularly 
formed spicule, some rays are often shorter than others, and 
more closely apijroximated, while the shaft is always straight, 
smooth, and pointed. 

Lastly, another form has been pointed out to me by Dr. 
Millar, like a double star back to back (fig. 11, a, h). This con- 
sists of a shaft with five smootii, straight arms or rays sur- 
mounted by a short, pointed continuation of the shaft in front, 
which may be minutely tubercled, and five still shorter ones 
surrounding it, one or more of which may be bifid or trifid 
(fig. 11, c,c). Both sets of rays are inclined towards the shaft 
or central axis, but in opposite directions, the latter, upper and 
shorter ones (outer in situ probably), most so. Here also the 
arms appear to be subject to the same variety as those of the 
foregoing spicules, and the spicules themselves to vary equally 
in size, the largest seen possessing a straight shaft about 
3-48ths inch long with a thickness of l-48th inch at the 
base. 



134 Mr. H. J. Carter on Sponges from the 

Thus the largest of all these three kinds of " nail-like " 
spicules appear to have been about the same size, and tlie 
three different forms to have belonged to three different sarco- 
hexactinellids respectively, while the first onlj has been seen 
in situ ; so that each of these three kinds may have been the 
nail-like body-spicule of a particular species. At the same 
time it should be remembered that, although the " nail-like " 
spicule first described has been found in situ in the body- 
structure of the sarcohexactinellid to which it belonged, this 
body-structure has not as yet been found in direct connexion 
with the cord, and therefore has only been assumed to have 
been part of Hyalonema Smithii from its association with the 
fossil cords ; while the only instance of an anchoring termi- 
nation like that assigned to H. Smithii that has been found in 
direct connexion with the fragment of a cord is that above 
mentioned. Again, according to the Messrs. Young's state- 
ment {I. c. p. 428), the cords are so abundant that it may be 
fairly inferred that they did not all belong to the same species 
of hexactinellid. 

The double sagittate form of anchor end, also above men- 
tioned (PL IX. fig. 6), may have belonged to one of the species 
in particular; while the four arms opposite with their varieties, 
in the cord as well as in the nail-like body-spicule, seem 
to indicate an alliance with the genus Rossella rather than 
with Hyalonema ('Ann.' 1872, vol. ix. pi. xxi.). At the 
same time the Messrs. Young's statement that " the rods 
are of unknown length, the largest fragments at Trearne being 
12 inches, and of various thicknesses, from l-40th inch to 
nearly a line in diameter," shows that they far exceed in 
dimensions those of the largest specimens of any Hyalonema 
that I have seen, and dwarfs to almost insignificance the 
longest of Rossella^ which are only 6 inches with a corre- 
sponding thinness (' Ann.' 1875, vol. xv. p. 19, pi. x.), while 
the anchoring ends of the cord-spicules in the largest recent 
Hyalonemata can liardly be seen with the unassisted eye, being 
not more than 1 -140th inch in diameter. 

Replacement of siliceous hy calcareous material during 

fossilization. 

Connected with the fossilized spicules of Hyalonema Smithii 
is the fact that many of the fragmentary spicules sent to 
Dr. Millar by Mr. Armstrong, and obtained, as before stated, 
from the " rotten material " or decomposed limestone, re- 
spectively present all degrees of transition from the sili- 
ceous material of which they were originally composed 
to calcspar (fig. 14, a, &, c) ; and this may be seen by 



Carboniferous of the S.W, of Scotland. 135 

the rhombohedral excavations, which may appear singly in 
some, increased to a plurality in others, which not only has 
caused them to lose their original outline, but to become 
fretted into shapes which are chiefly characterized by the 
angular cavities caused by the encroachment of the calcspar 
upon the siliceous material (fig. 14, c), so that a little more 
and the whole of the siliceous spicule would have given place 
to calcareous material. The calcspar has become redissolved ; 
and the rhombohedral cavities which it occupied are thus left to 
prove the interesting fact first pointed out by Mr. W. J. Sollas, 
viz. that calcareous material, i. e. phosphate of lime, might 
replace siliceous material in the " vitreo-hexactinellid sponge 
Euhrochus clausus during fossilization " (' Geol. Mag.,' Sept. 
1876). This, which is one of the most important discoveries 
in modern palseontology, on account of the few organisms 
which possess siliceous skeletons, and the consequent rarity 
of the occurrence, while the reverse is so commonly the case 
with calcareous organisms that are replaced by silex, was 
subsequently put forth by ]\Ir. Sollas in a more extended form 
in his paper on " Pharetrospong ia Strahani^^^ read at the 
Geological Society on the 20th Dec. 1876, and published 
in May 1877 ('Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' p. 242), which is 
supplemented by a " Note," dated " 26th April," in which 
(p. 254) Mr. Sollas, on account of the objections made to 
his view in the discussion of -his paper, states: — "I need 
here only remark that while Siphon ia exhibits t\\c, structure 
of a Lithistid (siliceous) sponge, Stauronema of a Hexacti- 
nellid (siliceous) sponge, and Pliaretrospongia of a Thalyosian 
(siliceous) sponge, yet the fossil skeletons of all three fre- 
quently occur now in a calcareous state." 

About the same time (remarkable facts are frequently noticed 
simultaneously by different observers independent of, and at a 
distance from, each other) Prof. K. A. Zittel of Munich must 
have come to a similar conclusion, as we learn from the 
"Note" to his paper on the Hexactinellida, entitled "Studien 
iiber fossile Spongien," dated 15th Feb. 1877, wherein it is 
stated that at the general meeting of the German Geological 
Society, held at Jena in August 1876, he discussed the 
conversion of the originally siliceous skeleton [of the Hex- 
actinellida] into calcspar, at which time, in the course of 
conversation, many objections were made to this chemical 
substitution (transl. 'Ann.' 1877, vol. xx. p. 516). The 
report of this meeting was subsequently published in the 
Zeitschr. d. deutschen geolog. Ges. xxviii. p. 631 ; after 
which the paper above mentioned was read on the 13th Jan. 
1877, in the Mathem. -Physical Class, and finally published in 



136 Mr. H. J. Carter on Sponges fi-om the 

the Abhandlungen, der k.-bayer. Akademie der Wiss., II. CI., 
xiii. Bd. 1877, wherein (transl. I. c. pp. 264-6) Prof. Zittel 
goes into the question at considerable length, noticing in one 
part (' Ann.' /. c. p. 264) the occurrence of a Hexactinellid 
sponge from the White Jura of Streitberg, " half calcified, 
half siliceous." 

The objections met with by Prof, Zittel at Jena were not 
less encountered by Mr. Sollas at the Geological Society of 
London, where it appears, from the discussion that followed 
the reading of his paper, that the President " thought it was 
more probable that the sponge described was one of the Calci- 
spongi^" [1. c. p. 255). 

But putting aside the fact that a siliceous spicule may become 
converted during fossilization into a calcareous one, there can 
be no harm in showing how improbable it is that Pharetro- 
spongia should have been a calcareous sponge, even if the latter 
ever become fossilized. 

In the first place, as regards size, the Calcispongise of the 
present day are not only all very small, but for the most part 
absolutely diminutive. Secondly, with the exception of half 
a dozen species (all that appear to be known), none are with- 
out the tri- or quadriradiate spicule ; while the acerate spicule in 
all is straight, although sometimes undulating in its course, and 
more or less spined — never, to my knowledge, simply curved 
in the form of an arc, as iu the siliceous spicules of the Reni- 
erida, of which Pharetrospongia was one. Thirdly, the Calci- 
spongige are so perishable that, although growing exuberantly 
when alive for the most part on the rocks of the sea-shore, 
where they are incessantly exposed to the action of the waves, 
they here become as diffluent as Infusoria immediately after 
death — that is, at once become disintegrated, from the want 
tjf that horny fibre and siliceous element whicli makes the 
other sponges so lasting. Fourthly, and lastly, their spicules, 
whether mounted in balsam or drawn in among the foreign 
bodies forming the core of the horny fibre in the Psammone- 
mata, break up rapidly, and in a very short time, passing 
into aqueous globules, leave not " a trace behind." Hence 
I now never mount a specimen of a calcareous sponge for 
preservation in any thing but a dry and simple cell. 

Thus size of sponge, form of spicule, perishable nature both 
of entire sponge and individual spicule make it almost impos- 
sible that Pharetrospongia and the like could ever have been 
Calcispongias, even if we had not the proofs above stated that 
a siliceous spicule may during fossilization become a calcare- 
ous one. 

1 have premised a short account of the discovery of this 



Carboniferous of the S.W. of Scotland. 137 

fact, as the following description of a fossil sponge from the 
Lower Limestone of the Carboniferous system of S.W. Scot- 
land, sent to me by Mr. Thomson, affords another instance 
of a Renierid sponge, in form of spicule somewhat like 
Pharetrospongia Straham, having passed from the siliceous 
into the calcareous state. 

Pulvillus Thomsoniiy n. sp. (PL X. figs. 1-6.) 

Calcareous fossil. Pulvinate, circular, depressed towards the 
centre on both sides, contracted towards the circumference, 
which is round or angular, elevated between (PL X. fig. 1). 
Surface uniformly granular, interrupted by a central circular 
excavation on each side, one of which is much larger than 
the other (fig. 1,«), and the smallest filled with a stem-like 
fragment (fig. 3, a, h) . Internal structure granular through- 
out (fig. 2) ; granules subround, variable in size, below l-8th 
inch in diameter, composed of crystalline calcite, which in the 
thin vertical section is semitransparent, of a light brown colour 
and sometimes white (fig. 2, c? c?) ; imbedded in dark material 
composed of a heterogeneous mixture of minute particles of 
sand and organic fragments, often giving place to white semi- 
crystalline calcite (fig. 2, e, e, e) ; the whole, in a vertical or 
horizontal section, presenting the appearance of a granular, 
minutely veined conglomeration, wherein the veins, especially 
towards the large excavation (fig. 2, a), are much wider than the 
rest, into which they afterwards appear to become subdivided. 
Granules largest on the side which is most excavated (fig. 2, a), 
and surrounded generally by a thin proper layer, which may 
be of a dark lead- or ochraeeous yellow colour, according to 
the specimen ; presenting, in a vertical section, bundles of 
smooth, slightly curved, acerate, white, opaque or clear trans- 
parent spicules, cut across more or less longitudinally into 
variable lengths by the plane of the section (fig. 4, a, 6), which, 
when passing through the granules horizontally, fails, except 
here and there, to show more than the crystalline calcite. 
Broken ends of the spicules abundant in, and projecting from, 
the surface of the large excavation, where, from their trans- 
parent, crystalline nature, they appear, for the most part, 
in the form of dark, circular, transverse sections of various 
sizes, in the midst of each of which is a punctum representing 
the axial canal (fig. 6, a, 5). Spicule smooth, acerate, fusi- 
form, curved, and gradually attenuated to a point at each end ; 
variable in size, about l-2oth by l-600th inch in its largest 
dimensions, the only perfect one seen being smaller, viz. 
l-45th by l-900th inch in its largest dimensions (fig. 5). 
Size of largest specimen of entire fossil about 5 inches in 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 10 



138 Mr, H. J. Carter on Sponges from the 

horizontal diameterj and 2 inches in vertical diameter between 
the circumference and the centre, where it is thickest (fig, 1). 
Hah. Marine, associated probably, according to Mr, Thom- 
son, witli " reef-building corals." 

hoc, Arbigland, 14 miles south of Dumfries, on the Solway 
Firth, Scotland, S,W. In dark grey shale interstratified with 
thin bands of limestone characterizing the upper part of the 
Lower Limestone series of the Carboniferous system, 

Ohs. On account of the presence of the spicules above de- 
scribed, presenting themselves throughout the fossil sidewise 
in the vertical section and endwise in the large excavation, 
which would be tantamount to a horizontal section, there can 
be no doubt that this is a fossil sponge, and, on account of the 
spicules being of one form only and of different sizes, as above 
mentioned, that the sponge belonged to my order Holorhaphi- 
dota and family Renierida, where it would, according to its 
spiculation, come in well with the first group, viz. Amorphina, 
and the species HalicJiondria j^anicea, whose spicules in the 
deep-sea form &c. ('Ann,' 1876, vol. xviii, p, 470), where 
they are larger than in the shore one so common on our 
coasts, are almost identical. It may also be inferred from 
the spicules appearing abundantly and longitudinally in the 
vertical, Avhile they are seldom seen in the horizontal sectio\i, 
together with the broken ends themselves in the large excava- 
tion, that the direction of tlie spiculation was more or less ver- 
tical. This would have been more satisfactorily confirmed 
could the transverse section of the bundles have been seen in 
the horizontal section, as they thus appear in Pharetrospongia 
Strahanij Soil. ; but the opaque crystallization of the calca- 
reous material in the "' granules " seems to obscure this, since 
the transverse sections of the scattered spicules in the large 
excavation, where the crystallization is transj^arent, are plain 
enough, with a common lens of two inches focus : and under a 
magnifying-power of 100 diameters, their axial canal respec- 
tively is distinctly seen, which does not exist in the spicules 
of the Calcispongiai, except in Hackel's fertile imagination. 

For the deep-sea variety of Halichondria panicea I have 
proposed the specific name of '^ cancellosa^^ {I. c), from its 
areolar structure ; and it may be that the " granules " of Pul- 
villus Thomsonii represent such spaces (fig. 2). 

Of course the pores of this sponge have disappeared, from 
their minuteness and situation in the dermal sarcode ; while 
the excretory canal-system seems to be indicated by the vena- 
tion between the granules, v;hich in its widest and most dilated 
parts may, in the section, be observed to be filled with hetero- 
geneous material composed of sand and the remains of organic 



Carboniferous of the 8.W. of Scotland. 139 

bodies such as fragments of shells &c. (fig. 2, e e e), while 
the remote parts, as above mentioned, are occupied by opaque 
white crystalline calcite alone. The widest parts, too, being 
on the side of the large central excavation, and particularly 
leading into the excavation itself (fig. 2, «), would seem to show 
that this was the excretory side, and that the principal outlet 
was at this excavation ; while the smaller venation being on 
the opposite side of the fossil, seems to point out that this was 
more particularly the " pore-surface," which, if the sponge 
grew from the roof of a submarine rocky cavern pendent from 
the stem-like portion in the smaller excavation (fig. 2, 5, c), 
would indicate its upper part, and vice versa if it grew from 
the upper surface of the rock or material on which it was 
originally fixed ; for it has every appearance of having once 
been pedunculated. 

The specimens (of which there are three) are not all exactly 
alike in their general shape : two, growing from a flat circular 
base, have risen into a depressed truncated conical form ; 
another has a smooth unequal or undulating subconical side, 
with three large holes almost equidistant from each other and 
from the circumference, which, together with the central excava- 
tion, look very much like the remains of large vents. 

The former (fig. 1) appears to be the prevailing form ; but 
independently of an original difference in this respect, some- 
thing must be allowed for subsequent alteration during the 
time the sponge was loose on the sea-bottom before fossiliza- 
tion, and something afterwards ; hence it would be absurd to 
expect that all the specimens should be alike in general form 
any more than those of recent sponges. 

All the spicules with the rest of the fossil are calcareous ; 
at the same time it is worthy of remark that when dilute 
nitric acid is applied to the surface of a polished vertical sec- 
tion where the spicules may be observed to lie horizontally, 
and the part then subjected to gentle edulcoration with water, 
more or less of the spicules is left in relief on the surface, 
which, although in a friable state, as in Pharetrospongia 
Strahani when treated in a similar manner, seems to indicate 
a lingering remnant of their original siliceous composition. 

Dysidea antiqua, n. sp. (PI. X. figs. 7-9.) 

Siliceous fossil. Small, massive, globular, sessile, reticulate 
(fig. 7). Surface uniformly reticulate (fig. 7, a), being a con- 
tinuation of the internal structure, which is composed of mas- 
sive reticulation (fig. 8) . Fibre of reticulation about l-96th 
inch in diameter ; interstices about 3-48ths inch wide ; com- 

10* 



140 Mr. H. J. Cnitcr on Spojiges from the 

posed of a heterogeneous assemblage of sand and fragments 
of various sponge-spicules, together with what appears to be 
the siliceous globules of a Geodia and the branches of a lithistid 
sponge-spicule (figs. 8, d^ and 9, h) ; but as the former is some- 
times evidently botryoidal chalcedony, and the latter, from its 
frequency, may be a fibrous form of the same mineral, it is not 
safe to assume that these two forms were ever organic. Size 
of largest and best-formed specimen about half an inch in 
diameter (fig. 7). 

Hoh. Marine, in company with Hyalonema Smithii. 
Loc. Upper thin beds of Lower Carboniferous Limestone, 
Cunningham Baidland, Dairy, Ayrshire, S.W. Scotland. 

Ohs. From the structure and composilion of the reticulated 
fibre of which this fossil is composed, it may fairly be infeiTed 
to have been a sponge belonging to my order Psammonemata, 
probably of the family Hircinida and 16th group, viz. Arenosa ; 
even now, from its appearance, it might almost be mistaken for 
a living Dysidea if on the rocks where the latter grows. 
There are several specimens, of which the largest and most 
perfect is that above described. Having directed a stream 
of water over it for some time, the material thus washed ofi:' 
was mounted in balsam, which presents, on microscopic exa- 
mination, fragments of a variety of spicules, together with 
grains of quartzose sand, from which a few of the former have 
been figured to scale for illustration (fig. 9, a) . 

Rhaphidhistia vermtculata, n. sp. (PI. IX. figs. 15-19.) 

Siliceous fossil. Laminiform, parasitic on a species of 
{?) Hydractinia (fig. 15). Composed of acerate, vermicular 
spicules lying confusedly together on the surface of the fossU 
Hydractinia (fig. 16, a) , which consists of a convex, subcir- 
cular, depressed mass of more or less erect, conical, columnar 
processes, sometimes unequally bifurcate at the apex, rising 
from a reticulate structure of the like nature (fig. 16), based 
on a continuous membranous attachment now lapidified 
(fig. 16, cc)^ about half an inch in horizontal diameter, which 
is the size of the superincumbent mass. Processes about 
1.12th inch high by about 3-48ths inch wide at the base, com- 
posed of chalcedony with a saccharine crystallization on the 
surface (fig. 17) and a central axial hollow closed at the 
summit (fig. 16, e, b), covered in some instances with the layer 
of vermiculate spicules above mentioned, one end olone of each 
of which is visible on account of the other being hidden beneath 
its neighbours (fig. 18). Spicule smooth, apparently acerate, 
fusiform, vermiform, and abruptly pointed at each end 
(fig. 19); about l-900th inch in diameter and about l-90th 



Carboniferous of the S.W. of Scotland. 141 

inch long, which is that of the longest exposed portion. 
Thickness of the layer inappreciable, extent depending on the 
quantity of the Hydractmia covered by it. 

Hob. Marine, in company with Hyalonema Smithii. 

Log, Upper thin beds of Lower Carboniferous Limestone, 
Cunningham Baidland, Dairy, Ayrshire, S.W. Scotland. 

Ohs. From the general form and reticulate structure of this 
fossil (fig. 16) it appears to be more like a species of Uydrac- 
tinia than any thing else, subsequently overgrown by the 
layer of vermiform spicules mentioned. If the whole belonged 
to the sponge, then it was wholly one, and not parasitically 
overgrown by the layer of sponge-spicules, which now form, 
on the columns covered by them, a continuation of the sub- 
jacent material (chalcedony). But, out of several specimens, 
as there are as many without as with this covering, while 
the columns are hollow and not solid, it seems very likely 
that Rhaphidhistia vermiculata was a parasitic laminiform 
sponge very much like Hymeraphia vermiculata^ Bk, ; but the 
large erect pin-like spicules of the latter do not appear to be 
present. There are many minute recent sponges, however, 
that are laminiform without the large erect pin-like spicule 
which characterizes Dr. Bowerbank's suborder Hynieraphiay 
some of which I may hereafter have to describe under the 
generic name Rhaphidhistia. 

If this was a Uydractinia parasitically covered by the sponge, 
then it was probably a calcareous one which subsequently 
became chalcedonized and finally encroached upon by calcite ; 
for many of the conical processes are as much eroded by rhora- 
bohedral excavation as the spicules of Hyalonema Smithii 
already mentioned ; while this is also the case with many of the 
minute chalcedonized shells which Dr. Millar sent me from the 
disintegrated or " rotten " limestone, wherein there can be no 
doubt that the shell was calcareous in the first instance. Hence 
there is yet much in palaeontology that requires elucidation 
by the chemist. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Hyalonema Smithii, Y. & Y. Fragment of cord imbedded in 

Encrinital Limestone, natural size, 'a, upper ; b, lower end. 
Fig. 2. The same. Transverse section of the upper end, nat. size. 
Fig. 3. The same. Fragment of anchoring end of cord-spicule ; lateral 

view, a, view of free end; b, view of shaft side. X 2. 
Fig. 4. The same. Maguitied, m situ, a, fragment of anchoring end. 
Fig. 5. The same. More magnified lateral view, to contrast with the 

following form. 
Fig. 6. ? The same. Anchoring end of cord-spicule, with four arms 

opposite and much recurved ; double sagittate. 



142 On Carboniferous Sponges from 8.W. Scotland. 

Fig. 7. The same. Fragment of siuface of body, showing, a a, " nail- 
like" spicules m situ, and, b h, fenestral openings, x 2. [N.B. 
In this figure the arms, which appear to have been broken off or 
absent, have sunk beneath the surface.] 

Fig. 8. The same. " Nail-like " spicule of the most regular form, x 3. 

Fig. 9. The same. Lateral view of nail -like spicule, showing the con- 
striction at the fixed ends of the arms respectively. X 3. 

Fig. 10. ? The same. Stelliform nail-like spicule with smooth and tuber- 
cled arms respectively, a, smooth or small form ; h, large, 
matured, or tubercled form. X 3. 

Fig.W. ? The same. Double stelliform nail-like spicule, a, small form; 
b, large or matured form ; c c, stelliform head in a and b respec- 
tively ; d d, arms respectively : X 3. e, more magnified view of 
head, showing trifurcation of a lateral spine of stelliform head 
and tubercles over central one. 

Fig. 12. ? The same. Simple sexradiate spicule. 

Fig. 13. The same, to show gi-ooving. Magnified view of a few of the 
cord-spicules in situ. Transverse section, a a, two single- grooved 
spicules together, the largest about 3-48ths inch in diameter ; 
b, more magnified view of a transverse section of a single- 
grooved cord-spicule ; c, the same of a foiu'-grooved spicule ; d, 
the same of a thirty-two-grooved spicule ; e, lateral view of a 
fragment of the latter. All x 16. 

Fig. 14. The same. Fragments of the siliceous spicule encroached upon 
by calcite subsequentlj^ redissolved and leaving excavations, 
a, lateral view of a fragment of a cord-spicule presenting a few 
excavations ; b, end view of a fragment presenting many exca- 
vations, extending to the centre ; c, lateral view of a fragment 
rendered shapeless by being fretted out by general excavation. 

Fig. 15. Hhaphidhistia vermicidata, n. sp. ? On a species of Hydractinia. 
Upper view. X 2. 

Fig. 16. The same. Fragment of the Hydractinia, much magnified, to 
show : — a, layer of Rhaphidhidia on, b b, conoid columns and 
reticulate structure of Hydractinia, based on, c c, membranous 
expansion, now lapidified ; d, truncated fibre of Hydractinia ; e, 
truncated column, showing axial cavity ; ///, interstices of 
fibre. 

Fig. 17. The same. Conoid column incipiently bifm-cated, much magni- 
fied, to show the absence of the layer of spicules. 

F^g. 18. The same. Conoid column, much magnified, to show presence 
of the layer of spicules. 

Fig. 19. The same. Probable form of entire spicule. 

N.B. The above are all siliceous fossils. 



Plate X. 

Fig, 1. Pidvillus Thomsonii, n. sp. (Calcareous.) Upper view, a, central 
excavation, presenting the broken ends or transverse sections 
respectively of the spicules (fig. 6). Half the natural size. 

Fig. 2. The same. Vertical section through the centre, showing: — a, upper 
or large excavation ; b, lower or smaller excavation ; c, ? stem 
or pedicle in smaller excavation ; dd, granules of whitish -brown 
calcite, of which the fossil is chiefly composed, presenting more 
or less longitudinal sections of the bundles of spicules, all tend- 
ing to a vertical direction; e f e, heterogeneous sandy material, 
vein-like between the granules in the upper, replaced by white 



On new and little-knoion Mantidse. 143 

ealcite iu the lower part, widening towards the upper part, 
indicative of their having formed portions of the excretory canal- 
system. Half the natm'al size. 

tig. 3. The same. Portion of the lower sm'face, including the smaller 
excavation and stem-like process. «, excavation ; b, stem-like 
process. Half the natural size. 

Fig. 4. The same. Separate granule of ealcite, much magnified, to show 
more or less longitudinal sections of spicules in it. Diagi-am. 
Spicules on the scale of l-48th to l-1800th inch. «, ealcite ; h, 
spicules, variable in length and transverse diameter. 

Fig. 5. The same. Example of the staple form of a perfect spicule found 
in the heterogeneous sandy material filling the interstices be- 
tween the " granules " near the surface. Scale l-48th to 
1-1 800th inch. 

Fig. 6. The same. Portion of the surface of the larger excavation, show- 
ing the broken ends or transverse sections of the spicules (tig. l,o). 
a, ends on a level with the surface ; b, ends protruding. Scale 
of spicules l-4Sth to 1 -1800th inch. 

Fig. 7. Dysidea antiqua, n. sp. (Siliceous.) Showing general form of 
most perfect specimen, and portion of reticulated surface. X 2. 

a, portion of reticulated surface. 

Fig. 8. The same. Portion of the reticulated structure, much magni- 
fied, showing : — a «, the fibre composed of heterogeneous mate- 
rial ; b i, the interstices ; c, fragments of cylindrical spicules 
in the fibre ; d, fragments of lithistid-like fibre. Diagram. 

Fig. 9. The same. A few of the fragmentary spicules washed oft" the fibre 
and mounted in balsam, to show that the fibre is heterogeneously 
composed. a, smallest four-armed anchoring-spicule seen ; 

b, (?) branch of lithistid sponge-spicule. Scale l-9Gth to 
l-6100th inch. 

Budleigh-Salterton, 
28th November, 1877. 



XVI. — Notes on new and little-known Maiitidje. By Prof. 
J. Wood-Mason, Deputj Superintendent, Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. 

1. Euchomena thoracica. 

Mantis (I'hespis) thoracica, De Haan, Orthopt. Orient, p. 94, 5 • 
Phasmo7nanti6 ? thoracica^ Saussure, Melanges Orthopt. i. 3^ fasc. p. 192 

(44) ; ibid. p. 403 (279). 
Fischeria thoracica, Saussure, op, cit. ii. 4*^ fasc. p. 58. 
Euchomena ? macrops, Saussure, o^p. cit. i. 3*^ fasc. p. 196 (48), c? . 

" Femina. Alis abbreviatis, bypothoracem non superantibtis, imma- 
culatis ; prothorace longissimo, iutegro ; femoribus anticis intus 
pallidis, fasciis tribus fuscis ; pedibus posticis nigro marmoratis ; 
cercis aiialibus cylindricis. Long, proth. 2"; abdora. 15'"; 
elytr. 6'". Hah. ? "' 

Hah. A specimen of the female was captured several years 
ago by my native collector in Johore, Malay peninsula ; and 



144 Prof. J. Wood-Mason on new 

another, which has been independently identified hy Prof. 
Westwood as the T. thoracica of De Haan, exists in the 
Hopeian collection at Oxford. 

The following are the measurements of the specimen (dried) 
from Johore : — 

Total length of body 106 milliras. ; height of head 5, 
breadth of head 8 ; length of prothorax 58, of which the neck 
is 8*33, breadth of prothorax at narrowest part, just behind 
dilatation, 2'25; length of meso- and metanotum together 13, 
of tegmina 12, of abdomen 31 ; of fore coxa 22*5, of femur 
26, of its unarmed part 14'5 ; of intermediate femur 25, of 
tibia 23 ; of posterior femur 31, of tibia 32. 

The fore tibiae have 7 teeth on the outer edge, the base of 
which is unarmed, and 14 on the inner ; the abdomen is de- 
pressed and rather broadly fusiform, with its posterior seg- 
ments graduated*so as to have a serrated appearance in this 
part ; and the supraanal plate is short, broader than long, and 
rounded off at the extremity. 

This species cannot be the female oiFischeria gigas as sug- 
gested by De Saussure, but is, in all probability, that of 
Euchfi macropSj Sauss., from Cochin China. 

Euchomena heteropteraj Euch. ? macrops S , and Euch. tho- 
racica ? all have the inner face of the fore femora triply 
banded with fuscous, and all belong to the same fauna. 

A fuller description with figures will be published here- 
after. 

2. Fischeria laticeps. 

Fischeria laticeps, Wood-Mason, A. & M. N. H. 1876, 4th ser. vol. xviii, 
p. 337, d . 

? . Ocelli small, seated on a slightly elevated area, not on 
the ends of the rays of a triradiate elevation as in the male ; 
the lower one circular, the two upper ones oval. 

Pronotum with a very faint raised median line, on either 
side of which are a few small polished granules ; its mar- 
gins throughout minutely denticulate, the denticles blunt and 
polished ; the sides of the disk of its posterior lobe bent down 
at an obtuse angle to the median portion. 

Organs of flight abbreviated, in repose barely reaching so 
far as to the end of the basal third of the first abdominal seg- 
ment. Tegmina opaque, semicoriaceous : the lower surface 
richly coloured, the marginal field dull luteous, the basal por- 
tion of the discoidal and the axillary field stone-coloured, with 
a faint tinge of red-violet, the rest of the former occupied by a 
great oval blotch of dark brown with amethystine reflections, 
in the centre of which is a large transversely oval cream- 
coloured ocellus, with minutely jagged edges : the upper sur- 



and litth-hnown Mantidas. 145 

face is of the same sober coloiu' as the body, with a patch of 
lighter coloration coinciding with the anteapical cream- 
coloured ocellus on the under surface ; the anal area very- 
salient, black, with green reflections (dark brown by trans- 
mitted light) . Wings small, forming a quadrant of a circle 
all but unbroken by anal emargination ; the anterior field 
opaque, dull luteous, with a large anteapical blotch of brown, 
ocellate or broadly banded with yellow ; the posterior field 
black, with green reflections (dark brown by transmitted light) , 
lined with hyaline along the transverse veinlets. 

Colour of the body luteous grey, finely mottled with pale 
impure olive-green. 

Length of body 102 millims. ; height of head 4*75, breadth 
of head 9*8 ; length of prothorax 34, of which the neck is 9"6, 
breadth of prothorax at supracoxal dilatation 4*6 ; length of 
abdomen 51, of cerci 12*75, of tegmina 16; width of mar- 
ginal area of tegmina 1 ; length of anterior femur 22*6, of inter- 
mediate femur 25, of posterior femur 33 ; of antennas 16, or 
about half as long as the prothorax, or as long as the teg- 
mina. 

Another specimen obtained at the same time measures only 
93 millims. in length. 

Described from fresh alcoholic specimens. 

Hah. ? ? . Bangalore District, Mysore, obtained by Private 
Reedy ; , Sheargaon, Kolapur state, India. 

There can be no doubt that the four insects, two nymphs 
and two adults, recently received by me from South India, 
are all females of this species, though so much smaller than 
the male specimen described loc. suprh cit. In the form of 
the head and eyes, of the cerci and supraanal plate, of the 
legs, &c. they all agree perfectly with the male, differing 
from it in those points only in which the two sexes of other 
species (e. g. F. ocellata) of the same genus have been shown 
to depart from one another. These differences are the slightly 
stouter build, the soberer desert-form-like livery, the much- 
abbreviated organs of flight, these barely reaching the end of 
the basal third of the first abdominal segment, &c. 

Specimens of both sexes of the larger race are in the 
Hopeian collection at Oxford ; but the species is unrepresented 
either in the National collection or apparently in the conti- 
nental collections. 

3. Hierodula notata. 

Mantis notata, Stoll, Spectres, Mantes, &c. fig. 49, $ (1789). 
Hierodula notata, Saussure, Melanges OrtEopt. ii. 3* fasc. p. 230, 
pi. V. fig. 31. 

? . Total length 67 millims. ; length of prothorax 23, 



146 On new and little-known Mantidee. 

breadth of prothorax at dilatation 6'3 ; length of meso- and 
metanotum taken together 17, of abdomen 21 '5, of tegmina 
48 ; breadth of tegmina IG, of marginal area 4* 75. 

Alcoholic specimen. 

Hah. Cejlon {F. M. Mackwood). 

4. Hierodula Mr {via. 

Mantis birivia, StoU, Spectres, Mantes, (fee. pi. vs.. fig. 31 (1787^, 
Stagmatoptera birivia, Saussure, Mem. Orth. Mexique, &c. torn. ii. p. 89, 

4, fig. 8, $_. _ 
Hierodula birivia, Saussure, Mel. Orthopt. ii. 4^ fasc. p. 41. 

? ? . Total length 80-87 millims. ; height of head 8-5-9-5, 
breadth of head 11-33-12 ; length of prothorax 29-32, breadth 
of prothorax at dilatation 8*6-9*2 ; length of abdomen 30-33, 
breadth of abdomen 18 ; length of mesonotnm and metanotum 
taken together 18'5-20, of tegmina 49-53, from base to 
stigma 18-20, of stigma 2 ; breadth of tegmina 19-20"5, of 
marginal area 5*6-6. 

Alcoholic specimens. 

In the larger specimen (from Madras) the discoidal vein 
emits three branches in the right wing and five in the left ; 
in the smaller (from Bangalore) three in the right and two in 
the left ; while in M. de Saussure's specimen it is three- 
branched in both wings. 

5. Hierodula taprohana?^ n. sp. 

? . Allied to the preceding, but diiFering : — in its stouter pro- 
thorax, the lamellar lateral margins of which are broader and 
extend, narrowing gradually as they go, from the supracoxal 
dilatation to the base of the segment ; in its broader and more 
coriaceous tegmina, the anal area of which alone is mem- 
branous ; in the form of its facial shield, which is higher 
(longer) than broad, instead of broader than high, the upper 
margin of which is obtuse-angled instead of arcuate, and the 
surface of which is marked by two obtuse vertical ridges on 
its upper half; and in the armature of the anterior angle of 
the fore femora, which is furnished, as in H. notata^ with six 
or seven large, stout, and blunt conical spines only. The 
apical third of the tegmina, which in H. hirivia are uniform 
green, is stained brownish yellow. The discoidal nervure of 
the wings is three-branched. The fore tibial have 14-15 
teeth on the inner edge, and 1 1 on the outer. 

Total length of body 83 millims. ; height of head 9*6, 
breadth of head 11*6 ; length of prothorax 30*6, breadth of 
prothorax at dilatation 11 ; length of meso- and metanotum 
taken together 20*5, of abdomen 31 ; greatest breadth of 



Mr. E. J. Miers on the Pla";usiinas. 147 



o' 



abdomen 20 ; length of tegmina 5iSj breadth of tegmina 23, of 
their marginal area 8 ; length of stigma 3' 75 ; of fore coxa 
21 "5, femur 24'3 ; of intermediate femur 21, tibia 18 ; of pos- 
terior femur 25, tibia 25. 

Dried specimen. 

Hah. Ceylon. Communicated by Mr. F. M. Mack wood, of 
Colombo. 

6. Hierodula trimacula. 

Hierodula trimacula, Saussure, Melanges Ortliopt. i. 3^ fasc. p. 82, 
pi. V. fig. 29, ?. 

Hob. Oman, Arabia, obtained by Colonel Miles, the British 
Resident at that place. The species was described from a 
specimen in the Paris Museum, marked *' China?" 



XVII. — Revision of the Plagusiinae. By Edward J. Miers, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., Assistant in the Zoological Department, 
British Museum. 

The following is a synonymic list, with brief diagnoses and 
remarks, of the species of this small and well-defined group, 
which belongs to the subtribe Catometopa, or Grapsoid Bra- 
chyura, and is peculiar on account of the remarkably flattened 
caraj)ace and of the position of the antennules, which are 
exposed in deep longitudinal clefts or sinuses of the front 
and are visible in a dorsal view. It contains but two genera, 
Plagusia and Leiolophus'^ , 

In determining and naming the species in the collection of 
the British Museum, I found that several of those recorded 
had apparently been established on insufficient grounds, and 
that of others the commonly received designations could not 
be retained ; and I think it will be useful to place these obser- 
vations on record, and at the same time indicate those cha- 
racters which I have found most constant and reliable for 
distinguishing the species. 

* The curious genus Crossotonotus, recently established by M. A. 
Milne-Edwards (Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. ix. p. 282, 1873) for a 
species (C. compressipes) from the Samoa Islands and New Caledonia, 
presents many affinities with the Plagusiinae, but cannot be referred to 
this group, on account of the absence of the frontal sinuses. The genus 
Plagusetes, based on a species from Chili (P. elatus), described by Heller in 
the preliminary synopsis of the Crustacea of the * Novara ' Voyage (Verb, 
zool.-bot. Gesell. Wien, xii. p. 522, 1862), is not mentioned in his final 
report, but seems to have been based on specimens subsequently referred 
to Acanthocydus Gayi^ a genus belonging to the Cancroidea, but possessing 
some affinities with the Plagusiinse. 



148 Mr. E. J. Miers on the Plagusiinse. 

The crustaceans of this group are found in nearly all the 
tropical and warmer temperate seas of the globe. 

Plagusia. 

Pkifftisia, Latr. (part), Gen. Crust, et Ins. i. p. 33 (1806) ; M.-Edw. 

(part), Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 90 (18,'57); Ann. Sci. Nat. (s6r. 3) 

Zool. XX. p. 178 (185.3), &c. 
Philyra (subgen.), De Haan, Faun. Japou. Crust, decas ii. p. 31 

(1835). 

Outer maxillipeds with the third or merus joint well deve- 
loped, as broad as the preceding joint. (Male genital appen- 
dages of the first pair without a terminal claw.) 

§ 1. Merus joint of the ambulatory legs tvith a terminal and 
suhterminal spine on its upper margin. 

Plagusia tuherculata. 

Plagusia squamosa, Lamarck, Hist. An. sans Vert. p. 246 (1818) ; 

M.-Edw. Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 94 (1837), nee Herbst. 
Plagusia tuherculata, Lamarck, /. c. p. 247 (1818); Latr. Encycl. M(5th. 

X. p. 146 (1825), Atlas, Crust, pi. eccv. fig. 1 (1818); M.-Edw. 

Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 94 (1837). 
Plagusia orientalis, Stimpson, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. p. 103 (1858) ; 

Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vii. p. 231 (1860). 

The carapace is covered with numerous small, often de- 
pressed tubercles, each of which is bordered by a fringe of 
short stiff hairs. The lobe above the bases of the second and 
third ambulatory legs is prominent, subacute, and not den- 
tated. The terminal segment of the male postabdomen is 
broadly semioval and rounded at its distal extremity. 

This species is probably common and widely distributed 
throughout the whole Indo-Pacific region. 

Specimens are in the British-Museum collection from 
the Mauritius {Leach's coll.). Red Sea {Burton), Australia 
( Gould) . 

It has been recorded by Milne-Edwards from the Indian 
Ocean ; and by Stimpson (under the name of P. orientalis) 
from Hong Kong, the Hawaiian Islands, and Cape St. Lucas 
in California. Probably also the specimens recorded by Heller 
(Voy. Novara) from the Red Sea, Nicobars, Madras, and 
Sydney belong here. 

This species was first distinctly characterized by Stimpson 
under the name of P. orientalis j but it would appear that 
Lamarck's earlier name of P. tuherculata must be adopted for 
it. His specimen was from the Mauritius, and is referred by 
Milne-Edwards to his Plagusia squamosa. 



Mr. E. J. Miers on the Plagusiinaj. 149 

Plagusia depressa. 

? Cancer depressus, Fabr. Syst. Lnt. p. 406 (1775) ; Ent. Svst. Suppl 

p. 343 (1798). 
? Cancer squamosus, Herbst, Naturg. Krabben u. Krebse, i. p. 260 

pi. XX. fig. 113 (1790). 
Plagusia depressa, Say, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. i. p. 100 (1815), 
Plagusia Sagi, DeKay, Zool. N.Y. Fauna, \i. Crust, p. 16 (1844) ; 

M.-Edw. Ann. Sci. 'Nat. (s^r. 3) Zool. xx. p. 179 (1853) ; Stimpson, 

Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vii. p. 64 (1859). 
Plagusia squamosa, Latr. Encvcl. Meth. x. p. 145 (1825) ; Dana, U S 

Expl. Exp. xiii. Crust, i. p. 368 (1852). 
Plagusia gracilis, Saussure, M6m. Soc. Phys. et Hist. Nat. Geneve, xiv 

p. 449 (1858). 

This species very closely resembles the preceding, but is 
distinguished, as Mr. Stimpson, in his " Notes on the North- 
American Crustacea," has pointed out, by the followino- 
characters. There is a series of about six prominent acute 
tubercles arranged in the form of an arc across the front of 
the gastric region ; and the lobe above tlie bases of the second 
and third ambulatory legs is broader and regularly dentated. 
The terminal segment of the postabdomen in the male is, I 
may add, narrower, with the sides more distinctly convergent 
to the distal extremity. 

Hob. This species inhabits what may be denominated, in 
contradistinction to the Indo-Pacific, the Atlantic region. 
Specimens are in the British Museum from the Tortugas, 
Garden Key {Smithson. List.), Jamaica (Gosse), Madeira {Rev. 
R. T. Lowe, Dr. Halley, Bleivitt), Brava Island {Rev. R. T. 
Lowe), St. Helena {Melltss). 

It is recorded from Charleston Harbour, South Carolina 
(Gibbes), and Brazil {Lichtenstein, fide Latreille). 

In one adult specimen from Madeira in the Museum collec- 
tion the teeth of the superior lobes of the ambulatory legs 
are nearly obsolete ; but even in this instance, in their broader 
and more truncated apices, they differ from the same lobes in 
the preceding species. 

On account of the habitat (" in mare Mediterraneo, Ameri- 
cano''''), the Cancer depressus of Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 406 
(1775), and Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 343 (1798), probably be- 
longs to this species ; and I adopt his name for it the more 
readily as Say, in 1815, employed it for specimens from the 
coast of the United States. The figure of Herbst's Cancer 
squamosus distinctly represents the lobe at base of the ambu- 
latory legs as dentated, and hence is to be referred to this 
species; but as the habitat is given as " Ost-Indien," there 
can be little doubt that Herbst, like most later authors 
failed to appreciate its distinctive characteristics, and united 
under one name the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific forms. 



150 Mr. E. J. Miers on the Plagusiinee. 

Von Martens remarks (Arch. f. Naturg. xxxviii. p. 112, 
] 872) that he found it impossible to find constant characters 
to separate specimens (referred by him to Plagusia squamosa) 
from Cuba, Brazil, Madeira, and the Red Sea. As, however, 
he had seen onlj a male and a female from the last-mentioned 
locality, and had seen no specimens of the Plagusia orientalis 
of Stimpson, it is probable that he may have overlooked the 
characters derived from the superior lobes of the ambulatory 
legs and terminal postabdominal segment in the male {vide also 
' Preuss. Exped. nach Ostasien,' zoolog. Theil, i. p. 22, 
1876). 

Plagusia immaculata. 

Plagusia immacidata, Lam. Hist. An. sans Vert. v. p. 247 (1818). 
Pktffusia depressa, Latr. Encycl. Meth. x. p. 145 (1825) ; M.-Edw. 

Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 93 (1837) ; Anu. Sci. Nat. (s(§r. 3) Zool. xx. 

p. 179 (1853) ; Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. Crust, i. p. 369 (1852) ; 

Stimpson, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. p. 103 (1858); nee Cancer 

depressuSy Fabricius. 

In this species the carapace is more convex than in either 
of the preceding, the tubercles much cTepressed, quite naked, 
often almost obsolete upon the gastric and cardiac regions. 
The lobe above the bases of the second and third pairs of am- 
bulatory legs is small and not dentated. 

The series in the British-Museum collection includes speci- 
mens from Ceylon {Holdsworth) ^ Torres Straits (Jukes) , Philip- 
pine Islands (Adams) ^ Timor Island (Rayner)^ Louisiade 
archipelago (Macgillivray) ^ Sandwich Islands, Honolulu 
(Lieut. Strickland). 

According to Stimpson, specimens found on the west coast 
of Central America by Capt. Dow belong to this species. It 
inhabits tlie seas of China, New Guinea, and the Indian 
Ocean (M.-Edw.) ; the islands of Loochoo and New Ire- 
land (Stimpson) • the Straits of Sunda (Dana), Nicobars, 
Shanghai, and Punipet (Heller). 

Milne-Edwards has pointed out the unsuitability of the 
name of P. depressa for this species, which is the most convex 
of any of the Plagusiinse ; and as it is not the Cancel' depressus 
of Fabricius, nor (probably) of Herbst, it appears necessary 
to adopt Lamarck's name of P. immaculata, which is quoted 
as a synonym of the species by Milne-Edwards (Hist. Nat. 
des Crustaces). 

I transcribe the following MS. note of the colours (when 
fresh) of a specimen found on the ship's bottom, off Redscar 
Point, in the Louisiade archipelago, and now in the British- 
Museum collection : — 

" Colour pale green, mottled with reddish brown. Tarsi 



Mr. E. J. Miers on the Plagusiinae. 151 

above dark purplish brown, with small markings of very pale 
bluish green. Carapace mottled and washed with pale dirty- 
green, dark reddish brown, and straw-colour, with a few 
orange dots." This specimen, in its dried state, is of a nearly 
uniform dull chestnut-brown. 

M. Brocchi (Ann. Sci. Nat. &€\\ 6, Zool. ii. p. 80, pi. xix. 
figs. 168-170, 1875) figures the male genital appendages of 
specimens both of this species and of P. 8ayi from Guade- 
loupe. In the specimens referred by this author to P. dejyressa 
the 'first pair of genital appendages are of peculiar shape, 
constricted in their subterminal half, and with the distal 
extremity of an oval form (fig. 170) ; whereas in male indivi- 
duals I have examined this pair of appendages scarcely differ 
in form from those of P. squamosa ; that is to say, they are, as 
in the Atlantic species, strongly contorted and truncated at 
the extremity. 

Plagusia speciosa. 

Plaqusia speciosa, Daua, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. v. p. 252 (1851) ; 
U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. Crust, i. p. 369, pi. xxiii. fig. 9 (1852); M.-Edw. 
Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser. 3) Zool. xx. p. 179 (1853). 

This species is distinguished from all its congeners by having 
only three teeth upon the antero-lateral margins of the cara- 
pace, including the outer orbital tooth. 

Ilah. Paumotu archipelago, Waterland Island [Dana). 

Only a carajjace of this species is known. The disposition 
of the tubercles on the dorsal surface, as described by Dana, 
differs somewhat from that usual in P. squamosa. 

Plagusia glabra. 

Plagusia glabra, Dana, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. p. 252 (1851) ; U.S. 
Expl. Exp. xiii. Crust, i. p. 371, pi. xxiii. fig. 10 (1852) ; M.-Edw. 
Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser. 3) Zool. xx. p. 179 (1853). 

Is described by Dana as having the carapace smooth and 
glabrous, antero-lateral margin quadridentate, front above ob- 
liquely subcristate, not spinigerous. Anterior legs of male 
very short, part of hand preceding fingers shorter than its 
height, granulate above, smooth externally and not costate ; 
wrist nearly smooth. Third joint of eight posterior legs 
smooth. Third joint of outer maxillipeds quadrate, slightly 
oblong. 

Hah. New Soutli Wales [Dana), Australia [coll. Brit. 
Mus.). 

The male specimen described by Dana measured about 9 
lines. The specimen in the British-Museum collection is a 
female of much larger size (1 inch 7 lines), and is closely 



152 Mr. E. J. Mieis on the Plaffusiinse 



fe)' 



speckled with red. There is an irregular granulated ridge on 
the upper surface of the wrist, and an abrupt prominence 
behind the upper orbital margin, which is beaded. The buccal 
organs are wanting. This species is at once distinguished by 
the smooth and naked carapace, less deeply incised frontal 
sinuses, and the form of the hands, and appears to establish 
the transition from the Plagusiinse to the Grapsinse, through 
Cyrtogra^psus. 

§ 2, Merus joint of the ambulatory legs with a series of spines on its 
ujpper margin {carapace almost entirely destitute of tubercles). 

Plagusia chahrus. 

Cancer chahrus, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 438 (1764) ; Syst. Nat. p. 1044 

(1766). 
Plagusia tomentosa, M.-Edw. Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 92 (1837) ; Ann. 

Sci. Nat. (ser. 3) Zool. xx. p. 178 (1853). 
Plagusia capensis, De Haan, Faun. Japon. Crust, p. 58 (1835). 
Plagusia chabrus, White, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. xvii. p. 497 (1846). 

Carapace covered with a very short close pubescence, and 
without tubercles. Front armed above with two small spines, 
and with a series of small tubercles on its anterior margin. 
Anterior legs tuberculated. Lobes above the bases of the 
second and third ambulatory legs terminating in a short 
spine. 

Specimens of this species are in the British Museum from 
the Cape of Good Hope {Sir A. Smith, Capt, Carmichael, 
Dr. P. Hahn), New Zealand {Dr. Sinclair), and Tasmania, 
near George Town {R. Gunn). 

It has been recorded from New South Wales {Dana), Chili 
{M.-Edwards) . 

It is probable that the species briefly characterized by Milne- 
Edwards (Ann. Sci. Nat. sdr. 3, Zool. xx. p. 178, 1853) under 
the name of P. Gaimardi, from Tongatabu, is only a variety 
of the above. 

The first pair of genital appendages in the male are not 
twisted as in P. squamosa, and their inferior margins are thin 
and sharp-edged ; they are sometimes very slightly constricted 
towards the distal extremity, which is obtuse and subtrun- 
cated. 

Plagusia dentipes. 

Grapsus (Plagusia^ dentipes, De Haan, Faun. Japon. Crust, decas 2, 

p. 58, pi. viii. tig. 1 (1835). 
Plagusia dentipes, M.-Edw. Ann. Sci. Nat. (s<5r. 3) Zool. xx. p. 178 

(1853) ; Stimpson, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. p. 103 (1858). 

This species is distinguished from the preceding by having 



Mr. E. J. Miers on the Plagusiinae. 153 

a group of tubercles on the hepatic region of the carapace, 
near the base of the outer orbital tooth ; and the spines upon 
the upper margins of the merus joints of the ambulatory legs 
are much stronger. 

Hah. Japan {De Haan)^ Simoda [Stimpson). 

I have seen no specimens. 

Leiolophus. 

Acanthopus, De Haan, Faun. Japon. Crust, p. 29 (1836) ; M.-Edw. 

Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser. 3) Zool. xx. p. 180 (1853) ; nom. prseoccu- 

patum. 
Leiolojihus, Miers, Cat. New-Zeal. Crust, p. 46 (187G). 

Outer maxillipeds with the merus joint very small and much 
narrower than the preceding joint. (Carapace with smooth 
naked ridges on its upper surface, but without numerous tuber- 
cles. Merus joints of the ambulatory legs with a series of 
spines on their upper margins. Male genital appendages of 
the first pair not twisted, with a terminal claw.) 

Leiolophus planissimus. 

Cancer planissimus, Herbst, Naturg. Krabben und Krebse, iii. pi. lix. 

fig. 3 (1804). 
Plagusia serripes, Lam. Hist. An. sans Vert. p. 247 (1818). 
Plaqusia clavimana, Desm. Consid. Crust, p. 127, pi. xiv. fig. 2 (1825) ; 

M.-Edw. Hist. Nat. Crust, ii. p. 92 (18-37) ; Atlas in Cuvier, E. A. 

pi. xxiii. fig. 3. 
Acanthopus j)lanissimus, De Haan, Faim. Japon. Crust, p. 30 (1835) ; 

Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. Crust, p. 372 (1852) ; M.-Edw. Ann. 

Sci. Nat. (ser. 3) Zool. xx. p. 180 (1853). 
Acanthopus Gibbesi, M.-Edw. Ann. Sci. Nat. t. c. p. 180 (1853). 
Leiolophus planissimus, Miers, Cat. New-Zeal. Crust, p. 46 (1876). 

Hands in the male strong ; the palms compressed and con- 
siderably dilated, much broader than the wrist, not sulcated 
on their upper margins. Greatest width of the abdomen of 
the male exceeding its length to the base of the last segment. 

Specimens are in the British Museum from Mauritius [Lady 
F. Cole), Torres Straits {Jukes), Keeling or Cocos Island (i/^e^^^. 
Burnaby), Pacific Ocean {Smithsonian Inst.), Madeira {Rev. 
R. T. Lowe), Jamaica {purchased). 

It is abundant in the Polynesian archipelago, having been 
recorded from islands in the Paumotu, Society, Samoan, and 
Hawaiian groups {Dana), also from Cape St. Lucas and the 
coast of Florida, Key Biscayne {Stimpson). 

In male specimens of large size from Madeira, the genital 
appendages of tlie first pair differ slightly from those of L. 
alhreviatus and Brocchi's figure {I. c. fig. 171), in being 
slender, more curved, and narrower in the middle than at 
either extremity. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 11 



154 Mr. E.J. Miers on the Plagusiinge. 

Unfortunately, in the British -Museum copy of Herbst's 
■work, the concluding part, containing the description and figure 
of his C. plam'ssi77ius, is wanting ; I have therefore not been 
able to verify the reference, which is quoted from Milne- 
Edwards. 

Leiolophus ahhreviatiis. 

Acanthopus abbreviatus, Dana, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. p. 252 (1851) ; 
U.S. Expl. Exp. xiii. Crust, i. p. 373, pi. xxiii. fig. 11 (1852) ; 
M.-Edw. Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser. 3) Zool. xx. p. 181 (1853). 

Hands in the male small, the palm not dilated, and longi- 
tudinally sulcated on the upper margin in both sexes. Abdo- 
men of the male rather narrow, its greatest width not quite 
equalling its length to the base of the last segment. 

There are specimens in the British Museum from the Mau- 
ritius, Moluccas, Gilolo (Adams), Philippines, Guimaras 
[Cuming), Fiji Islands [H.M.S. ^Herald'). 

Most of the specimens in the collection are females. In one 
male adult example, whose genital appendages I have ex- 
amined, these organs are exactly of the form figured by 
Brocchi (Z. c. fig. 171) in specimens referred by him to L. 
planissimus. 

Leiolojplius pilimanus. 

Acanthopus piU7nanus, A. M.-Edw. Nouv. Arcliiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. ix. 
p. 300, pi. xiv. fig. 5 (1873). 

This species, in the dilated hands of the male, resembles 
L. planissimus, but is distinguislied from it and from all its 
congeners by the existence of a large patch of thick hair upon 
the inner surface of the palms. There is a row of small spines 
upon the inner margins of the antennulary cavities. The 
abdomen is also said to be narrower than in L. planissimus. 

Hah. New Caledonia [M. Balansa). 

The male only is known of this large species. I have seen 
no specimens. 

The characters assigned by M. Milne-Edwards to his 
Acanthopus affinis (Ann. Sci. Nat. S(^r. 3, Zool. xx. p. 180, 
1853) from the Sandwich Islands, and A. tenuifrons (1. c.) 
from the Marquesas, do not appear to me to be of specific 
importance. 

The Leiolophus spinosus [Plagusia spinosa of M'Leay, in 
Smith's Zool. S. Africa, Annulosa, p. 66, 1838) would seem 
to be a distinct species, if tlie character " clypei laterihus hiden- 
tatis " be correct. It is stated by its author to be nearly 
allied to the L. planissimus (P. clavimana of Desmarest), with 
which it is united by Krauss (Stidafrik. Crust, p. 42, 1843). 



Mr. R. Meldola oti Evolution. 155 

XVIII. — Entomological Notes bearing oti Evolution. 
By Eaphael Meldola, Sec. Ent. Soc. 

In 1871, when working at the subjects of " mimicry " and 
"protective resemblance," Mr. Darwin was so good as to send 
me for perusal a letter which he had received from Fritz 
Mtiller, then in St. Catharina, Brazil. As this letter contains 
many entomological observations of interest, I have thought it 
advisable to take steps to secure their being placed upon 
record in a permanent form ; and, with the permission of Mr. 
Darwin, I have selected extracts which I beg to make known 
in the present paper, together with other observations from 
various sources which tend to throw light on subjects con- 
nected with the descent theory. 

Sounds made hy Butterflies. 

Mr, Darwin has already recorded * the sound produced by 
the South-American butterfly, Ageronia fei'onia, which is 
stated to make " a noise like that produced by a toothed 
wheel passing under a spring catch, and which could be heard 
at the distance of several yards." With reference to the 
object of this sound Mr. Darwin states f, "At Rio de Janeiro 
this sound was noticed by me only when two were chasing 
each other in an irregular course, so that it is probably made 
during the courtship of the sexes." With regard to this 
insect Fritz Miiller writes, " I told you some time ago that I 
had not yet seen it here ; but lately I have caught two speci- 
mens belonging to two species, and I have seen in the collec- 
tion of a friend of mine a third specimen of a third species. 
One of these specimens had been observed for many days by 
my children flying around some orange-trees near my house j 
it frequently alighted on the putrefying fruit on the ground, 
on the juice of which it seemed to feed. My children never 
heard any noise produced by it, neither did I ; and this seems 
to confirm your view that the noise is made only during the 
courtship of the sexes." 

I may add that our common Vanessa To is stated to make 
a faint hissing sound J; but the precise conditions under which 
this noise is produced require further observation. 

• Journal of Researches, 1845, p. 33. On the sound-producing appa- 
ratus see E. Doubleday in Proc. Ent. Soc, March 3, 1845. See also a 
paper by Mr. A. H. Swinton, "On an Organ of Hearing in Lepidoptera," 
Ent. Mo. Mag., Nov. 1877. 

t Descent of Man, 2nd ed. p. 307. 

X Rev. J. Greene, Trans. Ent. Soc. new series, vol. ii. p. xcviii, and 
Mr. Hev?-itson, ibid. vol. iv. p. ii. The sound-producing structure has 
been figured by Mr. Swinton, Eut. Mo. Mag., Jan. 1877. 

11* 



156 Mr. Pt. Meldola on Evolution. 

Display of Colour hy Leindoptera. 

With reference to the display of colour by butterflies and 
moths, Mr. Darwin has already * recorded the case of a 
species of Cantnia which possesses ornamented hind wings 
and displays them, while other species with plain hind wings 
do not display them t- Fritz Miiller adds the following in- 
teresting case : — " I observed a curious little fact with our 
Ilesperidce. Most of them are of a dull brownish colour ; but 
there are some in which the wings have a more or less vivid 
blue tint either on the upper or on the lower surface. Now the 
former when alighting on a flower always hold their wings 
expanded in a horizontal ^^Zawe, while those of the latter are 
folded vertically, so that in either case the blue surface is 
exposed to view.'" Without further observation it cannot be 
assumed in this case that the colour is displayed as a sexual 
attraction, since it is well known that colour is displayed for 
other purposes, such as for protection, when the colour is a 
signal of distastefulness (as with brightly coloured larvae, and 
those species which serve as models for mimicry), or for 
giving resemblance to some coloured objects, such as flowers. 

Insects distinguisMng Colours. 

The distinguishing of colours by insects has been proved in 
the case of bees and wasps by Sir John Lubbock's experi- 
ments. This faculty is of paramount importance to the theory 
of sexual selection \, Fritz Miiller states, " Butterflies not 
only discover flowers by colom-, but certain species even give 
an unmistakable preference to certain colours. Thus Calli- 
dryas Philea and some other species of that genus almost 
exclusively visit brilliant red flowers {Canna, Salvia). A red 
Iledychium in my garden was constantly surrounded by a 
multitude of CaUidryas Philea (and of Papilio Thoas) ; and so 
are at present some other plants with red flowers, while they 
never alight on plants of the same and otlier genera with yellow, 
white, or blue flowers." 

Mimicry. 

It has hitherto been considered a general rule that a 
mimicked species is commoner than the species which mimics 

* Descent of Man, 2ud ed. p. 314. 

t Ibid. 2nd ed. p. 315. Mr. Darwin has called my attention to Fritz 
MUller's " Beobaclitungeu an brasilianischen Sclimetterlingeu," a paper 
wliicli contains some further remarks bearing on the subject of display, in 
the October number of ' Kosmos.' 

\ ' Descent of Man,' 2nd ed. p, 317. On the attraction of Macroylossa 
steUntamm by colour, see a letter in 'Nature,' vol. xvii. p. 11, Nov. 1, 
1877. 



Mr. E. Meldola on Evolution. 157 

it. FritJ;; Mliller records the following exceptions : — " There 
are here some exceptions to the rule that the imitating species 
are comparatively rare, while the imitated swarm in large 
numbers. Thus Mechamtis Lysimnia is hardly more common 
than the imitating Leptalis ; and the beautiful Papilio nepha- 
lion^ Godt., is here so rare that I have seen only two or three 
specimens last summer, whilst the imitating Euterpe tereas is 
by far more common. But in other parts of Brazil the name- 
rical relations of these species may be different." 

I would add, with reference to this observation, that it is 
quite conceivable that in certain districts external conditions 
may so change tliat a species dominant in other regions may 
become rare or altogether extinct, while the species which 
mimics it may remain unaffected. Thus Diadema misip)- 
jncs, the female of which mimics Danais chrysippuSy is 
found in South America, while the model Danais is not *. 
Mr. Trimen also remarks t : — " The magnificent Papilio Anti- 
machus, Drury, of which but one specimen is known to 
science, is very Acra3iform in habit, and is possibly an instance 
of special modification in imitation of some gigantic Acrcea as 
yet unknown or perhaps extinct." Papilio Zalmoxis also, iis 
I am informed by Mr. A. G. Butler, probably mimics some 
unknown or extinct gigantic Acrcea. Many cases are known 
in which a butterfly is obviously a mimic, but its exact model 
is unknown \. I am disposed to believe that such instances 
show us the process of mimetic resemblance in actual progress. 
For example, many species of Elymnias resemble species of 
Eu])loea ; but it is impossible to name the precise species of the 
last genus which in each case serves as a model. In these 
cases it is more reasonable to suppose that the mimicry of the 
Elymnias is in course of perfection, than to assume that the 
species which they imitate have become extinct. It is also 

* This species (Z). r)i{sipj)us) is stated to occur in Guiauaon the autho- 
rity of Boisduval. My friend Mr. A. G. Butler has just informed me 
that a large male from Formosa, in which the Danaiform characters 
are partially visible, has been lately added to the national collection. 
Here we have an interesting case in which mimetic characters originally 
acquired by a female butterfly are probably in course of transmission to 
the male. 

t Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 603. I learn that probably two other 
specimens have been obtained since the above was written. 

X For numerous instances of imperfect mimicry see papers by A. G. 
Butler: — ''A Monograph of the Lepidoptera hitherto included in the 
Genus Elymnias" Proc. Zool. Soc. June G, 1871 ; also on Frotogoiiiiis, 
ibid. Dec. 2, 1873, and Jan. 19, 1875, Mr. Neville Goodman points out 
(Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc, Feb. 12, 1877) that imperfect resemblances are 
arguments in favour of the production of the phenoracuon through the 
action of natural selection. 



158 Mr. E. Meldola on Evolution. 

conceivable that a general resemblance to a protected gi'onp 
might in some districts be quite as efficacious as a resem- 
blance to particular species of such a group. 

As another instance bearing on the present subject I may- 
cite Argynnis ni'phe^ the female of which is a very fair mimic 
of Danais chrystppus. The former species (var. inconstans) 
ranges into Australia, while the Banais does not occur in that 
region ; and what makes this case so particularly interesting is, 
that in Australia, where there is no model, hoth sexes of the 
Argynnis are alike, and resemble the male of the Indian form. 

The degree of exactness with whicli mimics sometimes 
resemble their models has been noticed by all observers ; but 
there are only a few recorded cases where the insects them- 
selves have been known to be deceived. Mr. Trimen states * 
that the male Banais chrysippus has been deceived by the 
female Diadema holina. Fritz Muller writes : — " One of the 
most interesting of our mimicking butterflies is Leptalis melite. 
The female alone of this species imitates one of our common 
white Pteridce, Avhich she eopies so well that even her own 
male is often deceived ; for I have repeatedly seen the male 
pursuing the mimicked species, till, after closely approaching 
and becoming aware of his error, he suddenly returned." 

Correlation of Habit with Protective Resemblance. 

Mr. Bates has already recorded the resemblance of a cater- 
pillar (supposed to be a species oi Notodontidce) to a venomous 
snake f ,' and Dr. Weismann has likewise shown :j: that the 
eye-like markings on Choerocampa-l&xvdi, actually frightened 
away birds. Fritz Muller states that he " found the cater- 
pillar of a Papilio which strikingly resembled the head of a 
venomous snake." 

By referring to Mr. Bates's description it will be seen 
that the mimicry extended even to attitude. All observers 
have noticed how in some instances a mimicking insect 
copies the flight of its model ; and such cases of correspon- 
dence between habit and resemblance are of great theoretical 
interest to the evolutionist. Thus Mr, Wallace has shown, 
in the case of the well-known "leaf-butterflies" {Kallima)^ 
how the insects settle on the bushes in an attitude which 
perfects their resemblance to dead leaves. The same ob- 
server also mentions, with respect to the stick-like PhasmidcBy 

* Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xsvi. p. 513. 

t Ibid. vol. xxiii. p. 609. 

X * Studien zur Descendenz-Theorie,' part ii. pp. 100 et seq. This ob- 
servation has been confirmed in the case of 0. eljietior by Lady Verney 
(see a paper in 'Good Words/ Dec. 1877, p. 838). 



Mr. R. Meldola on Evolution. 159 

that " they hang loosely about shrubs in the forest, and have 
the extraordinary habit of stretching out their legs unsymme- 
trically so as to render the deception more complete." Fritz 
Miiller supplies the following analogous instances : — " The 
caterpillars of some Papiliones resemble fresh excrements of a 
bird; these caterpillars always rest on the upper surfaces of the 
leaves on which they feed, while those of some other Papiliones 
{Nephalion, Polydamas) , which are not protected by some sucli 
resemblance, always hide themselves on the lower surfaces of 
the leaves." 

Even among our own insects hundreds of such cases might 
be noted. Thus the weevils, which resemble pellets of earth, 
tuck in their legs and feign death when alarmed, and the 
stick-like geometer larvte erect tliemselves stiffly from the 
twigs on which they rest. CuculUa charnomillce and Galeria 
cerella both resemble broken splinters of wood when at rest ; 
and I have seen these moths at the extreme ends of pointed 
palings, where they had erected themselves at an angle to the 
wood, making the resemblance to a broken-off splinter remark- 
ably deceptive. Caloccmvpa vetusta is very like a piece of 
broken stick when its wings are closed ; and this moth has 
been seen hanging to a twig by one leg. Oasteropaclia quer- 
cifolia, which, when at rest, resembles a withered leaf, has been 
seen in a similar attitude. Cilix spinula is well known to 
resemble a piece of bird-excrement ; and I have often seen 
this moth at rest by day, fully exposed to view, on the upper 
surfaces of leaves. 

It is interesting to observe how, in many cases, natural 
selection has probably taken advantage of characters originally 
acquired for some other purpose. Thus the common Antho- 
charis cardamines of this country has been shown by Mr. T. 
W. Wood to rest at night on the heads of umbelliferous 
plants, where the green raarblings on the underside of the hind 
wings of the butterfly cause the latter to bear a very exact 
resemblance to the flower-head. Now, as this style of mar- 
bling is common to many butterflies of the genus in various 
parts of the world, it cannot be assumed that this character 
has been specially acquired to adapt the insects to umbel- 
liferous flower-heads. It is quite as probable, in the case of 
A. cardamines^ that the habit oi the butterfly has been adapted 
to its particular mode of coloration, natural selection after- 
wards perfecting the resemblance. A similar instance is 
offered by Lithosia caniola, the larva of which feeds on Tri- 
folium repens^ and is stated to occur on stony ground which 
abounds with a species of small shell, probably a Helix'^ 
When alarmed the larva rolls itself into a ring and falls off 



160 Mr. K. Meldola on Evolution. 

its food-plantj in which attitude it " has almost exactly the 
appearance, in form, colour, and size," of one of these shells, 
" which greatly increases the difficulty of finding them when 
thus feigning death"*. The habit of rolling up into a ring 
when alarmed is common with many caterpillars which are 
found in situations where mimicry of shells cannot possibly be 
adduced as a reason for the habit. Hence in the case of L. 
caniola I am inclined to believe that natural selection has 
taken advantage of and improved upon a habit originally 
acquired for a distinct purpose. 

The most remarkable case referable to the present class 
that has recently been published is that of Gongylus gongy- 
lodeSy Linn., an Indian Mantis which simulates a flowerf. 
When exhibiting some of these insects at a meeting of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Dr. Anderson remarked that when 
seen from above " they did not exhibit any very striking fea- 
tures beyond the leaf-like expansion of the prothorax and the 
foliaceous appendages to the limbs, both of which, like the 
upper surface of the insect, are coloured green ; but on turning 
to the under surface the aspect is entirely different. The leaf- 
like expansion of the prothorax, instead of being green, is a 
clear pale lavender-violet, with a faint pink bloom along the 
edges of the leaf; so that this portion of the insect has the 
exact appearance of the corolla of a plant — a floral simulation 
which is perfected by the presence of a dark blackish-brown 
spot in its centre, over the prothorax, and which mimics the 
opening to the tube of a corolla. A favourite position of this 
insect is to hang head downwards among a mass of green 
foliage ; and when it does so it generally remains almost 
motionless, but, at intervals, evinces a swaying movement as 
of a flower touched by a gentle breeze ; and while in this atti- 
tude, with its fore limbs banded violet and black and drawn up 
in front of the centre of the corolla, the simulation of a papilio- 
naceous flower is complete. The object of the bright colouring 
of the under surface of the prothoracic expansion is evident, 
its purpose being to act as a decoy to insects, which, mistaking 

• Newman's < British Moths,' p. 473. 

t Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Aug-. 1877. For an analogous case see a paper 
by Mr. Wallace in Macmillan's Mag. for Sept. 1877. The Mantis re- 
feiTed to resembles a piuk orchid, and is stated to be attractive to butter- 
flies. Prof. J. Wood-Mason informs me that the floral resemblance of 
the above and other species of Gongylus has been known to him for years; 
but its object had remained unexplained till 1875, when he received from 
Assam some larvae of Hymenopiis bicornis, Sen'ille, in which species the 
resemblance to a flower is, according to Prof. Wood-Mason, even more 
perfect than is the case with the Gongylus. See also Proc. Ent. Soc, 
Nov. 7th, 1877, p. xxix. 



On new Species of Ileterocera from Japan. 161 

it for a corolla, fly clirectlj into the expectant, serrated, sabre- 
like raptorial arms of the simulator." 

A case like that of Gongylus is of the highest interest — can, 
in fact, be only completely appreciated by the believer in 
natural selection. The green foliaceous expansion of the 
limbs and prothorax is common with many species of this 
group of insects, and serves unquestionably as a protection by 
causing the insects to resemble leaves. Such, in all proba- 
bility, was the object of the leaf-like expansions acquired by 
the ancestor of the present Gongylus. Later in the history of 
the species the acquisition of food became of equal or greater 
importance than the mere evasion of foes ; then we must believe 
that natural selection took advantage of the underside of the 
foliaceous expansions and coloured them by minute grada- 
tions till they acquired their present floral tints and markings; 
hand in hand with this modification of colour, habits tending 
to complete the deception were gradually acquired, till the 
marvellous coordination which we now behold was perfected. 



XIX. — Descriptions of new Species of Ileterocera f'om Japan. 
— Part II. Noctuites. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., &c. 

[Continued from p. 85.] 

Caradrinidse. 

Radinacra, n. gen. 

Closely allied to Caradrina^ from which it may at once be 
distinguished by the great length of the apical joint of the 
palpi, and the great development of the anal tuft and appen- 
dices of the male. Type U. palpalis. 

81. Radinacra jpalpalis^ n. sp. 

$ . Colour and general pattern of Caradrina respersa, but 
the transverse lines rather more parallel ; the reniform spot 
irrorated along its outer edge with whitish ; the ground-colour 
of the primaries tinted with reddish ; the secondaries paler, 
whitish, with diffused brownish outer border ; the tarsi above 
blackish, banded with white : wings below browner, discal 
line on both wings better defined, nearer to the margin ; a 
series of distinct black marginal dots. Expanse 1 inch 
5 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 



162 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

82. Amyna steUata^ n. sp. 

Smaller than A. selenampha^ the primaries shorter, shin- 
ing greyish brown ; the two transverse lines well-defined, 
the inner one irregular and speckled with white scales ; 
a depressed silvery and black spot near the base of the 
cell ; outer line denticulated, edged externally with white 
scales ; a white spot at the end of the cell ; a ti-ansverse sub- 
apical white dash ; external border slightly paler, its inner 
margin broadly trisinuated ; costa white-spotted ; a marginal 
series of black and white dots ; secondaries paler, fringe 
whitish, intersected by a brown line ; head and collar slightly 
reddish : underside much like that of A. selenampha. Ex- 
panse 1 inch 1 line. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

Size and form of A, undulifera from Natal ; the priraariea 
above like those of Perigea punctosa in marking. 

83. Agrotis illoba, n. sp. 

Nearly allied to A. agricola^ but altogether of a duller and 
greyer tint ; the markings better-defined ; a well-defined 
waved dentate-sinuate discal dusky line ; submarginal area 
bounded internally by a very irregular zigzag pale line; 
secondaries whiter than in A. agricola; thorax pearly greyish; 
anal tuft testaceous : secondaries below with dusky costal and 
apical areas ; a well-defined blackish discocellular spot. Ex- 
panse 1 inch 10 lines. 

Hakodate {Whitely). 

84. Ag7'otts ingrata, n. sp. 

Allied to A. segetum, but readily distinguishable by the 
pale greyish or whitish outer border of primaries, the sordid- 
brownish secondaries, and the pale greyish thorax. Expanse 
1 inch 8-10 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

85. Agrotis odtosa, n. sp. 

Colour and general character of the reddish form of A. 
saucta, but smaller, the orbicular and reniform spots ill- 
defined and red ; the secondaries shining whity brown, with 
no distinct outer border and without the blackish dots on the 
veins below. Expanse 1 inch 8 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

86. Agrotis iistuhta, n. sp. 
Somewhat allied to A. annexa : primaries above pale 



of Heterocera from Japan. 163 

brown, clouded and transversely striated with blackish ; a 
patch at the base of the cell (bordered below by a black line), 
the reniform and orbicular spots, apex and inner margin of 
the external border pale silvery brown ; secondaries sordid 
white, the apex and veins brown ; a dark brown marginal 
line ; body greyish brown, anal segments of abdomen laterally 
tufted with fawn-colour ; wings below without markings ; 
body below reddish ; tarsi above alternately banded with 
black and white, below reddish banded with black. Expanse 
1 inch 8 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas), 

TEiPHJiNOPSis, n. gen. 

Allied to Triphcenaj but readily distinguished by the form 
of the primaries, which is that of Catocala ; palpi with longer 
terminal joint ; first median branch of primaries emitted nearer 
to the second but not running so parallel to it, lower radial 
emitted further from the third median ; outer margin undu- 
lated ; thorax with four central projecting scale-patches. 
Type T. lucilla. 

87. TriphcBnopsis lucilla^ n. sp. 

Size and form of Catocala diversa. Primaries above 
greenish grey, clouded with brown ; costa spotted with brown 
to the end of the cell and with white beyond it ; the black 
lines limiting the central band not distinct above the median 
vein, undulated, the inner one double ; reniform spot white, 
with a lunate internal brown line ; a cuneiform brown-spotted 
white spot from the outer line to near the external angle ; 
outer border grey, blackish in the centre and at external angle, 
and bounded internally by a subconfluent irregular series of 
conical testaceous spots ; a black undulated marginal line ; 
fringe with a slender ochraceous basal line, blackish tipped 
with pale brown ; secondaries brown, the fringe, outer mar- 
gin, and a large central semicircular spot ochreous ; a broad 
marginal border and two or three spots on the fringe black ; 
thorax with the general coloration of the primaries, but with 
the scale-patches reddish ; abdomen greyish with black dorsal 
tufts, anus reddish at the sides : primaries below blackish, the 
apical costa spotted with white, fringe spotted with ochra- 
ceous ; secondaries ochraceous, costal area irrorated with 
brown ; a discocellular lunule and the border as above black ; 
pectus white ; legs black, banded with white above, yellowish 
below ; venter testaceous, anus reddish. Expanse 1 inch 
9 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 



164 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

Triphcena nectejis, from India, is a second species of this 
genus. 

88. Hermonassa cecih'a, n. sp. 

Upper surface cliocolate-brown ; primaries darker than the 
secondaries, costal margin ferruginous ; " orbicular " spot 
cordiform, the apex pointing outwards, it and the reniform 
and a fusiform spot below the median vein and nearer to the 
base blackish, with slender ochreous margin, partly black- 
bordered; costal and basal areas spotted with black, the inter- 
val between each two spots grey ; an oblique short ochreous 
line across the cell near the base ; two straight grey lines 
across the basal area ; two parallel arched series of greyish 
partly black-edged crescents ; a submarginal series of black 
dots ; fringe greyish ; secondaries slightly sericeous, fringe 
pale grey, traversed by a dusky stripe ; thorax tufted with 
testaceous, prothorax with a blackish margin and a whitish - 
tipped fringe, collar testaceous behind ; legul^e blackish, with 
grey border ; abdomen fuliginous : under surface paler, greyer ; 
primaries shining, with fulvous costa, crossed near apex by 
two divergent blackish liturse, margin alternately testaceous 
and black ; secondaries with blackish-speckled costal area ; 
legs banded with testaceous. Expanse 1 inch 7-8 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

Somewhat the aspect of Graphiphora, but the primaries 
narrower, palpi with projecting scales. 

89. Spcelotis miens, n. sp. 

Allied to S. pyrojyhila, but smaller, greyer, the wings more 
shining, the reniform and orbicular spots smaller and paler, 
the discocellular spots and discal line below diflfused and 
scarcely distinguishable, the secondaries and the borders of 
the primaries greyer, and the marginal liturse blacker. Ex- 
panse 1 inch 5 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

The primaries of this species shine almost like those of a 
Plusia. 

90. GraphijJwra exusta, n. sp. 

Allied to G. rhomboidea, but redder, the inner edge of the 
external border of primaries less deeply sinuated, the double 
discal line of about half the width, quite straight to near the 
costa, and then abruptly angulatecl ; lines below the cell obso- 
lete; secondaries and alodomen much greyer; discal line below 
less distinct and nearer to the outer margin. Expanse 1 inch 
9 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas), Hakodat<5 (Whitely). 



of Heterocera from Japan. 165 

91. Oraphiijliora canescens^ n. sp. 

Allied to Q. hrunnea, but much greyer, the markings less 
distinct, the bright tawny tints on the primaries and thorax 
obsolete, the orbicular and reniform spots greyish, not black- 
edged, the head in front lioary. Expanse 1 inch 7-10 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas), Hakodate [Whitely). 

Nearly the whole of the darker bands and spots on the pri- 
maries of this species are suffused with lilacine grey, so that 
it is a much duller-looking species than G. brunnea ; the fringe 
of secondaries varies from rose-colour to white. In general 
appearance it resembles G. haja. 

92. Oraphipliora caliginea, n. sp. 

Allied to G. sigma, but with narrower and longer wings, 
the primaries sepia-brown, with the costal area slightly greyer 
or redder, but not sharply defined as in G. sigma, the dis- 
coidal markings less strongly defined, the angular discal stripe 
less lunated in its divisions and more uniform in width ; 
secondaries sordid shining white instead of brown ; the thorax 
scarcely darker than the abdomen, the head and collar whitish 
instead of reddish : under surface shining whitish ; the pri- 
maries with a discal transverse line, twice as far from the 
margin as in G. sigma) secondaries with the discocellular 
spot barely indicated, and the discal line only visible on the 
costal area. Expanse 1 inch 11 lines. 

Hakodat(5 {WJdteJy). 

93. GrapMphora'^ pacifica, Xi. Q^. 

Primaries grey, with the usual irregular outer border limited 
by a ferruginous whitish-edged stripe, a series of marginal 
conical ferruginous spots, between which (at the end of the 
nervures) are white dots j fringe grey, traversed by darker 
lines, and white-tipped ; two diverging central irregular lines 
enclosing the orbicular and reniform spots, which are whitish, 
and a blackish spot below the median vein ; costa white- 
spotted ; secondaries sordid white, with a broad external 
seiiceous greyish-brown nebula ; body grey ; head, margins of 
tegulge, and abdomen whitish : wings below sordid white, 
with a well-defined grey discal line and discocellular spot, 
and reddish apex to each wing ; primaries with greyish dis- 
coidal area ; fringe grey, edged with white and black lines ; 
body below grey, with a feeble pink tint. Expanse 1 inch 
10 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

Allied to G. elimata from Georgia j it is possible that it 



166 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

may be the species intended by Motschulsky's description of 
Caradrina variolosa ; but (as in other cases) this can only be 
decided by an examination of his type. It has the general 
aspect of Toeniocampa opima. 

94. Ochropleura stupenda, n. sp. 

Primaries above shining black, the markings bordered with 
deep 'velvet-black, basal two thirds of costal area sandy 
whitish, with two black basal streaks ; an oblique basal litura, 
a >-like line below the cell, and the front of the discoidal 
spots testaceous varied with dark red scales ; a discal series 
of small lunate testaceous spots, and a submarginal series of 
similar brown spots broadly bordered by a velvet-black stripe ; 
a zigzag black marginal line ; fringe brown ; secondaries 
sandy whitish, the external half smoky brown, fringe grey- 
spotted ; head and thorax black ; collar sandy whitish, with a 
transverse red posterior line ; abdomen grey, whitish at base, 
with testaceous anal tuft : wings below altogether paler than 
above, basal area whitish, external area greyish brown, with 
two brown discal streaks, fringe nearly as above ; secondaries 
with a small black discocellular lunule ; body below grey, legs 
and palpi mottled with testaceous. Expanse 2 inches 2 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

Orthosiidse. 

95. Semtophora pallescens, n. sp. 

Allied to S. gothica, but with the basal area, the basal half 
of the costal area, and the orbicular spot whitish, the remainder 
of the wing paler and more sericeous, the two basal spots 
united into a black line ; the line across the cell blackish (not 
white-edged) ; the discal line regularly dentate-sinuate and 
nearer to the outer border ; the margin of the external border 
not white but pale ; secondaries much paler, greyish, seri- 
ceous, with more or less distinct darker discal line ; body 
considerably paler : wings below with the discal line nearer 
to outer margin less distinct, and the discocellular spot on 
each wing less distinct. Expanse 1 inch 8 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonae). 

96. Tcendocampa tabida, n. sp. 

Allied to T. instabilis ; but the disk of primaries is crossed 
by two tolerably distinct parallel blackish discal sinuated lines ; 
the outer border is not bounded within by ferruginous spots, 
but terminates on the costa in a trifid black spot, also narrower 
and brownish ; fringe greyish brown, rose-coloured at the base ; 



of Heterocera from Japan. 167 

secondaries broader, darker, with rose-tinted fringe ; head and 
collar dull white, the latter with a dark reddish marginal line ; 
abdomen whitish at the base : wings below shining sandy 
whitish, costal areas rose-tinted ; two indistinct parallel grey 
lines across the disk ; primaries with the central area broadly 
grey; pectus rosy, venter sandy whitish, anus testaceous. 
Expanse 1 inch 10 lines. 
Yokohama {Jonas). 

97. Tcemocampa carnipennisj n. sp. 

Primaries pinky brown, the orbicular and reniform spots 
outlined in ferruginous ; two irregular lunated discal lines, a 
black dot on the inner line beyond the end of the cell, two 
black spots near the base, the lower one large and triangular ; 
a black M-shaped marking on the interno-median interspace ; 
secondaries sordid pearly whitish ; thorax coloured like the 
primaries, abdomen testaceous : under surface pale flesh- 
colour ; costal area irrorated with grey scales ; a wavy abbre- 
viated discal transverse line on each wing ; primaries with 
discoidal area brownish ; internal area glistening silvery 
white ; secondaries with a black spot at the end of the cell ; 
body below greyish, reddish in front. Expanse 1 inch 10 
lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

98. Tcemocampa ella, n. sp. 

Allied to T. gracilis J but rather larger, the markings darker, 
the discal line of primaries bordered internally by a blackish 
streak ; secondaries broader, whiter ; under surface whiter, 
with well-defined discocellular spots. Expanse 1 inch 9 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

The dusky-bordered lohite secondaries distinguish this 
species readily from T. gracilis ; in the latter they are wholly 
or largely clouded with greyish. 

99. OrtJiosia Uzettaj n. sp. 

Nearest to 0. Icevis, but larger and paler ; no trace of the 
angular line across the centre of primaries ; the inner trans- 
verse dentated line absent ; the discal series of black dots more 
oblique and less arched (sometimes absent) ; limitation of 
external border not sinuated, straight to near the costa, then 
abruptly angulated and bounded internally by a squamose 
black spot, the pale line also bounded on either side by black 
scales, which form a spot a little below the apex ; submargi- 
nal spots well marked ; secondaries greyish brown, shining, 



168 Mr. A. G. Butler on neio Species 

darker in some examples than in others, and occasionally 
crossed by a discal scries of dusky spots ; fringe broader than 
in 0. la'vifi, whitish : luider surface paler than in 0. Icnvis^ 
with well-marked discoccllular spots and discal series blackish. 

Expanse 1 inch 6 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

In some respects this species resembles Tcemocanipa gracilis. 

100. DasycampafornaXj n. sp. 

Nearly allied to D. rulnginca, but slightly larger, altogether 
redder ; the lines and dots on primaries less sharply dctincd, 
greyer ; the secondaries paler greyish, with distinctly rosy 
borders ; abdomen Avhitish at base, otherwise rosy ; primaries 
below redder, Avithout the black discoccllular spots or greyish 
nebula in primaries, the other markings ill-defined ; secondaries 
redder, the discal line more irregular and less defined : body 
below altogether redder, especially in front. Expanse 1 inch 
6 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

D. fornax may possibly be the insect intended in Mot- 
schnlsky's vague description of " Oporina ? castaneo-fasciata ;" 
but it is extremely doubtful. 

101. Iloporina sericea, n. sp. 

Coloration of //. croceagoj bnt the primaries more elongated 
(the form of Xayithia gilvago) ; the grey markings on the 
primaries less distinct than in H. croceago, excepting the three 
angnlated transverse lines ; primaries below rather redder, the 
markings better-defined, secondaries with the markings less 
defined. Expanse 1 inch 8 lines. 

Yokohama (Jojias). 

But for the entirely different form of the primaries, this 
might have been considered a variety of H. croceago ; it, how- 
ever, differs in its more sericeous wings, the secondaries having 
quite a pearly appearance by the side of the typical species. 

102. Eupsilia tripunctata, n. sp. 

Allied to E. satellitia, but the primaries silvery grey, with 
slightly dusky central area and outer border ; the transverse 
lines wider apart, the outer one less irregular ; the limit of the 
external border indicated by a brown instead of a pale lunu- 
lated line ; the three white s])ots considerably larger, and 
arranged in a triangular figure, the largest one D-shaped 
rather than lunate, the lower of the two others much larger 
than the upper one, and about one fourth the size of the D- 
shaped spot ; secondaries and body also greyer : wings below 



of Heterocera from Japan. 169 

much paler, tlie primaries sliowing the spots of the upper 
surface, the transverse lines indistinct, secondaries without 
markings. Expanse 1 inch 7 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

A well-marked species, far more pleasing than the European 
one. 

Brachyxanthia, n. gen. 

Allied to Xanthia and Xestia, but differing in the short 
costal margin of the primaries, the consequently much more 
convex outer margin of the same wings, the shorter and 
rounder secondaries, and the longer and more porrect palpi. 
Type B. pecuh'aris. 

103. Brachyxanthia peculiaris^ n. sp. 

Primaries bright stramineous, crossed by brown lines as in 
Xestia ochreago) an additional dark brown oblique line from 
apex to inner margin, from which a second line is given 
off from below the reniform spot and runs to the basal 
third of the costal margin (the two lines together forming a 
large Y on the right-hand wing) ; the disk immediately be- 
yond the oblique line pui-plish brown in the male ; secondaries 
sericeous brown, the costal area, fringe, and outer margin in 
the female creamy whitish ; body coloured like the wings : 
wings below pale creamy yellow, with a brown discal line 
which in the male primaries is expanded into a broad band or 
patch ; veins of outer margin, marginal lunulcs, and a costal 
dash in primaries brown. Expanse 1 inch 2-3 lines. 

Hakodate {Whitely), Yokohama {Jonas). 

104. Mesogona contracta, n. sp. 

Allied to M. acetosellce, but with narrower wings ; primaries 
darker, the outer stripe angulated towards the costa ; no black 
discal dots, but a third pale irregular line limiting the greyish 
external border ; secondaries greyer than in M. acetosellce, with 
black marginal spots ; body altogether gi-eyer, the abdomen 
grey, bordered and tufted with reddish : wings below sordid 
whitish, tinted with pink ; a black discocellular lunate spot, a 
blackish discal stripe, and marginal black dots on each wing ; 
primaries with the medio-discoidal area greyish ; body greyish 
brown. Expanse 1 inch 11 lines to 2 inches. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

It is just possible that this may be Motschulsky's "Agrotis 
cinnamomea ;" but the description is not good enough for 
identification. 

[To be continued.] 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Set. 5. Vol. i. 12 



170 Mr. H. J. Cartel- on the Position of the 

XX. — Position of the Sponge-spicule in the Spongida ; and 
Postscript on the Identity of Squamulina scopula with the 
Sponges. By H. J. Carter, F.R.S. &c. 

In the 'Annals' for 1870 (vol. vi. pp. 222, 223, pi. xv. figs. 
1-7) Mr. Saville Kent has described and figured, under the 
name of Rhaphidotheca Marshall-Hallii, a remarkable little 
sponge which he found growing on Lophohelia 'prolifera^ in 
500 fathoms, on the coast off Cezimbra, Portugal, in 1870. A 
section of the sponge^ which was half an inch in diameter, 
is given in fig. 2 (Z. c.) , where a cell of the Lophohelia may 
be observed to form the centre. On account of the character 
of the greater part of the spiculation, Mr. Kent rightly calls 
this little hemispherical sponge an Esperia ; but the remark- 
able part is, that it is faced by a layer of pin-like spicules, 
whose heads, being outwards and in contact with each other, 
form a kind of tessellated armature on the surface, while their 
points mingle with the points of the skeleton-spicules of the 
Esperia within. In the footnote at p. 253 {ih.) Mr. Kent 
very naturally, therefore, questions my statement respecting 
the spicular elements of Squamulina scopula^ viz. that their 
" globular heads " being outwards should have satisfied any 
one that this organism was not a sponge, or words to this 
effect ('Annals,' 1870, vol. v. p. 312), citing Rhaphidotheca 
Marshall-Hallii, the little sponge to which I have just alluded, 
as affording an instance to the contrary. 

It was not, however, until the latter part of 1877 that I 
had an opportunity of examining a portion of this interesting 
little sponge, which, together with two mounted slides of it, 
was lent to me by my friend Dr. J. Millar, to whom it had 
been given by Mr. Kent. At first sight I was inclined to 
agree with Mr. Kent, and said, " Verily (although a pin-like 
spicule of this form among the Esperiaclas is a great anomaly) 
here is a sponge with the heads of its spicules outwards, con- 
trary to my assertion that the proper spicules (that is, the 
spicules made by the sponge itself) never have their large ends 
outwards." Still this, as will presently be seen, was only a 
prima facie opinion ; for when I came to examine microscopi- 
cally what Dr. Millar had lent me, much was found to modify 
these views, since, in addition to the spiculation of the Es- 
peria (viz.: — 1, a sub-pinlike, staple skeleton-spicule, radiating 
from the centre in branched bundles ; 2, a smaller acerate one, 
curved and binding together the points of the latter towards 
the surface ; 3, an inequianchorate, single and in rosette-like 
groups; 4, a bihamatc {fibula) ; and 5, the sheaf-shaped bundles 
of minute acerates, looking like sawdust by reflected light). 



Sponge-spicule in the Spongida. 171 

there were present the spiro-sinuous flesh-spicules of Cliona 
dbyssorum^vfhxch I had described and figured from a specimen 
found in Lophohelia proUfera^ dredged up at the mouth of the 
English Channel (' Annals,' 1874, vol. xiv. p. 249, pi. xiv. 
fig. 33, and pi. xv. fig. 45, a, 5, c), to such an extent that it 
appears in great plurality even in the minute fragments of 
both slides mounted by Dr. Millar, also in the dust of the 
pill-box containing the specimen of EJiaphidotheca^ and in 
crevices of the pieces of Lophohelia which accompanied it. 

Thus a very different aspect of this little sponge became 
manifest, and I could not help inferring that the Eaperia^ as 
is often the case with sponges not content with their own spi- 
cules, or having no means of obtaining silex for forming a 
sufficient number of them, had not only appropriated the 
sinuous flesh-spicules of Cliona abyssorum^ which infests 
Lophohelia proUfera^ but the pin-like skeletal ones also ; and 
and that, after all, the presence of the pin-like spicules with 
their heads outwards did not, in this instance, invalidate the 
view mentioned, viz. that the proper spicules of a sponge are 
never found in that sponge with their large ends outwards. 

Still, the pin-like spicule in this little sponge is not iden- 
tical in form with that of Cliona abyssoriim^ as may be seen 
by comparing Mr. Kent's with my figures of it (?. c.) ; and the 
only conclusion I can come to, in consequence, is, that Mr. 
Kent's will be found to characterize a variety of Cliona ahys- 
sorum in the Lophohelia proliferaj bearing the pin-like spicule 
of this misleading little sponge, or the latter has been modi- 
fied in form by the Esperia itself ; which, it is very desirable to 
determine. 

When viewed in a perpendicular section laterally, the real 
surface of the Esperia can be seen to be marked, as usual, by 
the horizontal layer of acerates binding together the points of 
the sub-pinlike skeleton-spicules of the Esperia^ in which 
none of the sub-pinlike or large ends are observed to be out- 
wards, while the reverse is the case with all the pin-like spi- 
cules that form its crust, which have been inferred to have 
come from a Cliona — the former being the case with the 
" proper spicules " of a sponge, and the latter that of spicules 
derived from another or foreign source. It would be desirable, 
then, to ascertain if the Cliona, which in all probability infests 
the Lophohelia on which this little sponge has grown, has a 
pin-like spicule like that covering the Esperia. 

If, however, Mr. Kent has not been happy in the instance 
of Rhaphidotheca Marshall-Hallii, as opposed to my views, he 
has caused me to considerably modify them, as well as the 
statement made in my " Notes introductory to the Study of 

12* 



172 Mr. H. J. Carter o?i the Identity 

the Spoiigida," viz. that " where a spicule which has a point 
projects beyond the surface of the sponge to which it belongs, 
that point will be always outermost " (' Annals,' 1875, vol. 
xvi. p. 16) ; for this is by no means the case, since where 
the spicule is intended for anchoring, or for binding down 
the surface-spicules of the body of the sponge, and by thus 
intermingling with each other to form a kind of crust, the 
branched head is outwards and the pointed end of the shaft 
inwards. 

Thus in the anchoring spicules of the hexactinellids RosseUa 
and Euplectella, in Geock'a, in Stelletta (especially Wyville- 
tliomsonia Wallichti), and in TetJiya (type T. crmnum), also 
in some of the calcareous sponges, the former is the case ; 
while the large surface-spicules on the body of RosseUa and 
many other hexactinellids, together with the large trifid 
(" zone-") spicules of Geodia and Stelletta^ especially in 
Wyvillethomsonia WallicJiii^ all the Lithistids, and some of 
the calcareous sponges (ex. gr. Leuconia Johnstonii, ' Annals,' 
1871, vol. viii. pi. i. fig. 6) furnish instances of the latter. 

Yet in other cases, where the spicules are not branched, but 
linear and pointed at both ends, especially in the Renierida, 
the points bristle on the surface ; and that this would be the 
case if one end were obtuse, is evidenced by the Suberitida, in 
which the pin-like spicule always holds this position. Even 
in Placospo7ig{a melohesioides and Xenosjjongia patelliformisy 
in which the crusts respectively are composed of a layer of 
Geodia-\\\& siliceous balls and Stelletta-YikQ stellates, accom- 
panied by a pin-like skeleton-spicule only, the point of the 
latter is outwards. 

Therefore in the " Notes &c." to which I have above alluded, 
it should have been stated, in the section immediately following 
the tabular view of the skeleton- spicules therein given, that 
while the spicules of the " linear group " have their pointed 
ends directed outwards, the reverse is the case with the 
" ramular group." How this omission occurred I cannot 
conceive, as the last spicules mentioned in this table are the 
" anchoring " ones of the Hexactinellida. Thus it is rather 
an error of omission than of commission, of which, I fear, 
many more will be found in my " Notes." 

Postscript. 

On the Identity of Squamulina scopula loith the Sponges. 

In a paper entitled " Observations upon Professor Ernst 
Hackel's Group '■ Physemaria,' and on the Affinity of the 
Sponges," Mr. Saville Kent, in the last number of the 



q/" Squamulina scopula with the Sponges. 178 

'Annals' (p. V2etseq.), assumes that Hiickel has identified 
my Squamulina scopula = Holy physeina Tumanoiciczii^ Bk., 
with his genus Gastrophysema^ and then infers (provisionally, 
p. 15) that, as Prof. Hackel (' Jenaische Zeitschrift,' erstes 
Heft, Taf. iv.-vi.) represents collared, flagellated, monadic 
bodies with it, it is a sponge. 

Now Hackel has not identified my Squamulina scopula 
with his Gastrophysema, as proved by his figures of the latter, 
wherein the cavity of the body is not prolonged into the poly- 
thalamous foot or test ; and therefore Mr. Kent's provisional 
inference falls to the ground. 

My Squamulina scopula, as may be seen by my figures 
(* Annals,' 1870, vol. v. pi. iv.), consists of a subpolythala- 
mous discoid test, whose opening on the summit is prolonged 
into a tubular scopuliform structure, which is simple in one 
and dichotomously branched in the other species or variety ; 
so that the latter closely resembles in form the calcareous test 
of Carpenteria, whose opening at the summit is also prolonged 
into a tubular branched state, which is composed partly of cal- 
careous matter supplied by the animal itself, and partly of 
foreign material consisting chiefly of more or less fragmentary 
sponge-spicules : when the calcareous tube fails, which is 
often the case, the tube is wholly composed of the latter, like 
that of Squamulina scopula, only that the tubulation of Car- 
penter ia terminates in fine branches, while those of Squamulina 
scopula and its variety ramosa terminate in round scopuli- 
form extremities. 

Again, whether there be collared flagellated monadic bodies 
in Squamulina scopula or not, the polythalaraous character, so 
appropriately given by the illustrious Ehrenberg to what we 
now call Foraminifera, decides the question with those who 
are well acquainted with tlie structure of the latter as well as 
that of the Spongida. No sponge, that I know of, presents 
the polythalamous character of Squamulina scopula^ in its foot 
(root) or anywhere else. 

That Hackel did not know what he was talking about is 
evident when he attempts to identify the bundle of anchoring 
spicules of Wyvillethomsonia Wallichii, formed by the sponge 
itself, with the heterogeneous material brought togetlier by 
the organism which he represents under the name of llaliphy- 
sema echinoides {op. cit. Taf. 11. fig. 127), and which Schmidt 
would provisionally call " Stelletta echinoides " (Archiv f. 
mikroskop. Anat. Bd. xiv. p. 260). 

I do not mean to assert that Hackel's figures of Gastro- 
physema do not represent his Physemaria ; but I mean to 
assert most emphatically that they do not represent ray Squa- 



174 Capt. W. V. Legge on a new Scops Owl. 

mulina scojnila, any more than his Haliphysema ecliinoides 
represents Wyvilletliomsonia Wallichii. So it is evident from 
this that, in attempting to generalize, 

" A little knowledge is a dangerous thing." 

Squamulina scopula in its simple and branched forms is 
very common on this coast (Budleigh-Salterton, Devon) ; but 
if reexamined, as Mereschkowsky suggests a little further on 
in the same number of the ' Annals ' (p. 77) , it is impossible 
to do away with the bearing of the polythalamous character 
above mentioned, which no sponge that I know of possesses, 
independent of the other proofs that Squamulina scopula is 
decidedly a species of Foraminifera. 

The embryo of the Spongida grows up into branches from 
a root ; that of the Foraminifera from a cell into cells or 
chambers, successively increasing in size and, for the most part, 
arranged spirally. Thus far the two organisms cannot be 
confounded. 



XXI. — Description of a new Scops Owl from Ceylon. 
By Capt. W. V. Legge, R.A., M.B.O.U., &c. 

At Trincomalie, in July 1875, I obtained a young bird 
belonging to a small species of Scops Owl unknown to me. 
I kept it some little time ; and it then died. In May of the 
following year, while staying with Mr. Bligh, of Catton 
Estate, Haputale, I met with a skin of an adult bird, which 
he had caught in the chimney of his bungalow at Kotmalie, 
and which I recognized as belonging to the same species as 
my young bird. Its small size and dark plumage prevented 
my identifying it with any Scops Owl described in Mr. 
Sharpe's Catalogue ; and through the kindness of Mr. Bligh I 
was enabled to send it home to the British Museum. It has 
now been presented to the national collection by that gentle- 
man. 

Messrs. Whyte and Co., of Kandy, have just sent home to 
Mr. Sharpe, on loan, a second example, killed in one of the 
coffee-districts near Kandy. On our comparing the series 
thus obtained with the Scops Owls in the national collec- 
tion, this species turns out to be new, being distinguished 
from other Indian members of the genus by its small 
size and dark colour. Messrs. Whyte and Co. state they 
have received once before an example of this owl*. I 

* I have examined a small rufous owl in the Colombo Museum, which 
appears to belong to this species. 



Capt. W. V. Legge on a neio Scops Owl. 175 

propose to describe this interesting little addition to the 
a\^ifauna of Ceylon under the name of Scops minutus, it 
appearing to be the smallest Scops Owl yet discovered. 

Scops minutus^ sp. nov. 

Description. — ($ . Length to front of cere (from skin) 6*0 
inches ; culraen 0'55; wing 4*85 ; tail 2'1 ; tarsus 0*8 ; outer 
anterior toe 0*7, its claw straight 0"4; height of bill at cere 
0-25. 

Iris yellow* ; bill olivaceous brown ; cere greenish ; feet 
fleshy brown. 

Above the general hue is dark brown, the feathers of the 
head, back, rump, scapulars, tertials, and wing-coverts crossed 
at the centre Avith transverse spots of ochraceous, spotted 
finely and closely vermiculated on the rest of their surfaces 
with grey and ochraceous grey, surrounding transverse irre- 
gular markings of blackish ,• the feathers of the hind neck are 
crossed with bold wavy markings of whitish, and margined 
with rufescent buff. The outer scapulars are white externally, 
with blackish terminal spots and oblique central bars of the 
same, edged with rufous ; the primary and outer secondary 
coverts have their dark markings mingled with rufous patches 
and set off with white spots near the tips of the outer 
webs ; primaries and secondaries brownish rufous, mottled 
with blackish brown, and the inner webs banded broadly 
with the same; the outer webs of the first five primaries 
crossed with five white blackish-margined bars, the tip 
paler than the rest of the feather and mottled with dark 
brown ; tail brownish, washed with rufous on some of the 
feathers near the base, mottled with blackish brown and 
crossed with five or six bars of buff-white with black edges • 
ear-tufts concolorous with the head, and rufous at the base of 
the feathers. 

Loreal plumes black, with white bases ; facial disk grey, 
pencilled with blackish ; ruff pale rufous, the feathers 
edged and centred with dark brown ; chin wliitish ; fore 
neck and under surface, with the flanks, closely stippled with 
iron-grey on a white ground, the feathers with broadish 
central stripes of blackish, and crossed on their concealed por- 
tions with fine, wavy, transverse, black marks ; on the lower 
parts the stippling is more open, the under tail-coverts being 
chiefly white, with the markings confined to the tips ; legs 
rufescent, with wavy brown transverse marks ; under wing- 
coverts whitish, shaded with rufescent, and crossed with irre- 
gular markings of brown. 



176 Bibliographtcal Notice. 

The example sent home by Messrs. Whyte and Co., of 
Kandy, differs in the bolder nature of the transverse white 
spottings on the iipper surface, and in the blackish markings 
taking the form of distinct shaft-lines ; the ruff is more con- 
spicuously edged, and is of a deeper buff than in the Museum 
specimen ; the under surface is not so closely stippled, and 
does not present the same " pepper-and-salt " appearance, the 
markings taking the form of vermiculations and the centre 
stripes being very bold. 

This little owl comes nearer to Scops malayanus than any 
other Indian member of the genus, but differs From it in its 
smaller size and in the darker upper parts and closely stippled 
under surface. 

In its young plumage, it is rufous on the entire upper sur- 
face, and the breast is whiter than in the adult. 

Habitat. No.rthern, western, and central provinces of Cey- 
lon, probably the whole island. 

Type in British Museum. 

Locality. Kotmalie, Central Province. 



BIBLIOGEAPHICAL NOTICE. 

White's Natural History of SeTborne. Edited by Thomas Bell, 
r.E.S. Two vols. 8vo. Van Voorst : London, 1877. 

A PERIOD of well nigh a century has now elapsed since the first 
publication of Gilbert White's ' Natural History and Antiquities of 
Selborne,' in 1789 ; and since then, as we all know, many reprints 
of this popular work have been from time to time issued, enriched 
or otherwise, as the case may be, by the notes and commentaries of 
various editors. AVith this, all might be supposed to have been done 
that could be done, and that nothing more was left for us to look 
forward to than a repetition of the same kind of editorial labour. 
It is with pleasure, however, that we find such a surmise dissipated 
entirely by the appearance of the two goodly volumes now before 
us, which, containing as they do so much new matter regarding our 
author, may be fairly enough regarded as constituting the one final 
and exhaustive record to which all must refer who would know 
something more of White, not only as a naturalist, but in his more 
intimate social relations with his family and friends. Hitherto we 
have had to be content with the meagre though kindly notice pre- 
fixed to the edition of White's work pubhshed after his death by 
his friend Dr. Aiken, and consisting of little more than the dates 
of his birth and educational career at school and college. Now, 
here was plainly a deficiency to be supplied ; and upon whom, we 
may well ask, could such a task have better devolved than upon the 



BihliograpMcal Notice. Ill 

present Editor, Thomas Bell (himself an able naturalist, and occupier, 
too, of White's tenement at Selborne for a period of more than thirty 
years) ? Within this studious retirement, and with access to 
documents and letters such as no one else could command. Bell 
has been enabled to write a brief memoir of White, which, un- 
eventful as the life of such a student must needs be, will yet be 
read with interest by all who cherish every scrap of information 
concerning one who gave to an obscure village in Hampshire, where 
he lived and died, a name and fame such as but for his labours 
it had never possessed. To this memoir succeeds the Natural 
History and Antiquities of Selborne, with notes sparingly because 
judiciously appended by the Editor from his own and the personal 
observation of others. And so ends vol, i., complete, so far as it 
goes, in itself. 

The contents of the next volume are entirely new ; and to these 
we beg more especially to direct the attention of our readers. They 
consist, to begin with, of the correspondence of Gilbert White with 
his brother John, a clergyman like himself, and bound to him by a 
peculiar sympathy, as being himself a lover of natural history, and 
engaged for many years in preparing a work on that of Gibraltar 
and its neighbourhood — though this, it is to be regretted, was never 
published. To these letters follow several others that were ex- 
changed between the same brother Midi Linnceus ; and last of all an ex- 
tensive correspondence of Gilbert White with his family, and miscel- 
laneous letters addressed to many of his most intimate friends. When 
we add that the whole correspondence occupies some 303 pages of 
vol. ii. we have said enough to indicate the abundance of novel 
information that will be there met with, and much which is specially 
interesting as having reference to the favourite pursuits of our author. 
" On the Sense of Hearing in Fishes," by Gilbert White, is the title 
of the next article in vol. ii., and is now published for the first time. 
Out of three of White's sennons in the possession of Mr. Bell, he 
has thought proper to select one as giving lis, he says, " a fair 
illustration of the general tone of his parochial instruction, and as 
an example of the ordinary character of the best village sermons of 
the period." 

Lastly, as affording a curious glimpse into the expenses of living 
at that period, we have the account-book kept by White of moneys 
spent as well as received during the terms of his proctorship iS:c. at 
Oxford during the years 1752 to 1754. With the quaint entries here 
made, and the odd manner in which the figures are disposed, the 
student of by-gone data will find much that may furnish food for 
reflection as well as amusement at the same time. W^e conclude 
our list of White's writings with his " Garden Kalender " and a 
" Description of Dufour's Fire-escape," which last, though never 
perhaps intended for publication, yet shows us that our author 
was fuUy alive to any improvement in the useful arts of life. 
A list of the more noteworthy animals and plants observed in Sel- 
borne and its neighbourhood is appended by the Editor. William 



178 Miscellaneous. 

Curtis furnishes us with a brief essay on the geology of Selborne ; 
while last, in the form of an Appendix, Lord Selborne gives us an 
account of his highly successful investigations into the Romano- 
British antiquities found in the bed of Woolmer Pond and other 
districts of the parish, A copious index of names and places con- 
cludes, we may add, the whole work. 

In the above notice we have purposely limited ourselves to telling 
the reader what these volumes contain. To have entered into any 
criticism upon the subject-matter of a work, the leading portion 
of which has so long received the verdict of public approval, 
would have been here wholly out of place. Sufficient is it to ob- 
serve that all future competition between publishers for the glory 
or profit accruing from editions of White's ' Selborne ' is now finally 
set at rest. To Van Voorst and his able Editor belong the exclusive 
merit of being the first to set before the public the full portrait of 
Gilbert White and Ms Selborne — that Selborne which he loved so 
wisely and so well. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Thomas Veenon Wollaston. 

Since the issue of our last number we have had to lament the loss 
of one of the best and most scientific of our entomological contri- 
butors. Mr. T. V. Wollaston died suddenly, on the 4th of January, 
at his residence at Teignmouth ; and it is hard to say whether the 
feeling of regret caused by this untimely event is more inspired by 
appreciation of the good qualities of the man or of the value of his 
work. Belonging to a family which numbered Dr. Wollaston among 
its members, and could boast of more than one name of respectable 
position in literature, Mr. Wollaston certainly well maintained its 
credit by his labours in the department of science to which he 
specially devoted himself^ whilst his extreme amiability, gentle- 
ness, and straightforwardness of character endeared him to all those 
who had the pleasure of his personal acquaintance. 

Born on the 9th March, 1821, Mr. WoUaston was only in his 
fifty-seventh year when he died. His love for entomology commenced 
while he was completing his studies at Jesus College, Cambridge, 
where the example of our late Botanical Editor, Mr. C. Cardale Ba- 
bington inoculated him, and two, at least, of his feUow students (the 
Revs. J. F. Dawson and Hamlet Clark), with a taste for the study of 
British Coleoptera ; and it was upon this subject that he made his first 
ajipearance as an entomological writer, with a short note on Coleo- 
ptera observed at Laiinceston, published in 1843, in the first volume 
of the 'Zoologist.' This was followed in 1845 and 1847 by notes 
on the entomology of Lundy Island, which appeared in the same 
periodical ; and in the intermediate year (1846) he sent his first 
contribution to this journal, under the title of " Descriptions of 



Miscellaneous. 179 

three newly- discovered British Coleoptera." Other papers, chiefly 
on the Coleoptera of various districts of the British Isles, -were con- 
tributed by him to the ' Zoologist' in 1846 and 1847 ; but in the 
autumn of the latter year his friends were shocked with the news 
that he had suffered from a severe attack of blood- spitting, which, 
although no serious results were immediately to be apprehended 
from it, would necessitate his passing at least the ensuing winter 
in a milder climate than that of England. Madeira was the 
locality' selected by him ; aud to his compulsory visit to that beauti- 
ful island we are indebted for some of the finest entomological 
works of which this country can boast. 

From the moment of his landing in Madeira Mr. WoUaston set 
himself, with the energy and enthusiasm which had always charac- 
terized his proceedings, to form a collection of the insects of the 
island ; aud although his own predilections led him no doubt to pay 
special attention to the Coleoptera, he obtained most interesting 
series of insects belonging to the other orders. So interested was he 
by the results of these researches, that, although no longer compelled 
to submit to exile on account of his health, he returned again and 
again to Madeira, and on these occasions provided himself with a 
small tent, in which he lived high up among the mountains for 
weeks together, accompanied only by Portuguese attendants, whose 
duty it was to bring up the necessary supplies for the little party. 
By these means WoUaston obtained so large a series of insects, and 
especially of Coleoptera, that he found himself in a position to give 
a very exhaustive account of the beetles of the main island of 
Madeira and of those scattered points of rock, the Salvages and 
Descrtas, which form small groups in its immediate vicinity. After 
several years of work his results appeared in 1854 under the title of 
' Insecta Maderensia,' in a handsome quarto volume, illustrated with 
coloured plates of beautiful figures, drawn by Mr. "Westwood and 
engraved by Mr. Frederick Smith. The quahties displayed in this 
great work, the accuracy of research, and the painstaking and 
thoroughly philosophical manner in which the subject was treated, 
at once placed WoUaston in the first rank of systematic entomologists; 
while the curious results of his investigations, reveaUng as they did, 
in the Uttle spot of ground on which they had been carried on, a 
most singular mixture of European and Mediterranean types, with 
peculiar species, constituting genera and even more extensive groups 
of which no examples were known elsewhere, gave the work a 
special interest, and led its accomplished author to speculate on the 
possibility of the former existence of an Atlantic land, from the 
inhabitants of which these peculiar types were descended. 

By a very natural process such speculations led to the desire to 
investigate the insect-faunas of the other Atlantic islands ; and the 
entomological portion of the great work of Webb and Berthelot on 
the Canaries no doubt furnished some indications that interesting 
discoveries might be looked for there. Accordingly, after making 
another visit to Madeira in 1855, and preparing a Catalogue of the 



180 Miscellaneous. 

Coleoptera of that island, which was published in 1857 by the 
Trustees of the British Museum, who had purchased his valuable 
collections, WoUaston (in 185S and 1859) went to the Canaries in 
the yacht of his friend Mr. John Gray ; and the results of his re- 
searches, embodying descriptions of many new forms of Coleoptera 
and numerous corrections of the statements of previous authors, 
appeared in 1864, also under the auspices of the Trustees of the 
British Museum*. 

In the mean time, however, other observers had been investigating 
the Canarian Coleoptera ; and in the very next year after the publi- 
cation of his Museum Catalogue, WoUaston found himself under 
the necessity of bringing out a fresh book, entitled ' Coleoptera 
Atlantidum,' in which he not only gave a complete list of the species, 
with descriptions of many new ones, but discussed at considerable 
length the theoretical conclusions to which he was led by his ex- 
amination of them. For the further confirmation of these conclu- 
sions he again embarked on board Mr. Gray's yacht in 1866, for a 
cruise among the Cape-Verde Islands ; and the fruits of this journey 
appeared in the following year under the title of ' Coleoptera Hes- 
peridum.' Later still he undertook the investigation of the beetles 
of St. Helena ; and his descriptive notice of these, ' Coleoptera 
Sanctae-Helense,' which appeared only last year, showed a con- 
siderable advance even upon the results recently published by Mr. 
Melliss. 

From his investigations of the Coleoptera of all these little 
islands scattered so widely over the Atlantic, WoUaston was strongly 
confirmed in his belief that they are relics of a great tract of land 
or group of large islands, now submerged, except the summits of its 
highest mountains, which afford a refuge for the descendants of a 
few of its peculiar inhabitants. These points, and many others of 
interest with regard to geographical distribution, are discussed 
with great acumen in the introductions to the works above cited. 

Throughout his career WoUaston maintained the independence of 
species, and indeed was, for a long time, an ardent opponent of the 
doctrine of evolution. His opinions on this subject took a somewhat 
modified form in his later writings, in which he accepted the notion 
that some forms which coiUd hardly be regarded otherwise than as 
species had a recognizable derivative origin. As early as 1856 he 
published a small work on the Variation of Species, which con- 
tains many valuable remarks on this subject and also discusses the 
nature of genera. 

Notwithstanding his special devotion to tho study of the Coleo- 
ptera, WoUaston found time to attend to some other things during 
his visits to the Atlantic islands. In his first sojourn in Madeira 
the Eev. R. T. Lowe, then chaplain at Funchal, called his attention 

* It is to be hoped that the beautiful collections, both of shells and 
insects, upon which Mr. WoUaston was at work until the very close of 
his life may be acquired bv the natioual ^^^seulll, and placed side by 
side with those earlier collections which are already in its cabinets. 



Miscellaneous. 181 

to the existence of many peculiar forms of land-shells on the island ; 
and Wollaston collected these with such zeal, that in a very short 
time he had obtained examples of a great many more species than 
had fallen to the lot of Mr. Lowe during several years' residence in 
Madeira. A descriptive account of these shells, and of others ob- 
tained by him in other Atlantic islands, was his last completed work, 
and will, we hope, appear shortly. 

This notice has already extended to such a length that it will be im- 
possible to refer particularly to any of Wollaston's scattered papers. 
From 1846 until last year he was a frequent contributor to our 
pages, in which many of his best papers appear. Others, of equal 
value, will bo found in the Transactions of the Entomological 
Society, in the ' Journal of Entomology,' and in the ' Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine.' Altogether he published about 50 separate 
papers, nearly all relating to Coleoptera. 

When we consider that for 30 years of his life Wollaston was 
always in a most delicate state of health, the amount and the quality 
of the work done by him is at first sight surprising. But it may be 
that the very weakness of constitution which all his friends de- 
plored was Ideally to some extent the cause of his success, by 
preventing his going much into society, where his kindness and 
geniality must have made him a favourite, and compelling him to 
live for the most part in a retirement which afforded him so many 
opportunities of devoting himself to the patient and minute research 
by which, coupled with the power which he eminently possessed of 
taking broad and philosophical views of his results, his reputation 
was mainly built up. 

On the Orthonectida, a new Class of Animals Parasitic on EcJiinoder- 
mata and Turhellaria. By M. A. Giard. 

The little Ophiuran, Ophiocoma neglecta, sometimes contains a 
Bingular parasite which may serve as the type of a whole group of 
animals of very curious organization and hitherto almost unknown. 
The following are the circumstances under which this parasite is 
met with. Ophiocoma neglecta is an Ophiuran with condensed em- 
bryogeny, or viviparous. The incubatory cavity, situated in the 
aboral part of the disk, communicates freely with the exterior ; for 
the most advanced embryos contained in this cavity frequently 
present upon their arms a pretty Vorticella, which occurs almost 
always upon the arms of the parent animal. On tearing open the 
disk in order to extract the embryos from it, we find it, in certain 
individuals, filled with a multitude of animals like large ciliated 
Infusoria, which traverse the field of the microscope in a straight 
line and with the rapidity of an arrow. These animals occur of two 
forms, which I shall name provisionally the elongated and the ovoid 
form. In both they are simple plamdce, that is to say, organisms 
composed only of two layers of cells — an exoderm or outer layer 
of ciliated cells, and an endoderm consisting of larger cells bounding 
a linear central cavity with no buccal aperture or anus. Notwith- 



182 Miscellaneous. 

standing this low organization, the body is metaraerized, and the 
metameres even present remarkable differentiations. The first ring 
terminates anteriorly in a blunt cone and bears a tuft of rigid 
Betae. It is followed by a cylindrical ring of the same length, the 
whole surface of which is roughened with papillae, apparently dis- 
posed in ten longitudinal rows ; this is the only part of the body 
which does not present vibratile cilia. The third ring is larger than 
the first two taken together ; it widens gently towards its posterior 
extremity. The fourth metamere is of the same dimensions as the 
papilliferous ring ; it is followed by a terminal ring, furnished with 
longer ciHa at its posterior extremity, conical and subdivided into 
two metameres less distinct than the preceding ones. Such is the 
elongated form. The last rings form a sort of club with which the 
animal beats the water, independently of the movements of the 
cilia, and by sudden blows which one might think due to the action 
of muscular elements. The ovoid form difi'ers from the elongated 
form only in its less length and greater breadth ; but I have ascer- 
tained that it is not the result of a contraction of the animal. 
Perhaps it is a sexual form, perhaps also a young state of the 
parasite. I give this strange animal the name of Rhopalura opMo- 
comce. 

A parasite of the same group is also met with at Wimereux, in a 
Nemertean, Lineus gesserensis, 0. F. Miiller, which is very common, 
as well as its variety L. sanguineus, under the stones of the muddy 
places in the neighbourhood of the Tour de CroV. This animal 
differs, however, sufficiently from Rhopalura to constitute a dis- 
tinct genus ; the papilliferous ring is replaced by two very narrow 
ciliated rings ; the median portion of the body generally has six 
nearly equal metameres ; the terminal club is formed of three rings ; 
the anterior part, moreover, bears a tuft of rigid cilia. There are 
also an elongated and an ovoid form. M'Intosh has said a few 
words on this parasite in his fine monograph of the British J^emer- 
teans* ; I therefore propose to give it the name of Infoshia linei. 

Lastly a species evidently belonging to the same genus has been 
figured without description by Keferstein -f, who met with it at 
St. Male as a parasite in the digestive tube of a Planarian (Lejyto- 
plana tremellains) which is also very common at Wimereux. I 
give this species, which is very nearly allied to the preceding, the 
name of Intoshia leptoplance. 

In the absence of sufficient embryogenical evidence, it is impossible 
for me at present to assign these animals to the definitive place which 
they must occupy in the classification. By the name Orthonectida 
I have desired to recall their progression, which is so characteristic 
that it would of itself suffice for their recognition among the para- 
sites with which they might be confounded. Provisionally I think 
that the Orthonectida should be ranged above the Dicyemida and 
near the Gastrotricha ; the latter and the degraded Rotifers also 

* M'Cntosh, 'A Monograph of the British Annelids: the Nemerteans,' 
1874, p. 129, pi. xviii. figs. 17-19. 

t Keferstein, 'Beitrage zur Anatomie und Entwickelungsgeschichte 
einiger Seeplanarien von St.-Malo,' Taf. ii. fig. 8. 



Miscellaneous. 183 

live in general upon animals which inhabit muddy bottoms, such as 
Ophiocoma neglecta, the Linei, and Leptoplana tremellaris. Such 
are Balntro, parasitic on the Limnicolous annelids, and Saccobdella, 
a parasite of Nehalia *. However, the Orthonectida possess neither 
the rotatory apparatus nor the mastax of the Rotifera, nor even the 
bifurcated tail or the pharynx of the Gastrotricha. The most in- 
teresting question to be solved in the history of our parasites is 
whether these animals have remained normally at the/)7rtn«Z«-stage, 
or have retrograded to this primitive state, just as the Dicyemida 
have returned to the morula-sta.ge, in consequence of parasitism. 
The fact of retrogression does not seem to me to be doubtful in the 
case of the Dicyemida, which I regard as degraded Turbellaria (the 
Dicrjema of the cuttlefish still possesses the bacilli so characteristic 
of the skin of the Planarians). The proofs of the degradation of the 
Orthonectida are far from being so evident ; and these animals 
perhaps represent the most interesting step in the complicated 
phylum of the Vermesf. — Comptes Rendus, October 29, 1877, 
p. 812. 

A new Species of Chimaera found in American Waters. 
By Theobore Gill. 
One of the most unexpected discoveries recently made in Ameri- 
can ichthj'ology is that of a species of the genus Chimcera, of which 
a specimen has lately been sent to the Smithsonian Institution. It 
was caught south-east of the La Have bank, in lat. 42° 40' N., 
long. 63^^ 23' W., at a depth of 350 fathoms, with a bait of halibut. 
An attentive comparison of the specimen with individuals of the 
European Chimcera monstrosa renders it evident that it does not be- 
long to that species, but is an entirely distinct specific form. It 
may be named Chimcera plumb ea, and diagnosed as follows: — 

Chimcera p>lumhea. 

A Chimcera with the snout acutely produced ; the anteorbital 
flexure of the suborbital Hue extending little above the level of 
the inferior margin of the orbit ; the dorsals close together ; the 
dorsal spine with its anterior surface rounded ; the ventrals trian- 
gular and pointed ; the pectorals extending to the outer axil of the 
ventrals ; and the colour uniformly plumbeous. 

By these characters the species is readily separable from the 
Chimcera monstrosa and other species of the genus. — Bidletin of the 
Philosophical Society of Washington. 

Note on the Hahits of Young Limulus. By Alexander Agassiz. 

Mr. C. D. Walcott has called attention to the fact that when col- 
lecting fossils he finds large numbers of Trilobites on their back J ; 

* Claus still places Saccobdella among the Hirudinea ; and this error 
has unfortunately not been corrected in the French translation of hia 
treatise on Zoology. 

t The preceding investigations were made at the Laboratory at Wime- 
reux, in September and October of the present year (1877). 

X Ann. Lvc. Nat. Hist. xi. p. 155, 1875 ; Twenty-eighth Report N.Y. 
State Museum, Dec. 1876. 



184 Miscellaneous. 

from this he argues that they died in their natural position, and 
that when living they probably swam on their backs. He men- 
tions, in support of his view, the well-known fact that very young 
Limuli and other Crustacea frequently swim in that position. I 
have for several summers kept young horseshoe crabs in my jars, 
and have noticed that, besides thus often swimming on their backs, 
they will remain in a similar position for hours, perfectly quiet, on 
the bottom of the jars where they are kept. "When they cast their 
skin it invariably keeps the same attitude on the bottom of the jar. 
It is not an uncommon thing to find on beaches, where Limuhis is 
common, hundreds of skins thrown up and left dry by the tide, the 
greater part of which are turned on their backs. An additional 
point to be brought forward to show that the Trilobites probably 
pass the greater part of their life on their back and die in that 
attitude, is that the young Limuli generally feed while turned on 
their back ; moving at an angle with the bottom, the hind extre- 
mity raised, they throw out their feet beyond the anterior edge of 
the carapace, browsing, as it were, upon what they find in their 
road, and washing away what they do not need by means of a 
powerful current produced by their abdominal appendages. — SilU- 
mans Amer. Journ., Jan. 1878. 

New Species of Ceratodus from the Jurassic. By 0. C. Maesh. 

Among the interesting vertebrate remains recently found in the 
Jurassic of Colorado is a tooth of a Ceratodus in good preservation. 
The specimen is a left lower dental plate, having the inner side 
convex, and the outer divided into five prominent projections, which 
are separated by four notches. The front i)rojection is longest and 
most pointed. The plate is attached to a portion of the dentary 
bone. 

The length of this dental plate is 20 millims., and the transverse 
diameter 11 millims. The species is the first Mesozoic Ceratodus 
found in this country, and hence of much interest. It may be 
named Ceratodus OiintJieri, in honour of Dr. A. Giinther of the 
British Museum. The geological horizon of this species is in the 
Atlantosaurus beds of the Upper Jurassic. — Silliman'sAmer. Journ., 
Jan. 1878. 

Sexual Dimorphism in Butterflies. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder, in an article on sexual dimorphism in butter- 
flies (to which special kind of dimorphism he applies the term anti- 
geny), states that it is not the male but the female that departs from 
the normal type of colouring of the group to which the species 
belongs, while it is the male that shows divergences from the type 
in structural characters. These structural divergences in butterflies 
appear in the wings and the legs, and sometimes in the antennae. 
Mr. Scudder knows of no example in which the male alone diverges 
from the general plan of coloration belonging to the group. — Proc. 
Amer. Amd. 1877. 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

[FIFTH SERIES.] 
No. 3. MARCH 1878. 



XXII. — On the Geographical Distribution of the Common 
Oyster. By G. Winther*. 

Apart from the oysters of the Mediterranean, which are here 
left out of consideration, the oyster is found along the coasts of 
the Bay of Biscay, from Vigo in Spain to Finisterre in France, 
and tlience along the coasts of the Channel, the Irish, 
Scotch, and English seaboards as far as the Shetland Islands. 
The species reappears at Heligoland, on the western coast of 
Slesvig, in the Limfjord, the Aalbsek Bay in the Kattegat 
(near Frederikshavn or Fladstrand), and along the eastern 
shore of Jutland, as far as the fjord of Horsens, whilst on tlie 
coast of the Scandinavian peninsula oysters are found from a 
point south of Gothenborg along the Swedish and Norwegian 
coasts towards the bay of Christiania, and again on the south 
and west coast of Norway as far as the island of Tranen, 
near the polar circle. The Fteroes and Iceland possess no 
oysters ; and it is doubtful whether the American oyster is of 
the same species as that of Europe. In spite of its wide 
range northwards, the oyster must be regarded as a southern 
species, being most fully developed in the Channel and south 
of the Channel. 

If now we look for peculiarities common to the whole of 
this portion of the west coast of Europe which is inhabited 
by the oyster, we meet with one phenomenon which exercises 

* A'bstract of a paper on the culture of oysters in Denmark, iu 
' Nordisk Tidsskrift for Fiskeri ' (^Copenhagen, 1876). 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 13 



186 M. G. Wintlicr on the Oeographical 

the greatest influence on Western Europe in point of elimate 
and fauna, viz. tlie Gulf-stream^ branches of which cross the 
nortliern portion of the Atlantic and toucli precisely on the 
coasts in ([ucstion. 

According to the most modern researches, a branch of the 
Gulf-stream strikes the north-west corner of Spain and sepa- 
rates into two minor currents, of which one runs southwards 
past Vigo, along the coast of Spain and Portugal, wdiilst the 
other follows the shore of the Bay of Biscay to the western 
extremity of ]5rittany. The direction of this current along 
the French coast is therefore first northerly and then, along 
the S.W. coast of Brittany, north-westerly. After leaving 
the western extremity of Brittany the current maintains this 
north-westerly direction, following the edge of that submarine 
plateau on which both France and England are situated ; and 
near the coast of Ireland this branch reunites with the main 
portion of the Gulf-stream, whicli, having crossed the Atlantic 
Hows along the western shores of Ireland, Scotland, and the 
Shetland Islands. From this point the stream, following 
still the edge of the plateau, strikes across to the coast of 
Norway, which it touches first between Bergen and Trond- 
hjem, sj)reading thence along the coast as far as the North 
Cape. From that branch of the Gulf-stream which, as we 
have described, crosses the mouth of the Channel, a minor 
branch diverges into the Channel, after passing which it 
S])reads into the southern division of the North Sea, where its 
effects are well marked. After ])assing along the coast of 
Holland it touches Heligoland and the islands west of Slesvig, 
and follows the west coast of Juthnid as far as the Skaw, 
where an idtimate bifurcation takes ])lace, one branch passing 
to the Swedish coast, whilst the effects of the other, which runs 
southwards along the east coast of the Cimbrian peninsula, can 
be trat;ed as far as the Bay of Kiel. 

All along these coast-lines, which are touched by the Gulf- 
stream, and where consequently tlie saltness and temperature 
of the water are ])roportionally high and independent of local 
circumstances, oysters are found. They constitute its specific 
area, according to the terminology of Mr. Forbes. IIow en- 
tirely the oyster depends on the Gulf-stream is beautifully 
illustrated in the Kattegat, where it does not reach so far 
south on the Swedish coast as on the Danish coast, obviously 
because the rather fresh current from the Baltic flows chiefly 
along the coast of Sweden, whilst the salt current from the 
North Sea follows the shore of Jutland. Oysters occur also 
near the island of Anhalt, in a place where a local norihern 
current has often been observed ; but the locality would not 



Distrihiiti07i of the Common Oyster. 187 

appear to be otlienvise favom-ablc, as no fisliciy lias been csta- 
blislicd there. 

It may therefore be said, with justiec, that the oyster 
inhabits the shores of Em-ope so far as these arc touched 
more or less directly by the Gulf-strcnni, reaching northwards 
as far as the polar circle — the Channel and the south coast of 
England forming the centre of its distribution. 

That the oyster does not occur on the shores of Iceland or 
the Fa>roes, is interesting in so far as it shows that its diffu- 
sion is due to the facility with which the spat is carried on by 
the current. No current coming from the English or other 
European coasts, and by which spat might be brought, im- 
pinges on the shores of Iceland or the Ficroe Islands ; the 
waters of the Gulf-stream by which they are washed come 
direct from the channel of the Bahamas. 

If it be granted that the oyster has been carried to its pre- 
sent stations by the various branches of the Gulf-stream, it 
may be concluded that its specific centre is the place where 
that stream first reaches the continent of Europe, viz. the west 
coast of Spain, from which it has afterwards spread south- 
ward into the Mediterranean, and northwards as far as the 
polar circle. This, again, would be a point to be considered 
in settling the question as to the ])hysical conditions accom- 
panying the de])Osition of the Crag formation in England 
and the strata north of Gothenborg near Uddewalla, in which 
oysters occur in a fossil state. 

l3ut though oysters occur along the whole of the line indi- 
cated, they are by no means equally plentiful or well-dcvelo})ed 
at all points. Oyster-banks occur in many places, even as far 
north as Bergen in Norway ; but those along the shores of 
England and France seem by nature to be the richest. On 
these banks, which are situated at varying distances from the 
shore, and where the oysters live in the ])ure water entering 
from the Atlantic, having a saltness of 3'5 or 3*6, they grow to 
a good size and produce many young ; but they do not reach 
that fulness and delicacy which is obtained by moving them 
from the breeding-places to other localities exhibiting cer- 
tain peculiar conditions. The places where oyster-culture 
succeeds have this in common, that they are jirotccted by 
islands or shoals against the immediate infinence of the 
open sea, and that the sea-water is diluted by the fresh water 
ot rivers charged with a quantity of organic matter, which 
affords nourishment to the oysters. Transferred to such places 
the oyster is considerably improved in size and taste ; the 
liver is more particularly increased ; and the shells become 
more regular, because the animals are so openly scattered as 

13» 



188 Geographical Distribution of the Common Oyster. 

not to interfere with one another. On account of the water 
being less salt (2*9-3*l) the shells are thinner than on the 
natural banks, in accordance with what has been observed 
also in the case of other testaceous mollusks. Through these 
changes the oyster is improved as an article of food and 
commerce ; but the improvement is not attained without ano- 
ther effect, which accompanies artificial fattening of animals 
as commonly as the abnormal increase of the liver does, 
and which is of the greatest importance for the whole 
question of oyster-culture. All the physiological energy 
of the animal being concentrated on the development of the 
individual, another side of its life, its capability for continuing 
the species, is impaired. Several authors have noticed the 
small quantity and limited vital power of the spat produced by 
oysters in artificial parks ; but the fact has not as yet received 
the attention it deserves ; it has not been observed that it is a 
regular effect of less salt water and that consequently parks 
for fattening oysters cannot be self-supporting in the long run. 
A diminution of the saltness of the sea amounting to 0*5, 
in connexion with certain other physical circumstances, parti- 
cularly an admixture of fresh water, is consequently enough 
to exercise a notable influence on the development of the 
oyster generally, and especially on its power of propagation. 
This check will increase in effectiveness with the admixture 
of fresh water ; and there is a point where the individual oyster 
is still perfectly able to live and thrive, but unable to propa- 
gate the species. Experience shows that oysters are able to 
live long in water of much less saltness, and even attain a size 
and delicacy which could not be reached if any part of its 
vital power were to be spent on propagation of the species. 
The minimum of saltness compatible with the existence of 
oysters has not yet been determined ; and the circumstance tliat 
the animal is very susceptible to cold, if the saltness of the 
water decreases, renders experiment on this point very difficult. 
Von Baer puts this minimum at 1"7 ; but propagation is then 
out of the question. In several instances different banks in 
the same locality have been found to exhibit great differences 
with regard to fertility ; and it has been suggested that the 
reason might be that the products of the generative organs do 
not come to maturity in all individuals at the same time. But 
it is probable that their more or less favourable situation in 
regard to the access of salt water is of not less importance in 
the matter — particularly as the degree of saltness of the water 
would probably show its effects not only in increasing or dimi- 
nishing the general fertility, but also in accelerating or delay- 
ing the maturity of the secretions in question. 



Circumpolar Distribution of certain Hydrozoa. 189 

From the preceding it appears that the physiological con- 
ditions of the oyster, and especially its power of propagation, 
may be changed or checked through modifications of circum- 
stances, such as admixture of fresh water or greater tranquility 
of the water, in respect of which there may be notable differ- 
ences between localities situated at short distances from one 
another ; and it is evident that this circumstance must act as a 
bar to its diffusion over a wider area, particularly because it 
is combined with this other peculiarity, that the brood of 
oysters is capable of surviving, freely drifting about, only for 
a short time after having left the mother ; it must sink to the 
bottom after a certain time, and remain where it sinks, whether 
the place is favourable for its development or not. A very 
gradual modification of the kind indicated occurs in the water 
of the Kattegat, where the salt water of the North Sea meets 
and is gradually mixed with the fresher water of the Baltic ; 
and accordingly the oyster becomes more and more rare 
as we proceed southwards. At the entrance to the Sound and 
the Belts the species ceases to occur, though the water is not 
fresher than it might survive and even thrive in ; but it could 
not propagate there ; and the nearest place where the physical 
conditions of the water permit it to do so, viz. the Bay of 
Aalbask, just south of the Skaw, is so far away that the spat, 
drifting with the current, must, as a rule, sink before it arrives 
so far. Between these banks and the southern limits of the 
oysters in the Kattegat they occur only seated on large stones, 
singly or rarely three or four together. These scattered indivi- 
duals are often large and fat, but they are barren. 

With regard to parks for fattening oysters the main result 
of these considerations is, that they may be established in places 
where the water is much less salt than on the natural banks, 
if otherwise the conditions are favom'able, as to temperature, 
quality of the bottom, quantity of food, &c. ; but they cannot 
be made self-supporting. If artificial banks are to be self- 
supporting the water must not be much less salt than on the 
natural banks from which they are stocked. 



XXIII. — Note on Selaginopsis ( = Polyseria3 Hincksii, Mere- 
schkowsky), and on the Circunvpolar Distribution of certain 
Hydrozoa. By the Rev. A. M. NoKMAN, M.A. 

The Polyserias Hincksii of Mereschkowsky, recently figured 
in the ' Annals ' (ser. 4, vol. xx. pi. vi. figs. 15, 16), from 
the White Sea, is, I think, unquestionably identical with 



190 Rev. A. M. Norman on the Circumpolar 

Diphasia mirabiUs, Verrill, described originally from Le 
Have and St. George's Banks, on the New-England coast, and 
subsequently figured by Clark from the Alaskan Sea. 

The genus Polyserias will also be synonymous with Sela- 
ginopsis^ lately described by Prof. Allman, with a type {S. 
fusca) found in Japan *. The White- Sea species will there- 
fore he.Selaghiopsis mirahiUs (Verrill). 

Until quite recently the Hydi-ozoa have been almost en- 
tirely neglected in all seas except our own, though we must 
not forget the important investigations of L. and A. Agassiz. 
We thus know very little of the geographical distribution of the 
species. Selaginopsis mirahilis is the first arctic Hydrozoon 
which has been described from the east and west coasts of North 
America and subsequently found in the north of Europe. 
It is no wonder, therefore, that Mr. Mereschkowsky, having exa- 
mined European literature without finding his species, should 
have supposed that it was new. The researches of Verrill on the 
New-England coast are materially extending our knowledge of 
the distribution of many classes, including the Hydrozoa, on 
the western side of the Atlantic ; and Mr. S. F. Clark's ad- 
mirable report on the Hydrozoa of Alaska has special interest. 
In it he figures, and describes when necessary, forty-two 
species as inhabiting the district. No less than sixteen of 
these are Arctic species which reach the British coast, and 
the circumpolar distribution of which has now been estab- 
lished. They are : — 

Obelia lon^ssima {Pallas). Calycella syringa {Lirm.'). 

Clytia Jolinstoni {Alder'). Coppinia arcta (Dali/ell). 

Campanularia Integra, Macgil. Halecium muricatum, Johnst, 

Gonothyrtea liyalina, Ilincks. Sertularia filicula, U. Sr S. 

Lafoea pocilliim ?, Ilincks. Sertularella tricuspidata, Alder. 

gracillima {Alder), rugosa {Linn.). 

dumosa {Fleming). polyzonias {Linn.). 

fruticosa, Sais. Tubularia indivisa, Linn, 

Add to these Selaginopsis mirdbilis and we have two fifths 
of the Alaskan species with a known circumpolar distri- 
bution. 

Selaginopsis and Pericladium are apparently Arctic genera 
which have reached Japan by way of Kamtschatka and the 
Kurile Islands — the course of distribution which has caused, I 
believe, the striking resemblance in many features between 
the British and Japanese marine faunas; and I venture to pre- 
dict that many genera which are common to Japan and Euro- 

* Linn. Soc. Jonrn. vol. xii. (1876) p. 272. Another of CIai-k'» 
Alaslian species, Thuiaria cylindrica, belongs to Allmau's genus Feri- 
eladium, described in the paper just quoted, p. 273. 



Distribution of certain Hydrozoa. 191 

pean seas will be foiiud to have their relationship based on a 
common arctic origin. 

Mereschkowskj- states that he has " found several other 
species of this genus [Polyserias) in the collection of Hydroids 
in the St, -Petersburg Museum of the Academy of Sciences, 
brought from the sea of Ochotsk and Kamtschatka." It is 
not unlikely that the typical species of 8elaginoj)sis may be 
found in the localities referred to ; and the genus Pericladium 
is also almost sure to live in seas which are midway between 
Alaska and Japan. 

8ertulm-ia fiisca, Johnston, of the British seas, is a con- 
necting link between the ordinary species of Sertularia and 
the typical Belaginopsis fusca. 

Selaginojysis fiisca of Japan is a connecting link between 
Sertularia fusca^ Johnston, and Polyserias Hincksii^ Mere- 
schkowsky. 

Each of these might be made the type of a separate genus ; 
but Allman's genus as characterized will include all ; and it 
seems best so to retain it. 

Genus Selaginopsis, Allman. 

" Trophosome. — Hydrophyton consisting of a single axile 
tube, to which the hydrothecse are adnate, and on which they 
are disposed in several longitudinal rows." 

" Gonosome. — Not known." [In the British S. fusca^ 
Johnston, the gonotheca is pyriform, and borne as in Sertu- 
laria\ 

1. Selaginopsis fusca (Johnston). 
Seiiularia ftcsca, Johustou et auctorura. 

In this species the hydrothecas, instead of being placed on 
the face of the branch as in Sertularia^ are inserted on the 
side, the thickness of the branch being much greater in pro- 
portion to its breadth than in that genus. On each of the 
sides the hydrothecte are biserial, so far that they are decidedly 
alternate, bending to the right and left, in such a way that 
the mouths of one half only of the cells on each flank are seen 
when one face of the branch is looked at, and the other half 
when the opposite face is examined. It is, in fact, a double 
arrangement of a Sertularella, each lateral view exhibiting a 
series of hydrothecce corresponding to that of the front aspect 
in Sertularella. 

Hah. Distribution as known very limited ; confined to east 
coast of the north of England and Scotland. 



192 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

2. Selaginopsis Allmani. 

1876. Selaginopsis fusea, Allman, Linn. Soc. Journ, vol. xii. p. 272, 
.pi. xii. fig. 1, and pi. xix. figs. 1, 2. 

This Japanese species has similarly the hydrothecse ar- 
ranged in double file on each side (as opposed to the face) of 
the branchlets j but they are here distinctly in two lines at 
their bases as well as at their apices, the arrangement of cells 
being, as it were, that of a double Sertularia (e. g. 8. abietina) ; 
instead of a double Sertularella as in the last case. 

3. Selaginopsis mirahilis (Verrill). 

1873. Diphasia mirahilis, Verrill, Amer. Journ. Science, ser. 3, vol. v. 
p. 9 (note). 

1870. Diphasia mirahilis, S. F. Clark, in Scientific Results of Explora- 
tion of Alaska, vol. i. p. 15, pi. vii. fig. 36. 

1877. Polyserias Jfincksii, Mereschkowsky, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 
vol. XX. p. 228, pi. vi. figs. 15, 16. 

Hah. New-England coast (Fern?^, Alaska (O^ar^), White 
Sea [Meresclikoivsky) . 

Here we find the process of multiplication of cells carried 
still further, and what was in the former instances compara- 
ble to a double Sertularian, is here equivalent to a triplicate 
Sertularian, an extra pair of hydrothecse being introduced. 

The general aspect of the hydrophyton, as represented in 
fig. 15 (' Annals '), reminds us strikingly of that of S.fusca^ 
Johnston, in mode of ramification, in general aspect of the 
branchlets, and in their great slenderness at the point of at- 
tachment to the main stem. 



XXIV. — Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from 
Japan. — Part II. Noctuites. By ARTHUR G. BuTLER, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

[Continued from p. 169.] 

Cosmiidse. 
105. Cosmia distincta, n. sp. 

Primaries grey, crossed by two blackish-edged white lines, 
much as in C. affinis ; an abbreviated basal white lltura ; 
central area more or less clouded with ferruginous, with a 
central brown angulated belt ; external area dusky, limited 
internally by an irregular whitish streak; a semicircular 
whitish-bordered costal brownish spot, much like that of G. 



of Heterocera from Japan. 193 

pyralina ; secondaries as in C. affinis : under surface inter- 
mediate in colouring and marking between C. pyralina and 
C ajffinis. Expanse, 6 1 inch 5 lines, $ 1 inch 7 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

C. affinis occurs also at Yokohama, but is slightly larger 
than Em'opean examples. 

Hadenidse. 

106. BapMa fasciata^ n. sp. 

Silvery greyish, rather darker than R. viminalis^ with the 
ground-colour of the central band and base of costal area in 
primaries dark brown, spotted with black, the interno-basal 
area silvery white. Expanse 1 inch 3-4 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

Very close to B. viminalis, but having a very distinct aspect, 
owing to the blackish band and the large pale silvery interno- 
basal patch. 

107. Phlogophora heatrixj n. sp. 

Closely allied to P. iris, larger ; more stramineous ; the 
wings broader in proportion ; primaries with the darker mark- 
ings more olivaceous ; the outer border not reddish ; the 
margin distinctly dentate- sinuate ; the fringe tawny ; a mar- 
ginal series of black lunules, the discal streaks nearest to the 
margin slender and dentate-sinuate ] the two inner discal lines 
more slender, wider apart, and less angular ; the central patch 
with convex (not angular) front margin ; the discoidal spots 
less oblique, the secondaries clearer, yellower, the lines on the 
disk abbreviated and fainter : under surface clear straw -yellow, 
with an abbreviated discal line halfway between the cell and 
apex ; fringe of primaries tipped with blackish. Expanse 2 
inches. 

Hakodate [Whitely). 

Intermediate in form and marking between P. iris and P. 
periculosa. 

Aplectoides, n. gen. 

Allied to Aplecta oi (ofu6Ti6% {Mamestra, Ochs., Grote), but 
differing in its shorter and broader primaries, with straighter 
costal margin ; secondaries with the discocellulars more 
strongly angulated, the radial nervure emitted further from 
the median branches : body shorter ; palpi more erect, the 
terminal joint on a level with the top of the head. Type A. 
condita of Gu^nde. 



194 Mr, A. G. Butler on new Species 

108. Aplectoides nitida^ n. sp. 

Allied to A. condita^ much larger ; primaries shining silver- 
grey, with black lines and white spots ; lines towards the base 
nearly straight below the median vein ; orbicular spot small, 
clouded, distinctly black-bordered j reniform spot clouded, in- 
distinct in front, because immediately followed by a patch of 
white, through which the sinuated portion of the discal black 
line passes ; the latter followed by a less-distinct parallel line 
from the costa to the third median branch ; externo-discal 
white limitation of the outer border much less defined than in 
A. condita^ partly black-bordered ; a longitudinal black dash, 
just above the third median branch, from the reniform spot to 
the outer border ; fringe and apical costa brown ; secondaries 
smoky brown, fringe greyish ; thorax white, collar with a 
broad blackish band in front ; metathorax and tegul^ crossed 
by two black belts ; frons black ; palpi black, whitish inside ; 
abdomen fuliginous : under surface fuliginous, paler towards 
the base of the wings; a dusky transverse discal stripe, angu- 
lated in primaries ; marginal line black ; apical costa and 
fringe of primaries tinted with tawny, the rest of the fringe 
alternately sordid white and blackish ; legs black, femora 
and tibiee clothed with greyish hairs, tibise and tarsi banded 
with white. Expanse 2 inches 1 line. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

In most examples the primaries above have the interno- 
median area whitish to just beyond the sinuous discal line. 

109. Eu7'ois vi'rens, n. sp. 

^ . Primaries bright sap-green, with the usual spots ; in- 
ternal border, veins, and fringe brown ; costal border irrorated 
and spotted with black, the spots arranged in pairs, with paler 
green between them ; discoidal spots margined with whitish 
and black, the reniform spot varied with red, deeply angularly 
excised in front, the inner ("orbicular") spot quadrate; two 
black lunules below the last-mentioned spot and crossing the 
interno-median area ; an angular discal series of black-edged, 
pale green lunules ; a submarginal series of black and green 
spots ; the area between these two rows of spots olivaceous ; 
a marginal series of conical black spots ; fringe pinky white 
at the base ; secondaries grey, becoming smoky brown to- 
wards the outer margin, fringe pure white ; head, collar, and 
tegulsB sap-green, black-spotted ; remainder of body greyish, 
with testaceous anal tuft : under surface greyish brown ; wings 
sericeous with a dark transverse discal stripe ; primaries with 



of Heterocera from Japan. 1 95 

pale-yellowish costa, internal area silvery grey ; secondaries 
with white fringe. Expanse 2 inches 4 lines. 

Hakodate {Whitely). 

Allied to E. lierhida^ much larger and brighter in colouring, 
and with no trace of the white patch beyond the reniform 
spot. 

Plataplecta, n. gen. 

General aspect of Aplecia nebulosa [Mamestra of Grote), 
but with much shorter and broader wings, shorter body, and 
longer and less densely clothed palpi. Type P. soluta {Polia 
solutttj Walker). 

110. Plataplecta suhvindis, n. sp. 

Primaries silvery grey (or white densely irrorated with 
grey) , with blackish and white markings, nearly as in Aplecta 
nimbosa ; the whole wing, but especially the basal area, indis- 
tinctly blotched with pale green; costal margin blackish, 
spotted with white near the apex ; reniform spot subquadrate, 
black-edged ; two transverse black-edged white stripes across 
the base of the interno-median area, a third connecting the 
first median branch with the inner margin, and followed by a 
large black spot ; a very irregular greenish and white sub- 
marginal stripe bounded internally by conical black spots ; 
apex blackish ; a marginal series of black spots ; fringe 
brown ; secondaries pale brown, with darker outer border, 
blackish marginal line, and whitish fringe ; body correspond- 
ing in colour with the wings : under surface shining pale 
brown ; costa of primaries white-spotted near apex ; secon- 
daries whitish, with the discocellulars and outer border dusky ; 
venter whitish. Expanse 1 inch 6-7 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

The male is lighter in colour than the female. 

111. Hadena gnoma, n. sp. 

Close to H. atriplicis^ but much larger and darker, the pri- 
maries of a slaty-grey colour, varied with black and brown 
and bright green markings, arranged as in //. atriplicis^ the 
bifid white spot less pure in colour and rather larger : secon- 
daries, abdomen, and under surface altogether darker than in 
H. atripUcis. Expanse, ^ 1 inch 10 lines, ? 2 inches 2 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

112. Hadena lucia, n. sp. 

Allied to H. atn'plicis, but differing as follows : — prima- 
ries above with an abbreviated white band from the costa to 



196 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

the middle of the interno-median interspace (instead of the 
bitid white spot at base of first median branch) ; greenish 
markings paler and clearer ; the apical border white, the black 
marginal spots less depressed and less distinct from the brown 
spots on the fringe ; the other dark markings less sharply 
defined ; secondaries more sericeous, with the basal half de- 
cidedly whiter; abdomen paler. Expanse 1 inch 11 lines. 
Hakodate {Whitely). 

Xylinidae. 
113. Auchmis intermedia {Gloantha intermedia^ Bremer). 

Allied io A. per spicillaris and A. stkkimensis, pattern of 
the latter, but rather larger and paler, the basicostal and dis- 
coidal region of the primaries lilacine greyish, and the internal 
area tinted with the same colour : wings below paler, the 
costal margin of primaries and the ground-colour of secon- 
daries white, the red-streaked areas of a duller tint. Expanse 
1 inch 7 lines. 

Hakodate {Whitely/) ; Yokohama (Jonas). 

This is doubtless the Japanese representative oi A. perspi- 
cillaris, just as A. sikkimensis is the Darjeeling representa- 
tive ; a fourth species of the same type occurs at Natal. 

114. Calocampa fumosaj n. sp. 

Closely allied to G. exoleta^ but altogether of a more smoky 
tint, the markings less distinct, the discoidal spots of primaries 
more quadrate, the two hastate black spots more elongated ; 
the secondaries dark grey, the base pale brown, the fringe 
pale grey ; head and collar whity brown, broadly bordered 
with piceous; thorax blackish; shoulders sordid white; abdo- 
men whity brown, with confused dorsal and transverse dusky 
stripes. Expanse 2 inches 8 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

The primaries are rather more elongated than in the Euro- 
pean species. 

115. Calocampa formosaj n. sp. 

Primaries shining grey, the costal area, outer half of disk, 
external border, and fringe suffused with laky brown ; dis- 
coidal spots outlined in black, the reniform dark grey, with a 
central rounded spot, both edged with reddish and black; two 
central transverse undulated black lines, the outer one bor- 
dered externally by brown spots, which fill the sinuations ; 
inner part of discal area whitish, followed by a sinuous series 
of black dots ; external area cut off abruptly by an oblique 



of Heterocera from Japan. 197 

line from the costa near apex, continuous with a broad trans- 
verse plum-coloured streak, intersected by a pale line ; sub- 
marginal area whitish ; a series of black marginal spots ; 
costal margin (almost to apex) black, white-spotted beyond 
the cell : secondaries brown, with dusky outer border ; fringe 
sordid white, intersected by a dusky line : body nearly as in 
the preceding species. Wings below darker than in the other 
species of the genus, with well-defined blackish undulated 
marginal lines on a narrow pale border ; secondaries with a 
broad regular dusky discal belt. Expanse 2 inches 2 lines. 
Yokohama [Pryer and Jonas) . 

116. Xylina pruinosaj n. sp. 

Primaries above shining silvery grey, with indications of a 
paler irregular transverse discal band ; the base of the cell, 
three blackish-edged discoidal spots, an oval patch near the 
base on the interno-median interspace, and a small round spot 
(black-edged externally) ])aler grey ; a submarginal row of 
black dots, a marginal undulated dark line ; fringe irrorated 
with white : secondaries sordid white, the apical area and 
outer border broadly grey ; fringe testaceous at the base, 
tipped with white, grey in the centre : thorax grey, speckled 
with testaceous and white ; abdomen pale greyish or sordid 
white, with a darker dorsal line and a rosy brownish fringe. 
Wings below shining silvery whitish, with opaque brown- 
speckled costal borders to all the wings and outer border to 
primaries ; secondaries with a dusky dot at the end of the 
cell ; body rosy brownish. Expanse 1 inch 5 lines. 

Yokohama [Pryer and Joyias). 

Nearly allied to X. rliizolitlia^ but greyer, with much paler 
secondaries. 

In my opinion the genus Aporophylla ought to be placed 
either with or close to Xylina ; so far as I have been able to 
discover, it agrees in structure with X. rhizoUtlia. The main 
differences which Stainton gives to distinguish the Apamida3 
from the Xylinida3 are that the imagines of the first family 
have the wings " in repose roof-shaped," and those of the 
second family " folded in repose ; " the genera Aporophylla 
and Xylina are distinguished by the larvse of the first feeding 
" on low plants," and those of the second " on trees." Cha- 
racters such as these, which can be ascertained only by the 
field-naturalist, should surely not weigh so heavily as to sepa- 
rate two insects so similar as Aporophylla australis and 
Xylina rhizolitha by 81 pages. I presume that, notwith- 
standing the rarity of A. ausfralis, it is known to close its 
wings like an Apamea. 



198 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

117. Xylina arctipennis^ n. sp. 

Primaries silvery grey, the base, a central irregular black- 
edged band, a transverse discal stripe, and the outer border 
rather paler and greyer than the rest of the wing ; a black 
dot at the base, a second at the inferior angle of the cell, a 
disco-submarginal series, a series of marginal black liturse, 
and a short oblique black apical line ; fringe intersected by a 
slightly darker line : secondaries shining sordid white, w^ith a 
broad, pale brown external border ; fringe white : thorax 
greyish brown, antennge ferruginous ; abdomen paler, whitish 
at base, with a black dorsal tuft. Primaries below pale 
shining brown, becoming silvery whitish towards the inner 
margin ; costa beyond the cell dotted with black and whitish : 
secondaries silvery white, with a whity brown costal spot and 
a discal stripe of the same colour ; pectus creamy white, 
changing to smoky brown in front ; venter testaceous. Ex- 
panse 1 inch 7 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

118. Litho2)hane saga^ n. sp. 

Primaries grey, with a. number of black and brown dashes, 
four in the centre of the costa, oblique, two near external angle 
also oblique, but slanting upwards, the remainder longitudinal; 
a dusky oblique streak from the outer margin near the apex 
to the external third of the inner margin ; reniform spot 
barely distinguishable; an acutely undulated oblique discal line 
arched towards the costa, the external undulations filled in at 
the end by black spots : secondaries with the basal half sordid 
white, crossed by brown veins, external half occupied by a 
very broad smoky brown border, upon which the veins look 
black ; fringe sordid white : head grey, with black spots 
behind the eyes; collar brown, with a central transverse black- 
edged grey belt ; thorax grey, brownish and crested down the 
centre; tegulse grey, with a brown streak on each side; abdo- 
men whity brown, with dark brown dorsal tufts. Primaries 
below smoky brown, the basal area and apical border pale ; 
secondaries white, the costal area and outer margin sordid ; a 
broad brown external band, a black spot at the end of the 
cell, and a discal series of black dots on the veins ; pectus 
pale greyish; venter sordid white. Expanse, S 2 inches 4 lines, 
? 1 inch 11 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

L. saga is allied to the ^^ Xylina indicatura " of Walker. 

119. Cucidlia f rater na, n. sp. 

Nearly allied to C. lucifuga, but the primaries duller, with 



of Heterocera from Japan. 199 

the spot in the cell black, compressed and elongated ; secon- 
daries pure white (with the veins and outer border brown, and 
the costal area brownish, as in G. lucifuga). Expanse 2 inches 
1 line. 

Hakodate {Whitely). 

HeliotMdse. 

120. HeliotMs adaucta, n. sp. 

Close to H. dijjsacea^ but much larger, the primaries and 
thorax of a more sandy whitish tint, with the markings rather 
darker; the secondaries whiter with blacker markings, the 
spot closing the cell broader : body less reddish in tint ; 
under surface with all the markings much more distinct. 
Expanse 1 inch 5-6 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas); Hakodate {Whitely). 

The largest examples of H. dvpsacea measure about 1 inch 
3 lines in expanse. 

Erastridse. 

121. Erastria stygia^ n. sp. 

Allied to E.fuscida'. primaries black in the male, brown in 
the female, with darker bands and lines as in E. fuscula^ the 
orbicular and reniform spots more or less strongly outlined in 
white ; costa white-spotted, most strongly beyond the middle, 
a more or less strongly defined squamose patch of yellowish 
scales just beyond the reniform spot ; a transverse bracket- 
like white line followed by a yellowish streak near the exter- 
nal angle ; a b-shaped pale line, bordered outwardly with 
deep black, near the base ; fringe of all the wings white- 
spotted and with basal and central pale lines : secondaries 
shining greyish brown. Wings below much as in E. fuscula, 
but darker. Expanse 1 inch 1 line. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

Although allied to E.fuscula^ this species has more nearly 
the aspect of E. afi-icana of Felder : excepting in the form of 
the margin of the secondaries, it nearly approaches Eriopus 
Latreillii of Duponchel. 

Anthophilidse. 

122. AntJiophila par adtsea J n.s^. 

Allied to A. purpurata : primaries with the basal half pale 
lemon-yellow, white at base of inner margin ; disk bright 
rose-colour, whitish on the costa near apex, and indistinctly 
blotched with pale bronzy brown (barely visible without a 



200 Mr. A. (Jr. Butler on new Species 

lens) ; outer border bronzy brown, bounded internally by a 
series of white dots ; fringe bright rose-colour : secondaries 
pale brown ; fringe white, tipped with rose-colour : head and 
thorax lemon-yellow, abdomen white. Primaries below pale 
greyish brown, with whitish borders ; base of costa and outer 
half of fringe rose-colour ; secondaries white, fringe tipped 
with pink ; pectus white ; legs and palpi rose-coloured exter- 
nally ; venter greyish. Expanse 1 inch 2 lines. 
Yokohama {Jonas). 

Eriopidae. 

123. Calloinstria ohscura^ n. sp. 

Allied to G. pteridis, but the ground-colour of the primaries 
sepia-brown, more or less irrorated with tawny, the transverse 
lines wider apart and bordered by sericeous grey (not rosy 
lilacine), the veins whiter, the marginal spots naiTOwer and 
blackish ; secondaries rather paler than the primaries, with 
whitish costal area and outer border ; body altogether duller 
and greyer than in C. pteridis : primaries below grey, with 
sandy whitish borders ; secondaries sericeous whitish, with 
greyish subapical patch or spot, discal line, and discocellular 
spot ; body below sandy whitish. Expanse 1 inch 5 lines. 

Hakodate ( Whitely) ; Yokohama (Jonas) . 

Altogether darker and less red than C. pteridis. 

124. Callopistria cetJiiops^ n. sp. 

Allied to C. exotica from Java, but the primaries almost 
black, crossed by silvery white lines, the oblique white-edged 
dash at the end of the cell tapering downwards to a point and 
almost uniting with the interno-median band, which is ob- 
lique, the band across the cell also well-marked and oblique, 
so that the three markings together make a 7 ; the white 
apical dash represented by three decreasing oblique white 
lines, the lowermost of which joins a ^-shaped white figure 
(replacing the lanceolate mark of C. exotica) ; outer border 
narrow, black, edged with white: secondaries silvery whitish, 
the veins, an indistinct abbreviated discal line, and a broad 
diffused outer border greyish : body whitish, collar banded 
with black ; base of tegulee testaceous, anal tuft ochraceous. 
Wings below silvery whitish ; primaries with the discoidal 
area, and two white-bordered discal streaks greyish ; secon- 
daries with the discocellulars and two apical streaks parallel 
to the outer margin greyish brown; body whitish. Expanse 
1 inch 1 line. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 



of lleterocera fi'om Japan. 201 

Walker confounded two distinct species from Java and a. 
third from Canara under C. exotica. G. cBtMo^s ia close to 
" Flusia duiyliciUnea^^ from Borneo. 

Placodidse. 
SCEDOPLA, n. gen. 

Nearly allied to Placodes^ but differing in its distinctly pec- 
tinated antennsBj the shorter terminal joint of the pa^pi, and 
the subcostal branches of secondaries emitted from a rather 
long footstalk. Type 8. regalis. 

125. Scedopla regalis^ n. sp. 

Primaries witli the basal two thirds dark brown, shot with 
purple, external third of a dead golden or deep sandy yel- 
lowish colour ; a broad subcentral transverse band indicated 
by marginal sinuated limiting lines of black ; a black litura 
at the end of the cell ; the disk slightly darker than the outer 
border, its limit barely visible excepting at costa, sinuated ; a 
submarginal series of minute black dots : secondaries stone- 
colour ; costa white ; outer margin and fringe sandy whitish ; 
a series of dusky marginal liturse : body brown, abdomen 
greyish. Under surface sandy yellowish ; wings with a grey 
discal line; primaries greyish, excepting at the borders. Ex- 
panse 1 inch 3 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

Plusiidae. 

126. Plusia typinota, n. sp. 

Allied to P. gamma^ but the 7-mark more elongated, three 
other silvery characters, somewhat resembling /, J, K, but 
with the J sloping backwards, across the costal and discoidal 
areas; the margins of the central band rather silvery than 
golden J outer border of secondaries and borders of all the 
wings below ill-defined. Expanse 1 inch 9 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

127. Plusia Jessica^ n. sp. 

Allied to P. nt, but the primaries darker and more sericeous; 
instead of the central silvery markings a brassy 7 ; the discal 
line rather less irregular ; the edge of the outer border rather 
more irregular, more uniform in tint ; a marginal series of pale- 
edged triangular black spots instead of the marginal lines ; 
fringe almost rubbed away in the type ; secondaries greyer, 
without the abruptly darker border ; thorax darier : wings 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol i. 14 



202 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

below greyer, without the paler border. Expanse 1 inch 4 
lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

128. Flusia purissima, n. sp. 

Allied to P. pariUs, but larger, greyer, more sharply defined, 
more sericeous ; primaries more acuminate ; the lower half of 
the external area and a broad oblique streak from the apex 
to the end of the cell silvery whitish ; transverse band much 
more oblique, the limiting lines sharply defined, black, with 
pinkish white external edge ; the silvery 7 replaced by two 
silvery spots; the submarginal line straight to the third median 
branch and then gently angulated, terminating before the apex; 
a marginal piceous and white streak, not reaching the ex- 
ternal angle : secondaries pale brown, becoming darker towards 
the outer margin ; two ill-defined dusky discal lines : head, 
collar, and tliorax grey, with red-brown posterior transverse 
bands ; abdomen brownish grey, with a red-brown dorsal tuft 
near the base. Under surface sericeous grey, with two parallel 
discal darker lines ; secondaries with the basal half whitish. 
Expanse 1 inch 5 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

129. Plusia mikadina^ n. sp. 

Nearly allied to P. concha^ but rather paler, the golden c»- 
shaped marking of primaries replaced by a larger brassy C3 ; 
the outer or discal line more deeply sinuated, and the golden 
patch bounded by it on the inner margin of double the width, 
all the golden patches paler ; the discoidal spots narrower and 
more angular : wings below much paler, the discal streaks 
wider apart, the outer one of primaries more strongly angu- 
lated. Expanse 1 inch 7 lines. 

Hakodate (WMtely) ; Yokohama (Jonas). 

Calpidse. 
130. Calpe excavata, n. sp. 

Form of G. thalictri^ excepting that the inner margin of the 
primaries is more deeply excavated and more widely lobate. 
More nearly allied to G. rectistria, but the primaries of a richer 
reddish brown, the golden patch from the external angle up- 
wards is wanting', the double oblique line from the apex 
separates more widely and becomes more irregular near the 
inner margin, outer margin subangulated below the middle ; 
the secondaries differ in their dull sandy-brown colour, with 
broad diffused fuliginous external border ; head and thorax 



of Heterocera jrom Japan. 203 

orange and red-brown, tinted with lilacine, as in G. rectistria j 
abdomen fuliginous : primaries beloAV rather redder ; secon- 
daries yellower, with black discocellular lunate marking, a 
dusky discal streak ; discal area from the streak greyish, ex- 
cepting at apex. Expanse 2 inches 1 line. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

C. rectistria is erroneously referred by Gu^n^e to his genus 
Orcesta. 

131. Calpe sodalis, n. sp. 

Closely allied to (7. thalictrt, but differing in its paler 
colouring and the colour and shortness of the fringe, which is 
uniform with the ground-colour of the wings instead of being 
dusky ; primaries below with darker discal streaks, secon- 
daries with the discocellular litura and discal streak paler. 
Expanse 1 inch 10 lines. 

Hakodate (Whiteli/) ', Yokohama (t/owas). 

132. Deva splendida, n. sp. 

Aspect of Orcesia emarginata, but with the palpi longer, 
more slender, and recurved over the head ; in coloration more 
like O. provocans ; primaries above greyish brown, speckled 
here and there with black, streaked with shining lilac ; central 
area ferruginous, shading into ochraceous, and thus resembling 
a bright cupreous lustre, with which the external area is shot ; 
a bisinuated basal litura, a &-shaped marking above the median 
vein, a discal streak, the outer margin, the inner edge of the 
outer border at apex, and the outer border of external angle 
lilacine ; a line from below the cell and irregular discal line 
silvery ; a bright silvery marking (somewhat resembling a v 
in writing) at the base of the first median branch ; reniform 
spot constricted, feebly outlined with lilacine : secondaries 
shining brown, with two darker central streaks ; fringe tipped 
with whitish : head and collar testaceous, banded with lilac ; 
thorax darker, also banded with lilac ; abdomen greyish, 
whitish at base, with a lilac-tipped black and ochraceous dorsal 
tuft. Under surface not unlike that of Orcesia emarginata, but 
the primaries and the disk of secondaries darker; the latter 
wings also with a well-marked arched discal stripe ; legs 
greyish; tarsi blackish, banded with whitish. Expanse 1 inch 
7 lines. 

Hakodate {Whitely). 

Gronopteridae. 
133. Gonitis commoda, n. sp. 

Most nearly allied to G.fulvida, but larger and darker, the 

14* 



204 Prof. F. W. Hutton on the Structure 

primaries redder, the lines dari^er and less strongly undulated, 
the central line straight, the fringe less deeply white-tipped ; 
secondaries with much less white on the fringe : wings below 
darker, the lines darker, the discal line of secondaries carried 
across the wing/ as in G. combinans. Expanse 1 inch 10 
lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

O. fahida {Anomis fulvida of Guende) is a native of Java 
and the Andaraans ; we have also an example labelled 
" North India." Walker confounded a larger Indian species 
with it ; but the latter is scarcely distinguishable from his own 
Gonitis revocans from Australia. 

[To be continued.] 



XXV. — Further Notes on the Structure o/Peripatus nov£e- 
zealandite. By F. W. HuTTON, Professor of Zoology in 
the University of Otago. 

During the last three months I have dissected several more 
specimens of Peripatus novce-zealandicB^ with the advantage 
of Mr. Moseley's paper before me ; and I hasten to communi- 
cate the results, because I wish to correct several errors into 
which I have fallen, and to confirm, as soon as possible, Mr. 
Moseley's statement of the existence of male individuals. 

Integumentary System. — The last joint of the legs consists 
of a short subcylindrical joint, on the upper and outer margin 
of which are three large papillse, and below two large curved 
simple claws. On the fourth and fifth pairs of ambulatory 
legs there is a circular opening in the centre of the inner side 
of the first, or inner, tarsal ring — that is, on the fifth ring from 
the end. I am, however, doubtful whether the tarsi should 
not be considered four-ringed only. 

Muscular System. — My supposed " salivary bags " (see 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1876, xviii. p. 364) are the same as 
Mr. Moseley's " retractor muscles of the head " (see Phil. 
Trans, vol. 164, pi. Ixxii. fig. 1, rm). Mr. Moseley is right in 
calling them muscles ; my mistake arose from believing the 
tracheae on them to be internal instead of external. They are, 
however, the flexor or adductor muscles of the teeth. The 
pairs of teeth are not moved simultaneously. Generally their 
movements are alternate, but often one pair is moved several 
times, while the other is stationary ; there is also a movement 
by which the two teeth of a pair are separated and approxi- 
mated. The two pairs of teeth, when in use, sometimes 
touch each other at the tips ; but they never cross. 



o/Peripatus nov^e-zealandife. 205 

Segmental Organs ? — These are what I previously called 
" salivary vessels." They form a series, on either side, un- 
connected with each other, but running into each leg, with 
the exception of the first three pairs. Each consists of a 
trunk coming out of the leg, which divides into two ; and these 
branches, after several foldings, unite together, thus forming a 
closed loop. They are filled with colourless granulated cells. 
They were regarded by H. Milne-Edwards as nerves passing 
into the legs (Ann. des Sci. Nat. 2' ser. xviii. p. 128*) ; but I 
have carefully dissected some out, and find that they have no 
connexion with the nerve-cord ; and I also feel confident that 
they do not open into the body-cavity. Consequently I do not 
feel sure that they should be considered segmental organs. 

Slime-ducts. — These pass from the oral papillge along the 
back to about the centre of the body ; they then turn forward 
and throw ofi" branches ; they then turn backward again, and 
reach nearly to the posterior end of the body. They are pro- 
bably homologous with the supposed segmental organs. 

Hespiratory System. — I think Mr. Moseley is right in con- 
sidering my "spiral fibres" trachese; but then all resem- 
blance to the trachege of insects vanishes. Professor Ray 
Lankester is probably right in considering that the tracheal 
systems in Peripatus and in insects have been independently 
developed (Quart. Journ. Microsc. Sci., Oct. 1877, p. 439). 

Circulatory System. — I have succeeded in dissecting out 
the dorsal vessel ; it contains a greenish-yellow fluid. Mr. 
Moseley is certainly incorrect in denying the existence of the 
" lateral canals " of Grube. It is satisfactory to me to think 
that I had demonstrated them before I knew that they had 
been previously described. Whether they belong or not to 
the circulatory system may perhaps be considered an open 
question ; but they contain, especially at the anterior end, a 
yellowish-green fluid like that in the dorsal vessel. 

Reproductive System. — By selecting small individuals I 
have succeeded in finding two males. Mr. Moseley 's descrip- 
tion of the male organs is very accurate ; but they lie above 
the alimentary canal, and not below it. With the exception 
of these two specimens, all the rest were what I consider to be 
hermaphrodite. They all had the organs described by me as 
testes ; but in one individual the testis was absent on one ovi- 
duct, but present on the other. In the early spring (September) 
these contained no spermatozoa ; but in November they were 
abundant. During all this time the oviducts were crowded with 

* It is astonishing what a very fiill and accurate knowledge of the 
anatomy of this animal M. Milne-Edwards obtained by the dissection of 
one badly preserved specimen. 



206 Mr. R. Etheridge and Dr. H. A. Nicholson 

embiyoa, which would prevent any spermatozoa finding their 
way up from the vulva. This and the fact that the embryos 
in an oviduct are always (at least in my experience) in dif- 
ferent states of development, convince me that the organs in 
question are testes, and not receptacula seminis, which is also 
contradicted by their cellular structure. The oviduct proceeds 
from the posterior end of the ovary, and not from the anterior 
end as shown in Mr. Moseley's figure. It also lies above the 
intestine, and not below it. 

My observations of the development of this animal are not 
yet sufficiently extended for publication ; but up to the present 
I have seen nothing to make me alter my views or accept those 
of Mr. Moseley. 

Dunedin, Dec. 16, 1877. 



XXVI. — On the ^ewMS Palaeacis, mid the Species occurring in 
British Carboniferous Bocks. By R. EtheridGE, jun., 
F.G.S., and H. Alleyne Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc, &c. 

[Plate XII.] 

1. History of the Genus and Species. 

In 1836 the late Prof. Phillips, F.R.S., described a pecuKar 
and anomalous coral, to which he gave the name of Hydno- 
j)ora ? cyclostoma^ ; but, beyond the few words which form his 
diagnosis, he ofiered no remarks. It is needless to say that 
the coral in question has no affinity with the genus Hydno- 
pora^ a fact which Phillips himself appears in some degree 
to have surmised. Following in the footsteps of Phillips, 
M'Coy, in 1844, described his Astrceopora antiquaf, and 
pointed out its close relationship with Hydnopora ? cychstomaj 
Phill. ; indeed he considered the two might be congeneric, 
although specifically distinct, and he further indicated that 
the name Astrceopora was more appropriate than Hydnopora. 
The same author in 1849, in a paper, " On some new Genera 
and Species of Palseozoic Corals and Foraminifera "J, gave 
Hook Point as the locality of his species. 

Messrs. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, in their magni- 
ficent work ' Polypiers Fossiles des TeiTains Paldozoiques,' 
refer H. ? cyclostoma, PhilL, and Astrceopora antiqua^ M'Coy, 
with some doubt, to their genus Propora §, with the remark 

• Gaol. Yorkshire, ii. p. 202, pi. 2. figs. 9 and 10. 
t Syuop. Garb. Foss. Ireland, p. 191, pi. 26. fig. 9. 
X 'Annals,' 2nd ser. vol. iii. p. 133. § Pp. 224, 225. 



on the Oenus Palasacis. 207 

" ne parait pas en diff^rer " {i. e. the two species). However, 
in their ' Monograph of the British Carboniferous Corals '*, 
all doubt on the subject appears to have left their minds ; for 
they there consider the two as identical, under the one name 
Propora ? cyclostoma. So far as we have been able to ascer- 
tain, no further effort towards the elucidation of these fossils 
was made for some time ; but in 1860 Milne-Edwards de- 
scribed, in the third volume of the ' Histoire Naturelle des 
Coralliaires 'f, a genus established by Jules Haime shortly 
before his death, but never described by him, under the name 
of PalceaciSy containing a single species, P. cuneiformts^, from 
the Carboniferous rocks of Spergen Hill, Indiana. The genus 
is thus described: — " Polypary free but composite, rounded and 
very compressed at its base. Calices disposed, one at the 
summit, and the others in pairs upon the two lateral margins. 
Coenenchyma finely vermicular." It is provisionally assigned 
to the Madreporidas, subfamily Turbinarinse. The chief points 
brought out in the specific description are the cuneiform 
nature of the corallum, the presence of from two to five calices, 
each occupied by thirty or forty fine unequal stri« represent- 
ing the septa, two of which are both described and figured as 
being stronger than the others. 

About the same time Messrs. Meek and Worthen had under 
observation similar fossils, to which, in a paper entitled " De- 
scriptions of new Carboniferous Fossils from Illinois and other 
Western States "§, they applied the name of Sphenopoterium, 
and considered them to be corals allied to Cyathoserisj Edw. 
& H. ; they, however, remark that they differ in having the 
outer wall perforated, and in the absence of distinct septa, as 
well as in the peculiar wedge-like form of the base of the coral- 
lum, which is usually, if not always, free instead of being at- 
tached. In their generic description of Splienopoterium^ Meek 
and Worthen state that the cells are large and inseparable, and 
increase by lateral and interstitial development ; there are no 
tabulae, columella, or well-developed rays ; but the walls are 
merely marked by distinct striae, and pierced by numerous 
pores which appear to terminate in the porous substance of 
the corallum. They describe four species — 8. ohtusum (the 
type), >S'. compressunij 8. enorme, and S. cuneatum. It stands 
to reason, from their remarks and comparison with Cyatho- 
seris, that they considered Sphenopoterium to be a member of 
the Madreporaria Aporosa, family Fungidas. 

* P. 152. t P. 171. 

I Loc. cit. pi. E. 1. f. 2. 

§ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences Philadelphia for 1860, pp. 447, 448. 



208 Mr. R. Etheridge and Dr. H. A. Nicholson 

In 1866 the same authors redescribed * their genus Sjjheno- 
poteriuniy abandoned its Actinozoal affinities, and, upon the 
authority of Prof. A. E. Verrill, referred it to the sponges as 
remotely allied to some of the Jurassic forms. The obscure 
strise seen on the interior of the " cups " of their specimens 
are again mentioned ; but their septal character is abandoned. 
To the already known species they here added a new variety, 
8. enormej var. depressum'f. 

We now arrive at a most important point in the history of 
Palceacis and Sphenopote^-ium. In the same year (1866) Von 
Seebach of Gottingen published, in the ' Nachrichfcen deir 
koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen ' 
for 1866 I, a paper, " Die Zoantharia perforata der palaozo- 
ischen Periode," in which he demonsti-ated, amongst other 
things, the identity of the two genera, and adopted Haime's 
name §. This excellent paper was republished with figures in 
the ' Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft ' for 
1866 ||. Von Seebach considered, from his own researches, 
i\\9iX Palceacis [=■ Sphenopoterium) was a true Zoantharian of 
the section Madreporaria Perforata, thus being in accord with 
Milne-Edwards, but differing from the first opinion of Meek 
and Worthen. Again, he demonstrated the identity of Palce- 
acis cuneiformisj Edw. & H., with P. {Sphenop>oterium) cunea- 
tum, M. & W., and concluded his paper with a diagnosis of all 
the American species, describing two additional ones — P. 
ci/mbtty V. Seebach, and P. umhonafa, v. Seebach ^. The 
latter were figured in the ' Zeitschrift ' for 1866 **. 

Yet another contribution bearing on tliis subject appeared 
in 1866. Herr Ludwig published a very remarkable paper in 
the ' Palseontographica 'f f, entitled "Corallen aus palaolithis- 
chen Formationen," apparently having for its chief object 
the complication of synonymy by the introduction of a cloud 
of unusually long and unnecessary names. He described as 
Ptychochartocyathus laxiis \^ a form which Prof, de Koninck, 
later on, placed as a synonym of Palceacis ci/clostoma, Phill. 
The description appears to bear out this view, although the 
figure, to our minds, is less satisfactory. Ludwig, however, 
noticed a character very well marked in all our Scotch exam- 
ples of Palceacis — the concentrically wrinkled or ridged base ; 
and he further noticed the papilla-like form of the so-called 

* Illinois Geol. Survey Report, vol. ii. p. 145. 

t Loc. cit. p. 146. X Pp. 235-243. § P. 240. 

II Vol. xviii. pp. 304-310, t. 4. 

1[ Nachricliten, pp. 241, 242. ** PI. 4. figa. 3, 4. 

tt Vol. xiv. 1865-66, pp. 133-244. 

X\ p. 331, t. 60. fig. 2, a. 



on the Genus Palseacis. 209 

septal striaB, a feature which will be entered on more fully 
in our own remarks on this genus. 

Another excellent paper on Palceacis was that by Dr. Kunth, 
" Korallen des schlesischen Kohlenkalkes "*. 

Dr. Kunth agreed with Von Seebach as to the identity of 
Palceacis and Sphenopoterium ; but he believed the determina- 
tion of the systematic position to be a matter of some difficulty, 
although he ultimately agrees with Edwards and Von Seebach 
as to its being a member of the Madreporidse, but differs from 
them as to the subfamily to which the genus should be re- 
ferred. He very justly observes that, from the figures given 
by various authors, there appears to be no proper coenenchyma 
in Palceacis, and would place it in the subfamily Eupsammina, 
having its nearest ally in Astroides ; indeed, he adds, its re- 
semblance to A. calycularis, Pallas, is very great, only the 
latter has a columella and more strongly developed septa f. 
By far the most important point brought forward by Kunth 
was the determination of mural pores, visible when the surface 
was worn, with an irregular direction and disposition, and 
corresponding to canals which traverse in every direction the 
substance of the skeleton, giving to it a spongy appearance, 
and placing the various cups in connexion with one another J. 
Dr. Kunth gave a detailed description and figure of Ptyclio- 
chartocyathus laxiis, Ludw., which he considered to be a 
species of Paloiacis, from its general structure, external granu- 
lated surface, basal attachment, and the cup-like openings with 
circular mouths, and separated from one another by shallow 
depressions, &c. The determination of species in Palceacis^ 
Kunth considers to be a difficult matter, from the few striking 
characters presented by the specimens. The external form is 
so open to modification from age, position, and condition of 
life, that little reliance can be placed on this. He confirmed 
von Seebach's union of the two species, P. cuneiformis , Ed. & 
H., and P. cuneata, M. & W., and further expressed his 
opinion that von Seebach's own species, P. cymba and P. 
umbonata, and P. obtusa, M. & W., may, in reality, represent 
only one species §, an opinion in which we quite concur. 

Prof. L. G. de Koninck has devoted much attention to this 
genus ; for in his ' Nouvelles Recherches sur les Animaux 
Fossiles du Terrain Carbonif^re de la Belgique '||, a lengthened 
description is given, accompanied by copious notes on its 
history and structure. The observations of Kunth on the 

• Zeit. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. xxi. pp. 183-220. 

+ Loc. cit. p. 187. X Loc. cit. pp. 185, 186. 

§ Op. cit. p. 188. 

II 1" partie, pp. 154-161 (Bruxelles, 1872, 4to). 



210 Mr. R. Etheridge and Dr. H. A. Nicholson 

structure and position of the pores perforating the substance 
of Palceacis are confirmed. A point upon which Dr. Kunth 
appears to have had some doubt, the presence or absence of a 
columella, is also set at rest by De Koninck, who proved the 
entire absence of this structure. Milne-Edwards, in his de- 
scription of P. cuneiformisj mentions the presence of two large 
septa, which Prof, de Koninck does not appear to have met 
with in the specimens he had examined. He also agreed with 
Dr. Kunth that, contrary to the opinion of Haime, there is no 
independent coenenchyma in Palceacis ; and, in consequence, the 
genus was removed to the Eupsamminas, after Kunth ; but, 
unlike the latter, De Koninck would not place it near Astroides, 
but probably between Ccenopsammia and Stereojpsammia^ the 
latter, like Palceacisy being devoid of a columella. 

Including in this genus the two forms mentioned in the 
first two paragraphs of this paper [Hydnopora'^ cyclostoma, 
Phill., and Astroeopora antiqua^ M'Coy), Prof, de Koninck 
would reduce the number of known species to four, viz. : — 

1. Palceacis cuneiformis, J. Haime. 
= Sphenopoterium cuneatum, M. & W. 

2. Palceacis {^Sphenopoterium) compressa^ M. & W. 

3. Palceacis {Sphenopoterium) obtusa, M. & W. 

= Palceacis cymba, v. Seebacli ; Palceacis icmbonata, v. Seebach. 

4. Palceacis cyclostoma, Phillips. 

= Sphenopoterium enorme,M. & W .; Ptychochai'tocyatlms laxus, Ludw. j 
Asir^opora antiqua, M'Coy. 

In 1873 one of the present writers (R. E., jun.) published 
a few remarks on the occurrence of this genus in Scotch Car- 
boniferous beds, in the ' Memoirs of the Geol. Survey of 
Scotland ' *. It was shown that specimens of Palceacis cyclo- 
stoma, Phill., from Mid-Lothian usually possessed from five to 
nine cups ; an entire absence of columella was remarked upon, 
and some other minor points were noticed f. 

One of the latest notices of Palceacis, of which we have any 
knowledge, is a short account of the discovery of the typical 
species of the genus in Britain — P. cuneiformis^ J. Haime 
(=P. {8ph.) cuneata, M. & W.) — by Mr. Spencer G. Perce- 

* Explanation to sheet 23 (1-iuch, Scotland), p. 96. 

t In these remarks I published what I then believed to be a new 
variety of Palceacis comjjressa, M. & W., under the name of irregularis. 
I now find I was much mistaken in the aifinities of the bodies so called, 
and am desirous of withdrawing the name from palseontological science. — 
E. E. 



on the Genus Palseacis. 211 

val*, who obtained examples at Combe Down, near Bristol, 
from the Encrinital limestone, forming the upper bed of the 
Lower-Limestone shales. 

Lastly, Prof. Ferdinand Roemer, in the explanation accom- 
panying pi. xxix. of his 'Lethsea Palgeozoica' (the text of which 
is not yet published), has a few remarks upon this subject. 
He expresses the opinion that Palceacis, E. & H., though 
identical with Sphenopoterium, Meek and Worthen, is not 
generically so with the group to which Hydnopora cyclostoma^ 
Phill., belongs. The only difference that he mentions is that 
the corallum of the true Palceacis is regular and free, with a 
pointed base, while that of the second group is irregular and 
is attached to foreign bodies. As this second group cannot, 
of course, be referred to Hydnopora, Dr. Roemer retains for it 
the ungainly appellation of Ptychochartocyathus^ Ludwig. 
We cannot, however, regard the evidence at present brought 
forward as sufficient to generically separate the two groups 
above referred to ; for, omitting many weighty reasons for our 
opinion, to be more fully entered into further on, we would 
simply point out that Meek and Worthen were themselves in 
doubt whether some, at least, of their forms were free or at- 
tached. Dr. Roemer also mentions that a comparison of 
authentic specimens of both forms has satisfied him that 
Palceacis Za^ca, Kunth, is the same organism as Hydnopora 
cyclostoma^ Phill. 

Having given a history of this peculiar genus and its 
species as briefly as possible, it may not be out of place to 
recapitulate in a few words the order in which the various 
points in its structure were made out. Beyond briefly descri- 
bing their respective forms, Phillips and M'Coy can be said to 
have contributed little towards the structural details of this 
interesting group, although Phillips certainly figured dis- 
tinctly the vermicular nature of the external portions of the 
skeleton. We find that Milne-Edwards noticed the cuneiform 
appearance of the type species (a character which, by-the- 
by, is more or less traceable throughout almost all the species), 
the presence of what he considered to be numerous septa (of 
which two were thought to have been larger and more pro- 
nounced than the others), the supposed vermicular ccenenchyma, 
and the free habit. By Edwards Palceacis was referred to the 
Madreporaria Perforata. Almost simultaneously Meek and 
Worthen published their SpJienopoterium ; and, bearing in 
mind their comparison of it with Gyaihoseris^ they must have 
concluded it be one of the Madreporaria Aporosa. They were 

* Geol. Mag. dec. 2, vol. iii. p. 267, 



212 Mr. R. Etheridge and Dr. H. A. Nicliolson 

the first to notice the important character of the perforated 
walls ; and they also remarked on the supposed septal system, 
with the absence of tabulee and a columella. The next step, 
the double demonstration by Von Seebach of the identity 
of Palceacis and Bjphenojioterium^ on the one hand, and of the 
species P. cuneiformis^ J. Haime, with 8. cuneatum^ M. & W., 
was a most important one. He also confirmed Milne-Ed- 
wards's reference of Palceacis to the Madreporaria Perforata. 
Admitting the Ptychochartocyathus laxus^ Ludwig, to be a 
Palceacis^ we find that Ludwig improved our knowledge of 
the supposed septal characters, and noted the presence of what 
he termed a basal concentric epitheca. Dr. Kunth confirmed 
the presence of the mural pores originally noticed by Meek 
and Worthen, and further showed that these pores led into a 
series of canals traversing the substance of the corallum, and 
placing the cups in connexion with one another. He likewise 
disputed the presence of any true coenenchyma as supposed by 
Milne-Edwards, and left the matter of a columella an open 
question. Lastly, Prof, de Koninck confirmed Kunth's re- 
marks on the mural pores of Palceacis^ determined the absence 
of a columella, and supported Kunth's reference to the Eu- 
psammidge. We also believe De Koninck was the first to refer 
Hydnopora'i cyclostoma and Astrceopora antiqua to the genua 
Palceacis. 

2. Description of^ and Observations on, the Genus. 

Genus Pal^acis (J. Haime), M.-Edw. 1860. 

Bydnopora, PhiUips, Geol. York. 1836, ii. p. 202. 

Astrceopora, M'Coj, Synop. Carb. Foss. Ireland, 1844, p. 191 ; Morris, 

Cat. Brit. Foss. 1854, 2ud ed. p. 47. 
Palceacis (J. Haime), M.-Edw. Hist. Nat. Corall. 1860, iii. p._171. 
Sphenopoterium, Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 

(for October 1860), p. 447 ; lid. Illinois Geol. Surv. Kep. 1866, ii. 

p. 145. 
Palceacis, Von Seebach, Nachr. d. k. Gesell. d. Wissensch. zu Gott. 1866, 

p. 240 ; id. Zeitsch. d. deutschen geol. Gesell. xviii. 1866, p. 308. 
? Ptychochartocyathus, Ludwig, Paleeontographica, 1866, xiv. pp. 189, 

231. 
Palceacis, Kunth, Zeitsch. d. deutschen geol. Gesell. 1869, xxi. pp. 186, 

187 ; I)e Koninck, Nouv. Eech. Anim. Foss. Terr. Oarb. Belgique, 

1872, pt. 1, p. 154. 

Oen. char. Skeleton more or less cuneate or irregularly 
turbinate in form, depressed, or with age becoming irregular, 
adhering, on the one hand, by the whole or part only of a 
concentrically wrinkled base, or, on the other, by a small 
peduncular extension of the skeleton. Cups variable in num- 
ber, one to twelve and perhaps more, cell-like, opening up- 



071 the Genus Palaeacis. 213 

wards or laterally and sometimes obliquely, with circular 
or oval crenulate margins, not all on the same plane, sepa- 
rated from one another by shallow depressions. Base, in 
depressed forms, flat or somewhat concave ; in cuneate or tur- 
binate examples it is laterally compressed or prolonged down- 
wards in the form of a small peduncle, usually concentrically 
ridged. Parts of the skeleton between the cups, and also the 
lower surface more or less, are covered with vermicular ridges 
or granules, and are often pierced by rounded or elongated 
pores of considerable size. Interior of the cups marked with 
a variable number of granules arranged in a more or less 
radiating manner, and pierced near their upper portions by 
similar apertures to those just mentioned. Structure, to the 
naked eye, when the skeleton is fractured, spongy. Micro- 
structure, consists of a calcareous tissue, pierced, more or less 
extensively, by a system of microscopic tubuli, in parts com- 
pact, in others more or less vesicular or trabecular. 

Obs. With the aid afforded by a particularly fine collection 
of what appears to be the commonest British species, P. cyclo- 
stoina, PhilL, in conjunction with the characters of the other 
published species, we have been able to extend the generic 
diagnosis of Palceacis. So far as our researches have at 
present gone, we are acquainted with at least three well- 
defined species o^ Palceacis in British Carboniferous rocks ; and 
it is upon the structure of these that our knowledge of the 
genus is based. 

The surface in all the species of Palceacis seems to be more 
or less granular, or covered with vermicular striae or ridges ; 
but the precise appearance varies in different cases. In P. 
cuneiformis (PL XII. figs. 9-12) the surface is covered with 
numerous irregularly-curved, subparallel, sometimes bifur- 
cating, vermicular ridges, placed about their own diameter 
apart. We have not satisfied ourselves that any large pores 
can be detected on the surface of examples of this species ; but 
the summits of the ridges above alluded to appear to carry 
lines of small pores, now filled with calcite, and the entire 
substance of the skeleton has a fine spongy aspect. This ap- 
pearance, however, is more noticeable in slightly rubbed spe- 
cimens. In P. ohtusa the surface-characters are the same as 
in P. cuneiformis. In P. cyclostoma the surface is covered 
with innumerable granules, small tubercles, and vermicular 
ridges, which do not show the same subparallel arrangement 
as in the two preceding species, but are disposed irregularly, 
or sometimes with a tendency to form lines. In many cases 
the surface of the skeleton between the cups is distinctly per- 
forated with large rounded or oval pores, leading into the 



214 Mr. R. Etheridge and Dr. H. A. Nicholson 

interior ; and similar pores are very often found in a very well- 
marked form on the lower surface of the colony. Though 
abundant on the margins of the cups, the pores seldom extend 
into the interior of these depressions ; and the bottom of the 
cups does not appear to be ever perforated by pores. In 
other specimens, again, the surface appears to be destitute of 
the large pores just mentioned ; but in all alike the general 
surface, as examined under the microscope, shows a spongy 
and minutely porous aspect, though it is difficult to determine 
positively whether this be really due to the presence of ex- 
tremely fine pores or not. 

In the interior of the cups the tubercles and vermicular 
ridges often have a distinctly linear arrangement, radiating 
from the centre of the cup, and form the so-called " septa." 
They certainly present a close resemblance to the septal striae 
of many forms of Gystiphyllum^ and a less close one to those 
of Protarcea ; and if Palceacis is a true coral, they doubtless 
represent the septa. On the other hand they present an 
equally close resemblance to the surface-tubercles and vermi- 
cular ridges (also often in parts radiate) of various Stromato- 
poroids ; so that little weight can be attached to this as de- 
ciding their true nature. In his figure of P. cuneiformis 
(Hist. Nat. des Cor. vol. iii. pi. E 1. f. 2h) Milne-Edwards 
figures a principal pair of septa, placed opposite each other, as 
a longitudinal ridge dividing each cup into two halves. In his 
description of the species, however, he speaks of these septa 
with much doubt and hesitation, stating that the cups "parais- 
sent avoir ete partagds par deux grands cloisons, dont on ne 
voit plus que des traces fort obscures dans la direction de I'axe 
vertical du polypier." Prof, de Koninck appears to have 
regarded the pair of principal septa with much suspicion ; and 
we can safely assert that they are not present in any example 
examined by us. The tubercles or papillge forming these so- 
called septal striae vary in size in the same individual, and 
even in the same line or septum. In all cases those occu- 
pying the floor of the cups are irregularly scattered, and do 
not appear to be arranged in any definite manner. 

Micro-structure. — The intimate structiu'e of Palceacis does 
not hitherto appear to have been investigated by means of 
thin sections prepared for the microscope. Our researches in 
this direction have been confined chiefly to P. cyclostoma 
(PI. XH. figs. 7, 8), of which our material was most abun- 
dant, though we have also made a few sections of P. cunei- 
formis (PI. XII. fig. 14). In the former of these two species 
the minute structure of the organism, as displayed by this 
method of examination, is as follows (PI. XII. figs. 7, 8) : — 



on the Genus Palseacis. 215 

Whether the sections are taken across the cups in a direction 
perpendicular to their long axes, or corresponding with these, 
the appearances presented are the same. In both cases the 
calcareous tissue of the skeleton appears to be penetrated by 
minute microscopic tubuli, which run at right angles to the 
cups, and which are much more largely developed and more 
conspicuous in some parts than in others. The layer which 
forms the immediate floor and walls of the cups is not lacunar 
or trabecular, but is traversed by innumerable minute tubules 
(PI. XII. figs. 7, 8, b), which are directed outwards in a series 
of parallel bands, the tubules of each band having a more or 
less penniform disposition with regard to a central tubule. 
These tubules doubtless open on the floor of the cup ; but their 
apertures are too minute to admit of recognition in any of our 
specimens. Apart from the layer which lines the cups, the 
rest of the skeleton is made up of a more or less open cellular 
or trabecular tissue (PI. XII. figs. 7, 8, c) , consisting of irre- 
gular lacuna of various sizes, separated by calcareous parti- 
tions, but doubtless more or less freely communicating with 
one another. By the opening of these lacunjB upon the 
general surface are formed the large pores which are so com- 
monly seen on the lower aspect of these fossils, and less often 
upon the upper surface as well. The calcareous partitions 
between these lacunjB are likewise minutely tubulated, though 
this structure is not nearly so well developed or so conspicuous 
as in the floor of the calices ; and the tubules run directly 
across the partitions and thus place contiguous lacunee in 
communication. Of P. cuneiformis our knowledge is not so 
complete ; but the structure seems to be essentially the same 
(PI. XII. fig. 14). The calcareous tissue of the skeleton is 
traversed by microscopic tubuli ; but the general texture is 
more compact, and the trabecular tissue is but slightly deve- 
loped, such lacunge as are present being remote and separated 
by a considerable thickness of compact tissue. In some cases, 
also, there proceed from the depressions between the surface- 
ridges larger canals, which become gradually smaller as they 
pass inwai-ds, and which do not appear to actually reach the 
interior of the cups. 

Affinities. — Palceacis^ as we have mentioned, has been gene- 
rally regarded as a "perforate" coral; but the microscopic 
structure would completely bear out Prof. Verrill's view that 
it cannot be referred to the Actinozoa. It seems, on the con- 
trary, to exhibit a minute structure which would place it 
somewhere amongst the Protozoa (including the sponges in 
this subkingdom), and which certainly cannot be paralleled 
among any of the true corals. The general reticulated struc- 



216 Mr. 11. Etlicriilge ami Dr. IT. A. Nicholson 

tare of the greater part of the skeleton, and the vermicular 
granulation and ridging of the surface, give Palceacts a striking 
resemblance to some forms of the Stromatoporoids ; but none 
of the latter has as yet been shown to possess a minutely 
tubulated skeleton, and the cu})s of the former are likewise a 
unique feature in the genus. On the other hand, the micro- 
scopic tubulation of the skeleton reminds one to some extent 
of that of some of the Foraminifera. 

If we were to take ]\Ieek and Worthen's view, founded 
upon that of Prof. Verrill, that Pahvacis is a sponge, we 
should have to refer the genus to the Calcispongi^e, since the 
original constitution of the skeleton is undoubtedly calcareous. 
Its general structure, however, docs not resemble that of any- 
known calcareous sponge, so far as we are aware ; and the 
tubulation of the skeleton also removes it from the Spongida. 
In fact, if we regard Pahvacis as referrable to the Calci- 
spongia^, it must, like the Stromatoporoids, be placed in a 
special division, since its skeleton is unquestionably reticulate 
and vermiculate, and no traces of spicules can be detected in 
it. Indeed, were it not for the minute tubulation of the ske- 
leton and the presence of the cups, it would be difficult to lay 
down any decisive characters by which Pahvacis could be 
separated from the Stromatoporoidea. 

Our friend Mr. H. B. Brady, F.R.S., has been kind enough 
to examine a few specimens and sections of this interesting 
organism ; and in his opinion there is nothing of a Foramini- 
feral character to be deduced from them; but, on the contrary, 
he appears to regard Pahvacis as more probably allied to the 
Sponges. For our own part, whatever may be the ultimate 
result of a further investigation of this genus, we can simply 
state that we do not believe in its coral-affinities, and that 
there are many facts which tend to bear out the later view 
entertained by Meek and Worthen, suggested to them by Prof. 
A. E. Verrill, that Pahvacis { = Sphenopoterium) is a sponge. 
The opinion of Mr. H. B. Brady is so decided that we are 
forced to abandon any thought of Foraminiferal affinities ; 
and we can, for our own part, only say that, if not a sponge, 
we do not know where it can be placed. So many eminent 
authorities have regarded Pala'acis as a coral, that we desire to 
treat their opinions with all due respect ; but the total absence 
of any trace of a columella, or septa (for the so-called " septal 
strife " can in no way be regarded as such), and the peculiar 
micro-structure compel us to dissent from this view of the 
case. We conceive that our opinion is borne out by the evi- 
dent discrepancies Avhich exist in the descriptions and remarks 
of previous writers on the subject, and also in the want of 



on the Genus Palseacis. 217 

unanimity amongst them as to the systematic position of 
Palceacis amongst corals. There is, however, one fact we 
must not omit to refer to. It Avas jDointed out by Meek and 
Worthen that increase took place by interstitial development ; 
we find that a kind of fission occurs in some of the cups of 
P. cyclostoma (PI. XII. fig. 16) ; and we are inclined to 
regard this as one of the few characters present indicating any 
. alliance with the Actinozoa. 

We distinctly wish it to be understood, in closing this part 
of our remarks, that we by no means finally assert Palceacis 
to be a sponge, although we consider it has a much closer 
alliance with the latter than with the Actinozoa, so far as 
the researches we have at present undertaken enable us to 
judge. 

With regard to the name this organism should bear. Von 
Seebach, Kunth, and De Koninck have all adopted Palceacis 
in preference to Sphenoijoterium, on account, as they state, of 
the previous publication of the former. The third volume of 
the ' Hist. Nat. des Coralliaires ' bears date of publication 
1860, whilst that portion of the ' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. of 
Philad.' containing the description of Sphenopoterium bears at 
the foot of certain of the pages the date "October, 1860." If 
this represents the date of publication, as we believe it does, 
Meek and Worthen's name may have as good a claim for 
recognition as Haime's ; and if the Protozoal character of the 
fossils known by these names come ultimately to be adopted, 
it will become a question if we should not rather make use of 
Sphenopoterium as the generic term. 

Addendum. — The genus Gonopterium, Winchell, is evidently 
very closely allied to Palceacis. We are, however, not sufii- 
ciently acquainted with it to enter into details on the subject. 
Conopterium was described by Prof. A. Winchell, in the Aca- 
demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ('Proceedings,' 1865, 
p. 110), as a coral, and its resemblance to Sphenopoteriumy 
M. & W., pointed out. 

3. Description of the British Species, 

Palceacis cuneiformis (J. Hairae), M.-Edw. 

Palceacis cuneiformis (J. Haime), M.-Edw. Hist. Nat. Corall. 1860, iii. 

p. 171, Atlas, pi. E 1. f. 3. 
Sphenojjoterium ctmeatmn, Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philad. for Oct. 1860, p. 448 ; id. Illinois Geol. Surv. Kep. 1866, ii. 

p. 202, pi. 19. f. 1, a~d. 
Palceacis cuneifwrnis, Von Seebach, Nachr. k. Gesellsch. Wissengch.zu 

Gott.forl866,p.241 ; id. Zeitschr. deutsch. g-eol. Gesellsch. 1866,xviii. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 15 



218 Mr. R. Etheridffe aiid Dr. H. A. Nicholson 



"iD 



p. 308; De Koninck, Nouv. Recli. Anim. Foss. Terr. Garb. Belgique, 
1872, 1« pt. p. 157 (without description) ; Perceval, Geol. Mag; 1870, 
dec. 2, iii. p. 267, (cut) p. 268. 

■ Spec. char. Colony compressed, cuneate, longer than wide 
in the adult condition, moi-e nearly pentagonal or hexagonal 
in the young state. Base more compressed than any other 
portion of the colony, sharp, but with rounded angles. Cups 
from two to five, but varying in number according to age, 
deep, conical, situated on the lateral margins and apex of the 
colony, and dii-ected obliquely outwards and upwards ; those 
at the apex are round or oval, those on the lateral margins 
are more or less elliptical. The granular ridges on the inte- 
rior walls of the cups are slight and numerous. Perforations 
of the walls numerous and distinct. Surface marked with a 
multitude of fine, flexuous, broken, c]oselyarranged,bifurcating 
vermicular ridges, directed obliquely inwards and downwards 
from the cup-mouths towards the base, where they become 
subparallel, and, from the presence of exceedingly minute and 
microscopic granules, assume a crenulate appearance. 

Obs. For the discovery of this, the type species of the 
genus, in British Carboniferous rocks, we are indebted to Mr. 
Spencer G. Perceval, of Henbury, near Bristol. We have 
examined examples of this species in which the cups have 
been as few as two and as many as five, with intermediate 
forms bearing three and four respectively. When in its 
youngest state the colony is decidedly of a more or less trian- 
gular outline (PI. XII. figs. 11, 12), gradually assuming a 
pentagonal and perhaps hexagonal form ; and it is not until 
there are at least four cups present that the typical elongated 
cuneate form is assumed. Both Milne-Edwards and Messrs. 
Meek and Worthen mention the presence of two large " septa," 
the former author stating them to occur in addition to the 
regular series of between thirty and forty smaller "septa." 
The examples of this species with which we have worked 
have not been in such a state of preservation as to permit us 
to distinguish tliese above the remains of the other granular 
ridges. P. cuyieiformis may be easily distinguished by its 
elongate compressed form (PI. XII. figs. 9, 10), the lateral 
position of some of the cups, and its peculiar vermicular crenu- 
late surface. From P. cyclostoma it may be at once known 
by the entire absence of the very characteristic basal con- 
centric ridges of that species ; and we are quite in accord 
with Von Seebach, Kunth, and De Koninck as to the identity 
of the P. cuneiformis of Haime and Edwards with the 
Sphenopoterium cuneatum, Meek and Worthen. 

Under the observations on the genus we have given some 



on the Qenus Palceacis. 219 

remarks on the minute external and internal structure, which 
need not be repeated here. 

Locality and Horizon. Combe Hill, Henbuiy, near Bristol, 
in the upper beds of the Lower-Limestone Shales. Coed'y'gof 
quarry, near Wenvoe, by CarditF, S. Wales. 

Collector. Mr. Spencer G. Perceval : his Cabinet. 

Other Localities. Spergen Hill, Indiana, U.S., in the St.- 
Louis Group of the Lower Carboniferous {Milne-Edwards^ 
and Meek and Worthen). 

Palceacis obtusa. Meek and Worthen. 

Sphenojmterium obiusnm, Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philad. for October, 1860, p. 448; id. Illinois Geol. Surv. Rep. 1866, 

ii. p. 2.'}3, pi. 17. f. 2, a-e. 
?8phenopotermm co^npressum, Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Philad. for October, 1860, p. 448 ; id. Illinois Geol. Surv. Rep. 

1866, ii. p. 234, pi. 17. f. 1, a-c. 
Palceacis obtusa, P. cymba, et P. imibonafa, Von Seebach, Nachr. k. 

Gesell. Wissensch. zu Gott. 1866, pp. 241, 242. 
Palaacis obtusa, Vou Seebach, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. 1866, 

xviii. p. 308. 
Palceacis cymba, Von Seebach, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. 1866, 

p. 309, pi. 4. f. 4, a, b. 
Palceacis umbonata, Von Seebach, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. 

1866, p. 309, pi. 4. f. 3, a, b. 
Palceacis obtusa, Kiuith, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. 1869, xxi. 

p. 188; De Koninck, 1872, Nouv. Rech. Anim. Foss. Terr. Garb. Bel- 

gique, V' pt. p. 158. 

Spec. char. Colony " short, abruptly cuneate below, wider 
than high ; basal edge slightly sinuous in the middle ; flat- 
tened sides expanding rapidly upwards from the obtuse basal 
carina. Cells from four to about nine, comparatively large, 
and of moderate depth, conical, and, where not more than four 
or tive, rounded and separated by thick interstices, but be- 
coming angular, with thinner intervening partitions, where 
more crowded. Surface-striai fine, irregular, and showing a 
tendency to converge towards the middle of the base, anasto- 
mosing in such a manner as to form a kind of shagreen-like 
style of ornament." 

Ohs. This species appears to have been first indicated as a 
British one by Prof, de Koninck *; and as we have only seen 
immature and indifferent examples, or what we believe to be 
such, in Mr. Perceval's cabinet, we have given Messrs. Meek 
and Worthen's diagnosis in preference to drawing up one of 
our own, which, at the best, could not but have been imper- 
fect. In placing the P. cymba and P. umbonata of Von 
Seebach as synonyms of P. obtusa, we are in perfect accord 

* Nouvelles Rech. V pt. p. 158. 

1.5'- 



220 Mr. E. Etheridge a7id Dr. H. A. Nicholson 

with Prof. deKoninck; but we think that one of these names, 
P. cymba, may with all propriety be retained as a good varie- 
tal designation for the young conditions of the species, one 
state of which, we believe, Von Seebach's figure to repre- 
sent*, whilst we shall describe a still more juvenile form imme- 
diately. Amongst the specimens forwarded to us by Mi-. 
Perceval are three examples, two of which have evidently 
undergone a good deal of lateral compression ; otherwise the 
form, of one of them at least, we believe, would have approxi- 
mated to the figure of P. cymha, Von Seebach — 'transversely 
elongated in relation to the breadth, sharp below, and bearing 
well-marked terminal cells or cups, as in the figure above 
quoted. This specimen bears traces of four cups ; but the 
other two individuals, it is quite clear, only had two, and, 
according to our view, represent the youngest state of the 
species. One of these little specimens (PI. XII. fig. 15) has 
the cuneate form below, the slightly sinuous basal edge, the 
flattened sides expanding upwards, and the transversely elon- 
gated calices seen in some of the figured examples of P. ohtusa, 
var. cymha. That it would be very unlikely to develop into 
such a form as P. cuneiformis is apparent when compared 
with the figures we give of the young state of that species 
(PI. XII. figs. 11, 12) ; whilst quite the same remark 
applies to the young condition of P. cyclostoma, with its in- 
variably expanded base of attachment. Assuming, therefore, 
that our figure and Von Seebach's figs. 4, 4 a f? represent 
various stages in the growth of P. obtusa, it is for such forma 
that we would retain the varietal name P. cymba^ whilst 
Meek and Worthen's figures t, and Von Seebach's figures of 
his P. umbonata §, will represent the mature colony, so far as 
it is at present known to us. 

Palceacis obtusa may at once be distinguished from the other 
species of the genus : — from P. cuneiformis, H. & Edw., by 
its wide cuneate form, obtuse, basal carina, with the sides at 
first flattened, then gradually expanding upwards, and the 
extended upper surface; from P. cyclostoma, Phill. (which 
it much more closely resembles in the number of its cups in 
the adult state, and the extended upper surface of the colony), 
by the presence of the obtuse basal carina, more cuneate 
form, and total absence of the broad base of attachment of 
Phillips's species. 

In the structure of its surface-ornamentation P. obtusa 
approximates to P. cuneiformis. 

• Zeitschrift, loc. cit. f. 4, 4 a. t Loc. cit. 

\ Illinois Geol. Rep. ii. pi. 17. f. 2, a-e. 
§ Zeitschrift, loc. cit. f. 3, a-c. 



on the Genus Palasacis. 221 

Loc. and Horizon. Combe Hill, Henbury, near Bristol, in 
the upper beds of the Lower-Limestone Shales [8. G. Perce- 
val) ; Hook Point, Wexford, in the Momitain Limestone [De 
Koninck). 

Other Localities. Nauvoo, Illinois, in the Keokuk division 
of the Subcarboniferous {Meek and Worthen) ; Dallas city, in 
Carboniferous Limestone {Von Seebach). 

Palceacis cychstoma^ Phillips. 

Hydnopora? ajclostoma, Phill. Geol. Yorksh. 1836, ii. p. 20-?, pi. 2. 

f. 9, 10. 
Propora? cyclostoma, Edwards and Haime, Poljp. Fosa. Terr. Pal. 

1851, p. 225; id. Mon. Brit. Carb. Corals, 1852, p. 152. 
Sphe)iopoterium enonne, Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philad. for October, 1860, p. 448 ; id. Illinois Geol. Surv. Rep. 

1866, ii. p. 146, pi. 14. f. 1, a, b. 
Sphenopoterium etiorme, var. depressmn, Meek and Worthen, Illinois 

Geol. Surv. Rep. 1866, ii. p. 146, pi. 14. f. 2,a, b. 
Ptyehochartocyathus laxus, Ludwig, Palpeontogi-aphica, 1866, xiv. pp. 189, 

231, pi. 47. f. 14, pi. 69. f. 2, a. 
Palceacis enormis, Von Seebach, Nachr. k. Gesellsch. Wissensch. zu Gott. 

for 1866, p. 243 ; id. Zeitschr, deutsch, geol. Gesellsch. 1866, xviii. 

p. 309. 
Pnlaacis laxa, Kunth, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. 1869, xxi. 

p. 185, pi. 2. f. 2. 
Palceacis compressa, De Koninck, Nouv. Rech. Anim. Foss. Terr. Carb. 

Belgique, 1872, 1« pt. p. 158, pi. 15. f. 7 (non Meek and Worthen). 
Palceacis cyclostoma, De Koninck, Nouv. Rech. Anim. Foss. Terr. Carb. 

Belgique, 1872, 1« pt. p. 159, pi. 15. f. 8; R. Etheridge, Jan., Mem. 

Geol. Surv. Scotl. no. 82. p. 97. 

Spec. char. Colony simple or composite, subglobose or 
obtusely subturbinate, usually depressed, composed of a large 
number of cells (from one to twelve observed), assuming a 
bi-, trilobate, quadrangular, or multilobate character, usually 
more or less developed on the same plane, but occasionally 
becoming superimposed, attached to foreign bodies ; and in one 
well-marked variety they become cuneiform and irregular, or 
elongate and partly free. Base of attachment large and trun- 
cate, flat or variously grooved according to the body to which 
the colony is fixed, and raised into well-marked, thick, 
concentric wrinkles or ridges. Cups open, contracting but 
little, moderately deep, ornamented internally with a large 
number of small pseudo-ridges, consisting of closely-set micro- 
scopic granules or prickles, which in some cases increase 
towards the margin of the calice by bifurcation ; cup-margins 
circular or oval, with usually well-developed elevated free 
edges, separated from one another by intervening depressions 
of variable breadth ; cup-floors broad, covered with numerous 
irregularly disposed prickles similar to those forming the so- 
called septal ridges. External surface ornamented with finely 



222 Mr. R. Etheridge and Dr. H. A. Nicholson 

vermicular anastomosing ridges, devoid of any defined direc- 
tion, and equally developed on all parts of the corallum, in- 
cluding the concentrically wrinkled base. Calicular fission 
well displayed in many instances. 

Ohs. We have examined upwards of two hundred examples 
of the species, all in a fine state of preservation, and therefore 
feel ourselves in a position to pass a few remarks upon it with 
more than ordinary confidence. First, as to the number of 
cups. Prof, de Koninck has figured * a single cup of P. 
cyclostoma adhering to a Zaphrentis ; but, strange to say, out 
of the large number of specimens we have looked over, 
we have only found a few examples of this. The simple 
double cup or cell is, perhaps, with the triple form (PL XIL 
figs. 2, 16), the commonest aspect in which this organism is 
presented to us. We have also observed numerous indivi- 
duals in which the cups are four in number (PI. XII. fig. 1), 
the condition in which P. cyclostoma was figured by Messrs. 
Meek and W^orthen under the name of SiJhenopotenum enor- 
me f. Five, again, is not an uncommon number amongst the 
specimens to which we have had access, corresponding with 
the figure given by Dr. Kunth | as Palceacis [Ptychocharto- 
cyathus) laxa, Ludwig. The type example figured by Phil- 
lips § possessed six cells, a number to be found on several 
specimens in the Scotch Survey collection. There are, again, 
others with seven and nine (PI. XII. fig. 17), whilst the 
largest number we have had an opportunity of observing has 
been tw elve ; but we see no reason why this number should 
not be considerably exceeded. 

The second point to which we have to draw attention is the 
varied form of the colony. In the simplest state but one in 
which P. cyclostoma has comeunderour observation it is bilobed; 
^. e. there are two cells united, as it were, almost base to base, 
their mouths then looking in contrary directions to one 
another, and set somewhat obliquely to an imaginary vertical 
axis. By the addition of another cup a trilobed appearance 
is assumed (PI. XII. figs. 2 and 16), whilst a further addition 
of another gives a more or less quadrangular or sometimes 
irregular outline to the colony. It not unfrequently happens 
that after a number of cells have been developed (say six or 
seven), one, perhaps the first formed, assumes a more or less 
central position, and is somewhat elevated above the others, 
and round it the latter appear to radiate, more, perhaps, 

* Nouvelleb Reclierclies, pi. 15. f. 8. 

t Illinois Report, ii. pi. 14. f. 2 b. 

X Zeitscln-. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. xxi. pi. 2. f. 2 a. 

§ Geol. Yorksh. ii. pi. 2. f. 9. 



on the Genus Palseacis. 223 

from the previously mentioned lobate character than any thing 
else, but still with a definite, although rough, kind of radiation. 
The frequent occurrence of this feature will therefore render 
the figure given* by Herr Ludwig of his Ptychochartocyathus 
laxus not quite so hypothetical as Prof, de Koninck ap- 
pears to consider f. Another peculiarity which occurs is 
the piling or growth of the cells one upon another. This is 
not of very frequent occurrence, and probably took place when 
the space for the growth of the colony was restricted (PI. XII. 
fig. 17). One of the most characteristic points connected with 
P. cyclostoma is the broad base (PI. XII. fig. 3) and concen- 
tric basal swellings, attachment taking place either by a large 
or small portion of the former. Usually the colony is fixed 
by the whole area of the base to some foreign body large 
enough for its entire expansion ; but, on the other hand, when 
adhering to an object of lesser dimensions than itself, a groove 
or concavity is formed in the base, and the free portion, which 
would otherwise, as in the first instance, have been also ad- 
hering is covered with concentric folds or swellings. We have 
observed P. cyclostoma attached to the following bodies : — 
Crinoid stems ; various species of Zaphrentis ; Euomphalus 
carhonarius, Sow.; Bellerophon Urii, Flem.; Dentalium ingens, 
De Kon. ; Productus longispinus^ Sow.; Productus punctatus, 
Martin ; Chonetes ; and fragments of shelly matter in too un- 
satisfactory a condition to be determined. 

Under certain conditions the colony of P. cyclostoma ap- 
pears to have taken upon itself an irregularity of growth 
which, had the individuals so distinguished been found by 
themselves, would have gone a long way towards the esta- 
blishment of a new species (Pl.XII. figs. 18-20) ; but between 
the typical P. cyclostoma, with its expanded base and more 
or less depressed lobate form, on the one hand, and the variety 
with elongated and laterally spreading corallites on the other, 
there are so many gradations and intermediate forms, that we 
cannot see the justice of more than a mere varietal separation. 
Our eminent friend and colleague. Prof. L. G. de Koninck, 
has described and figured % such a form under the name 
of Palceacis compressa. Meek & Worthen ; but with the advan- 
tage derived from the examination of a large number of speci- 
mens, as previously stated, we feel convinced that the form 
figured by our friend is identical with the variety of P. cyclo- 
stoma now under discussion. Certainly we have not had an 
opportunity of examining the specimen upon which Prof, de 

* Palseontographica, xiv. t. 69. fig,^. 2, 2 a. 
t Nouvelles Reclierches, 1'' pt. p. 160. 
X Ibid. p. 158, pi. lo. f. 7. 



224 Mr. E. Etheridge and Dr. H. A. Nicholson 

Koninck fonnded his determination, and would therefore speak 
with all due deference of his opinion ; but his figure is very 
clear and evidently accurately drawn, and on this we decidedly 
found our opinion that P.compressa, De Kon., is not P. {Sphe- 
nopoterium) compressa, M. & W. : the former does not 
possess the characters assigned to the latter by its describers, 
but does distinctly exhibit those indicative of the form which 
with us, although at first sight departing from the typical 
condition of P. c^chstoma, is nevertheless insensibly united 
with it by intermediate forms. We would illustrate our view 
of this matter as follows : — Starting with the typical form of 
P. cydostoma, we there see the depressed expanded colony, 
composed of three or seven cells, as the case may be, the latter 
more or less all on one plane, and the flattened base. The 
next step is to an example adhering to a Dentcdium, where 
we at once notice a want of the same amount of symmetry 
possessed by the two former examples, and an extension or 
lengthening of the cells, giving to the general appearance a 
certain amount of irregularity, but existing at the same time 
in conjunction with a similar external ornamentation, basal 
swellings, arrangement of the striae, and presence of the 
granulated floors to the cells. Advancing a step still further, 
we have presented to us an individual possessing all the cha- 
racters just described, but with a very much lessened point of 
attachment — again exemplified in a more forcible manner by 
the next step in the series, where the cells are longer and more 
widely separated from one another ; whilst in fig. 20 we have 
two perched upon the summit of a peduncular base of attach- 
ment, still showing ti'aces of the concentric ridges ; lastly, as 
the most complete development of the sporting from the origi- 
nal type, we would quote Prof, de Koninck 's figure itself, 
where the irregularity of growth and elongation of the cups 
is carried to the greatest extent. In concluding this portion 
of our remarks we would simply state that we regard this 
irregularity of growth not as of specific value where all the 
other more important functional characters remain constant, 
but as simply a varietal character depending upon disadvan- 
tageous conditions of growth and habitat — an opinion founded 
not upon the examination of one or two specimens, but on that 
of a very large series. We propose to indicate this varietal 
state under the name of Palceacis cyclostoma^ PhilL, var. 
Koninckii, Eth. & Nich. 

The method of reproduction is particularly well exemplified 
in this species. We give an illustration of the calicular 
method of gemmation as usually met with (PL XII. fig. 16). 



on the Genus Palgeacis. 225 

Both Professors Morris* and De Koninckf have placed 
M'Coy's Astrceopora antiqua as a synonym of this species. As 
M'Goy's figure presents only a general and not an intimate re- 
semblance to P. cyclostoma we refrain from following these 
authors in this, until we have had an opportunity of examin- 
ing the original specimen in the " Griffith Collection " in the 
custody of the Royal Dublin Society. If distinct from P. 
cyclostoma^ it will constitute a fourth species ; the two, how- 
ever, are probably identical. A. antiqua Avas found at Hook 
Point, Ireland. The internal structure of P. cyclostoma has 
already been described. 

Localities arid Horizon. Cousland and Chalkieside old 
quarries, near Dalkeith, in shale above the No. 1 limestone ; 
in shale above the limestones displayed at Whitebaulks old 
quarry, near Linlithgow, Charlestown and Sunny bank quarries, 
near Inverkeithing, Linn, Duloch, Southfod, Blacklaw, and 
Cowdens quarries, near Dunfermline, Woodend quarry, near 
Fordel, Lathalmond quarry, near Roscobie, Gleniston quarry, 
near Lochgelly : all the foregoing localities, except the first 
three, are in Fife. East Barns quarry, near Dunbar, Hadding- 
tonshire, and Carlops quarry, at Carlops, Peeblesshire, in shale 
above the limestones ; very common at most of these localities, 
and, as a rule, in a fine state of preservation ; the horizon 
throughout is that of the Lower Carboniferous Limestone group. 
P. cyclostoma has also been obtained at Carluke, Brockley, 
and Auchenskeoch, in the west of Scotland, on a similar 
horizon, and in the Upper Limestone group at Gair, Lanark- 
shire J. 

Other Localities. Northumberland {Phillips)^ typical lo- 
cality; Tournai, Belgium {De Koninck) ; Rothmaltersdorf, 
near Glotz, in Silesia {Ludwiy), as Ptychochartocyathus laxus ; 
Hausdorf (A'wn^^), as Palceacis laxa; Rockford in Indiana, 
Clarksville in Missouri, Saltlick Point in Illinois, in the 
Goniatite-hed of the Kinderhook group of the Subcarbonife- 
rous series {Meek and Worthen), as Sphenopoterium enormCj 
and its var. depressum. 

4. Sum^mary of the Species o/'Palaeacis. 

We believe that in all probability it will be possible to 
reduce the species of Palceacis to three only, viz. : — 

* Cat. Bvit. Foss. 2nd ed. 1854, p. 47. 
t Nouv. Reclierches, 1" pt. p. 159. 

X " Cat. Carb. Foss. W. of Scotland," Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, iii. 
App. p. 16. 



226 



On the Genus Palseacis. 



1. P. cimeAformis, 
J. Haime. 



2. P. ohtusa, M. «& 
W. 



3. 



P. cyclostoma, 
Phill. 



Sphetiopoterium cuneatum, i Compressed, cuneate, longer 
M. & W. than wide ; base shai-p ; cells 

arranged alternately on each 
lateral edge, and directed 
obliquely outwards and up- 
wards. 



= S. compressu7n, M. & W.* ; 
P. cymha, v. Seebach ; P. 
umbonata, v. Seebach. 



= Propora? ct/chstoma, 'Ed. 
& H. ; S^ih. enornie, M. & 
W. ; Sp7i. enortne, var. de- 
pi-essum, M. &W. ; Ptycho. 
laxus, Ludw. ; Palceacis 
enormts, v. Seeb. ; P. laxa, 
Kunth ; P. cyclostoma, De 
Kon. ; P. compi'essa, De 
Kon. ; P. cyclostoma, var. 
Kwiinckii, E. & N. 



Abruptly cuneate below, wider 
than high ; basal edge 
slightly sinuous in the mid- 
dle and carina-like, from 
which the sides expand ra- 
pidly upwards, &c. 

Attached to foreign bodies by 
a broad base, concentrically 
wrinkled. Colony depress- 
ed and lobed, of many cups, 
or elongated and laterally 
prolonged. Cups with a 
number of microscopical 
granules arranged in verti- 
cal rows ; floors of the cups 

I ornamented with granules. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XH. 

Fig. 1. A small specimen of Palceacis cyclostoma attached to the stem of 
a Crinoid, of the natm-al size. 

Fig. 2. Another specimen of the same, viewed from above, of the natural 
size. 

Fig. 3. Under surface of a large specimen of the same, in which the 
peduncle of attachment has been a narrow one, of the natural 
size. 

Fig. 4. Portion of the surface between two of the cups in a specimen 
devoid of large pores, magnified. 

Fiy. 5, Portion of the surface between two of the cups in a specimen in 
which arge pores are present, magnified. 

Fig. 6. Portion of the imder smface, showing pores and elongated aper- 
tures, magnified. 

Fig. 7. Thin section of a colony of P. cyclostoma, attached to the shell of 
a Gasteropod, and enlarged eight diameters, showing the dark 
matrix filling the cups (a), the trabecular tissue {c), and the 
compact tubulated tissue (6) which forms the floors of the 
cups. 

Fig. 8, A portion of the same, enlarged twenty-five diameters, showing 
the matrix filling the cup (a), the compact tubulated tissue in 
the floor of the cup (h), and the denser but still tubulated 
tissue boimding the lacuufe of the deeper vesicular tissue (c). 

Fig. 9. A specimen of P. ctmeiformis, viewed from the front, of the 
natural size. 

Fig. 10. The same viewed sideways, showing the cups. 

* Meek and Worthen appear to have thought it very probable that 
this might be only a variety of their S. obtusum. 



Mr. F. Moore on new Species of Lejaidoptera. 227 

Figs. 11 & 12. Different views of a small specimen of tlie same, in which 

only two cups are present, of the natural size. 
Fig. 13. Portion of the surface of P. cuneifornds, enlarged. 
Fig. 14. A portion of a thin section of P. cuneifonnis, maguified, showing 

lacunffi and tuhuli. 
Fig. lo. Two views of P. ohtusa, showing the arrangement of the cups ; 

Combe Hill, near Bristol (S. Ct. Perceval).; 
Fig. 16. A specimen of P. cyclostoma, viewed from above, showing the 

mode of fission in one of the cups. Fife. 
Fig, 17. Another variety of the same, viewed from above, showing the 

piling of the cups one upon another. Fife. 
Fig. 18. A variety of the same, attached to a Crinoid stem, in which the 

cells are assuming a more irregular form. Fife. 
Fig. 19. Another condition of P. cyclostoma (var. Koninckii, nobis), in 

which the cells are still more elongated and partially free. 
Fig. 20. An extreme variety of the same (P. cyclostoma^ var. Koninckii, 

nobis), in which the colony consists of two cells or cups 

mounted upon a peduncular extension of the base of the 

colony. 



XXVII. — Descriptions of new Species of Lepidoptera collected 
hy the late Br. F. Stoliczka during the Indian- Government 
Mission to YarJcund in 1873. By F. MoORE, F.Z.S. 

SatyrinsB. 

Hipparchia lehana. 

Allied to H. haldiva from Upper Kunawur. Upperside 
paler in colour, the discal transverse luteous band is broader 
on both wings, and its inner border in the male is inwardly 
oblique. Both sexes above and beneath are without the small 
ocellus on the band above the anal angle. The underside is 
also very much paler, and the transverse sinuous lines wider 
apart. 

Exp. c? 2, ? 2| inches. 

Hab. Leh, Kharbu (13,000 feet), Ladak. 

Nymphalinge. 
Vanessa ladakensis. 

Most nearly allied to V. rizana from Cheeni. Differing in 
being somewhat smaller, less angled below the apex of fore 
wing and at the middle of the hind v/ing ; the black markings 
on the upperside are much less prominent, the black oblique 
bands on the fore wing merging into the red, and appearing 
somewhat confluent ; the outer transverse discal yellow baud 
is also broader. Other markings similar. On the underside 



228 Mr. F. Moore on new Species of Lepidoptera. 

the interspaces between the markings on the fore wing are 
very much paler. 

Exp. 1-| inch. 

Hah. Gogra, Changchenmo (15,000 feet), Ladak ; Karatagh 
lake, on snow (16,890 ft.), Yarknnd. 

Pierinae. 
Baltia, n. g. 

Fore wing very short, costa considerably arched from the 
base, apex and posterior angle rounded, exterior margin ob- 
lique ; costal vein short ; subcostal vein arched to end of the 
cell, five-branched, first and second branches arising at equal 
distance apart before the end of the cell and terminating on 
the costa before the apex ; third branch bent near its base 
but beyond the discocellulars, at its middle, and immediately 
before its termination before the apex ; the fourth and fifth 
branches, and the radial branch starting respectively below 
from each of these angles, the fourth branch being very short, 
and in the female the radial starts from end of the cell ; cell 
broad ; discocellulars of nearly equal length, oblique, slightly 
bent inward ; median vein three-branched, at equal distances ; 
submedian curved : hind wing long, somewhat oval, slightly 
broader than fore wing; apex and exterior margin very convex, 
abdominal margin long ; costal vein short ; subcostal three- 
branched ; cell broad ; discocellulars oblique, upper shortest ; 
median three-branched ; submedian nearly straight. Body 
small ; abdomen short ; thorax and front of head clothed with 
long lax hairs. Palpi very long, slender, densely hairy be- 
neath. Legs short, femora fringed beneath with long lax 
hairs ; antennae short, club large and spatulate. 

Allied to Mesapia [M. peloria, Hewits. Exot. Butt. i. 
Pieridce, pi. 2. f. 15). 

Baltia Shawn. 

Mesapia Shawii, Bates, in Henderson's * Lahore to Yarkund,' p. 305 
(1873), 2 . 

Male. Upperside white ; base of both wings densely black- 
speckled ; fore wing with the costal edge ochreous and slightly 
black-speckled ; a large black triangular oblique spot at end 
of the cell ; a short transverse subapical black band, and a 
marginal row of black decreasing triangular spots : hind wing 
sparsely and minutely speckled with dark grey, the speckles 
dense across the disk, and there forming a curved sinuous 
indistinct band, a slight black streak at end of the cell. Body 
black. Palpi ochreous above, fringed with black beneath. 



Mr. F. Moore o/j new Species of Leiyidoptera. 229 

Antennaj black, stem white-ringed. Abdomen beneath yel- 
low. Legs black above, white beneath. Underside — fore 
wing with markings as above ; costa and exterior margin 
tinged Avith ochreous : hind wing black-speckled, densely at 
base, and also forming a narrow curved discal sinuous band ; 
a slight black streak at end of the cell. 

Female differs in having the markings above less black, the 
subapical band on the fore wing being continued across the 
wing on both upper and underside. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. Aktagh (15,590 feet), Yarkund {StoUczka) j Chang- 
Lung Pass, 18,000 feet {Shaw). 

CoUas Stoliczkana. 

Male. Upperside pale chrome-yellow, base of costal and 
abdominal borders greenish yellow ; base of wings speckled 
with blackish brown ; both wings with a broad yellowish- 
brown marginal band ; a slight narrow dusky lunular streak 
at end of the cell in the fore wing. Underside — fore wing 
pale yellow, costal border and exterior margin greenish yellow ; 
a dusky black-speckled lunular spot at end of the cell, and a 
discal row of indistinct speckled spots : hind wing greenish yel- 
low, with darker green speckles ; an ochreous -brown patch at 
end of the cell enclosing a white irregular mark and dot ; a 
discal series of dusky-brown dentate spots. Antennas and 
legs reddish. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. North of Changla (17,000 feet), Ladak. 

Nearest to C. eogene^ Felder, Nov. Reise, Lep. pi. 27. f. 7. 
Differs in being smaller, and having the median portion and 
cilia pale chrome-yellow (instead of orange), the discocellular 
mark of fore wing less prominent and lunular (instead of oval) ; 
the broad marginal band is yellow-brown (instead of dark 
brown), the costa and head being also of the same yellow as 
the other part. On the underside the discocellular mark is 
also lunular and not pale-centred. 

Lycaeninae. 

Polyommatus yarkundensis. 

Allied to P. icarus. 

Upperside dark blue, anterior and exterior borders dusky 
brown ; fore wing with an indistinct streak at end of the cell ; 
hind wing with a marginal row of rather indistinct ochreous- 
bordered black spots. Cilia cinereous white. Underside 
ochreous grey : fore wing with a white-centred black spot in 



230 Mr. F. Moore on new Species of Lejndoptera. 

middle of the cell, another below it, one at end of the cell, and 
a curved discal series of seven spots ; a marginal row of in- 
distinct spots bordered above by a dentate line with pale 
ochreous interspaces : hind wing with three white-circled 
black subbasal spots and a curved discal series of seven spots ; 
a marginal row of prominent spots bordered above by dentate 
line with ochreous interspaces. 

Exp. 1| inch. 

Hah. Yarkund (3923 feet). 

Polyommatuis Icasligharensis. 

Allied to P. seniiargus. 

Male. Upperside pale blue, with narrow black exterior 
marginal line ; costal edge white ; cilia white, with dark 
inner border. Underside slightly pearly grey ; base of the 
wings pale metallic green : fore wing with a whitish-bordered 
black spot in middle of the cell, and a curved discal series of 
five spots ; a very indistinct spot at end of the cell, and a less 
distinct marginal series of spots : hind wing with three sub- 
basal and a curved discal series of six small Avhite-circled black 
spots, an indistinct spot at end of the cell, and a marginal row 
of spots with slightly ochreous upper dentate line. 

Exp. 1| inch. 

Hcd>. langihissar (4320 feet), Yarkund. 

Polyommatus leJianus. 

Allied to P. pheretes. 

Male. Upperside violet-blue, somewhat brownish blue at 
the margins ; cilia white. Underside leaden grey, palest at 
the apex and on hind wing ; fore wing with a white-bordered 
black spot at end of the cell, and a transverse discal oblique 
series of five spots : hind wing with a large triangular greyish- 
white spot at end of the cell, and a series of eight small round 
spots recurving from near base of costa across the disk to anal 
angle. 

Exp. y^^ inch. 

Hob. Leh (11,538 feet), Ladak. 

BombycidsB. 

Arctia orientalis. 

Similar to A. caja^ differing above on tlie fore wing in the 
general form of the bands, these being entire and transversely 
continuous (not broken longitudinally as in caja) ; on the hind 
wing the spot at the end of the cell is absent ; this wing also 
has a yellowish-white narrow marginal line above, and brown 



Mr. F. Moore on new Species of Lepidoptera. 231 

cilia both above and beneath ; tlie dorsal black band is pre- 
sent on each segment, and longer. 

Exp. 2j inches. 

HoJ). Sonamurg, Cashmere [Stoliczka). 

Euproctis hargalika. 

Male and female. Fore wing cream j white, veins greyish 
white ; a large brown-speckled ochreous discocellular spot and 
a row of submarginal spots : hind wing white. Thorax 
creamy white; abdomen of male golden yellow, of female 
grey with slight black rings and large glossy golden-yellow 
tuft. Shaft of antennae white, pectinations brown. Underside 
glossy white ; costa of fore wing in male broadly suffused with 
brown. 

Exp. c? lA, ? Ittt inch. 

Hub. Kargalik (4440 feet), Yarkund. 

Euproctis lactea. 

Uniform cream-white, without markings. Abdominal tuft 
pale yellow. Underside paler cream-white, costal border 
of fore wing ochreous brown. Palpi ochreous brown. An- 
tennae pale ochreous brown, shaft white. Fore fibife with 
ochreous-brown tuft. 

Exp. 1| inch. 

Hah. Kargalik (4440 feet), Yarkund. 

Oxicesta marmorea. 

Male. Upperside greyish brown : fore wing with a pale 
yellowish irregular streak along middle of the cell to costa near 
the apex, a small spot beyond the cell, and an indistinct pale 
streak below the cell ; apical margin of costa and outer mar- 
gin pale testaceous, alternated with a short black streak which 
extends through the cilia : hind wing uniform pale greyish 
brown, slightly yellowish at the base. Body and legs greyish 
brown. Antennee brown. Underside uniform greyish brown. 
Cilia of fore wing with black streak. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

H<A. Sasstekke, Yarkund. 

Differs from 0. geograpMca in being longer in the wings, 
of different colour, and without the two transverse zigzag 
white bands on the fore wing. 

Ptilophora Tcashghara. 

Male. Pale grey ; fore wing irrorated with brown scales, 
crossed by three indistinctly defined narrow zigzag brown 



232 Mr. F. Moore on new Species of Lepidoptera. 

bands, which ares lightly dentate on the veins ; cilia alter- 
nate pale grey and brown : hind wing pale grey, sparsely 
sprinkled with brown scales. Thorax greyish brown. Ab- 
domen brown, three anterior segments with dorsal row of 
black tubercular scales, tip also black. Antennse yellowish 
testaceous. Undei'side grey, sparsely brown-speckled, long 
pubescence of abdominal border brown and black. Legs pale 
brown. 

Exp. ly^Tj-inch. 

Hah. Yangihissar (4320 feet), Kashghar. 

Noctuidae. 

Acronycta hargalika. 

Female. Fore wing pale silvery brownish grey ; reniform 
and orbicular marks whitish, contiguous, brown- bordered ; a 
longitudinal streak from the base, a contiguous subbasal trans- 
verse recurved line, a discal transverse lunular line crossed 
near posterior angle by a short streak ; some short costal marks 
and a streak on cilia between each vein brown: hind wing 
glossy greyish white, outer borders and veins pale greyish 
brown. Thorax and abdomen dark grey. Antennas grey. 
Underside greyish white : fore wing with greyish-brown costal 
streaks and hind margin ; hind wing with brown basal costal 
streak and discocellular spot. Palpi brown at sides. Legs 
grey, femora tipped with black ; tibiae longitudinally streaked 
and tarsi banded with black. 

Exp. 1^(, inch. 

Hah. Kargalik (4440 feet), Yarkund. 

Most nearly allied to A. tridens^ but differs in being darker ; 
the markings are somewhat similar ; but the basal longitudinal 
streak is shorter, thus giving a wider interspace between the 
two transverse lines. 

Hydrcecia tihetana. 

Male. Pale reddish testaceous ; fore wing crossed by two 
pale brown narrow lines with pale inner border, the first line 
subbasal and outwardly oblique, the other discal ; a submar- 
ginal row of blackish dots, and pale marginal line ; orbicular 
and reniform spots indistinct, but defined by a brownish 
border : hind wing and abdomen paler. Underside palest on 
the middle of the wings ; discal line on both wings, and a 
discocellular spot slightly perceptible on the hind wing. An- 
tennae, palpi, and fore legs reddish testaceous. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. Leh, Ladak. 



Mr. F. Moore 0^ new Species of Lepidoptera. 233 

Mamestra canescens. 

Male. Fore wing brownish grey ; orbicular and reniforni 
marks greyish white, with narrow black border; a short 
double black streak below the base of the cell, and a quadrate 
mark below the orbicular spot ; an indistinct pale submarginal 
irregular fascia, and black marginal lunular line with whitish 
inner border : hind wing pale greyish brown. Thorax and 
abdomen greyish brown ; antennae brown. Underside glossy 
pale greyish brown, both wings with indistinct short trans- 
verse discocellular streak. 

Exp. If inch. 

Hob. Kargalik (4440 feet), Yarkund. 

Agrotis tibetana. 

Upperside — fore wing greyish brown, with indistinct dusky 
transverse subbasal double sinuous line, discal dentate lines, 
and pale outer-bordered, wavy, narrow, submarginal band ; 
speckled orbicular and quadrate reniform mark; cilia with 
narrow white marginal line : hind wing brownish white ; 
veins and outer margin brown ; cilia white. Antennas and 
body greyish brown, tip of abdomen yellowish. Underside — 
fore wing greyish white, dusky brown basally along the costa 
and hind margin, and speckled on outer margin: hind wing 
whitish ; an indistinct dusky spot at end of the cell, a spot 
mesially on each vein, and narrow lunular marginal line. 
Legs greyish brown, femora and tibi^ streaked and tarsi 
banded with black. 

Allied to A. ripce. 

Exp. If inch. 

Hah. Leh, Ladak. 

Spcelotis undulans. 

Male and female. Fore wing grey-brown, irrorated with 
darker scales ; crossed with subbasal, antemedian and post- 
median double pale-bordered lunular brown bands, each ending 
on the costa in a darker spot ; a submarginal pale outer- 
bordered brown wavy fascia, and small black marginal 
lunules : hind wing glossy greyish white, with brownish 
tinged borders, brown veins, and marginal lunular line. An- 
tennae and palpi greyish brown. Underside glossy gi'eyish 
white ; tibise streaked and tarsi banded with black. 

Allied to S. pyrophila. 

Exp. 1-f-^ inch. 

Hah. Ak Masjid, S.E. of Chiklik, Yarkund, 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 16 



234 Mr. F. Moore on new Species of Lepidojytera. 

Toeniocampa cMklika. 

Male. Upperside grey : fore wing densely brown-speckled ; 
cilia with a brown-speckled line ; orbicular and reniform 
spots pale ; an indistinct transverse siibbasal and discal sinu- 
ous pale-bordered line : hind wing minutely brown-speckled, 
and with a pale brown cilial line. Underside paler, both 
wings uniformly speckled, and wath a very indistinct sinuous 
discal band. Antennee blackish, shaft grey. Body, palpi, and 
legs brown-speckled. 

Exp. If inch. 

Hah. S.E. of Chiklik, Yarkund. 

Hadena Stoliczlcana. 

Male. Fore wing pale greyish brown, crossed by three in- 
distinct, narrow, brownish, zigzag double lines ; orbicular spot 
pale ; reniform mark very indistinct ; two black spots linearly 
disposed below the apex ; a double, narrow, marginal, blackish 
lunular line ; some short streaks on the costa : hind wing with 
the veins and a broad marginal band fuliginous brown. Cilia 
white. Body pale greyish brown. Antennse brown. Un- 
derside greyish white ; both wings crossed by a distinct brown 
curved discal band ; fore wing with a discocellular brown 
lunule, and hind wing with a spot ; a marginal lunular dotted 
line. Legs grey-brown, banded with black. 

Exp. 1| inch. 

Hob. Kufelang (14,810 feet), Yarkund. 

Heliothis liyhlceo'ides. 

Upperside — fore wing grey, minutely brown-speckled ; a 
slightly apparent brown streak at end of the cell, and a pale 
submarginal zigzag line : hind wing brownish white, with a 
broad greyish-black median transverse band, which is conflu- 
ent with a curved discocellular black streak ; a large oval black 
spot on middle of outer margin, abdominal border fringed with 
brown. Cilia white. Body grey, whitish beneath. Legs 
greyish white and brown-speckled. Underside greyish 
white : fore wing with a dusky black, broad, transverse apical 
band, and an outwardly oblique median band : hind wing with 
a dusky black dentate streak at end of the cell ; a slight median 
band and oval marginal spot. 

Exp. If inch. 

Hah. Chiklik (14,480 feet), Yarkund. 



Mr. F. Moore on new Species of Lepidoptera. 235 

Pyralidse. 

Pyrausta cuprealis. 

Upperside dark cupreous brown : hind wing with a broad 
median discal yellow band. Underside paler, basal two thirds 
of both wings yellow, with brown-speckled subbasal patch. 
Antennse black. Body beneath cupreous black, speckled with 
yellow. Palpi yellow beneath. Legs yellow, with cupreous 
speckles. 

Exp. f inch. 

Hah. Gaganghir (near Sonamurg), Cashmere. 

Eudorea granitalis. 

Upperside — fore wing pale brown, crossed by several irre- 
gular wavy grey- bordered black lines ; cilia grey alternated 
with black : hind wing greyish white, traversed by numerous 
short, brown strise, somewhat regularly disposed between the 
veins, the wing being suffused with brown along external 
margin. Cilia grey, with dusky line. Body grey, speckled 
with brown. Palpi brown at apex, greyish at base. Legs 
grey, speckled with black. Underside as above, markings 
paler. 

Exp. -fa inch. 

Hah. S.E. of Chiklik, Yarkund. 

Eudorea trans ver satis . 

Male. Upperside — fore wing grey, speckled with brown ; 
crossed by an oblique subbasal and a recurved discal black- 
speckled band ; exterior margin black-spotted ; some black 
speckles at end of the cell : hind wing pale brown, with darker 
marginal border. Cilia grey, with brown border. Body 
grey-brown and black-speckled. Palpi speckled with black 
and white above. Antennee dark brown. Underside pale 
ochreous grey. Legs speckled grey and black, fore and 
middle legs with grey bands. 

Female paler, the bands across fore wing somewhat broader, 
those on the hind wing more distinct. 

Exp. -f-(j inch. 

Hab. Ighizyar (5600 feet), Yangihissar (4320 feet), Yar- 
kund. 

Greometridae. 

Gnophos Stoliczharia. 

Upperside pale ochreous grey, minutely brown-speckled, 
forming more or less numerous short transverse strise ; both 
wings with an indistinct oval spot at end of the cell ; fore wing 
with a subbasal and discal, and hind wing with a discal series 

16* 



236 Mr. F. Moore ow new Sj^ecies of LefidojAera. 

of dentate points, and marginal lunnlar dotted line. Cilia 
white. Underside paler; speckles sparsely apparent ; cell-spot 
less distinct. 

Exp. If inch. 

Hob. Ak Masjid (8870 feet), Yarkund. 

Thera hashghara. 

Upperside pale brownish cinereous : fore wing crossed by 
three equidistant pale-bordered blackish lines, the basal nearly 
straight, tlie second slightly waved, the outer irregularly un- 
dulated, each darkest at the costal end ; the interspaces be- 
tween the two outer lines darker cinereous brown ; a slight 
short sinuous spot at apex, an indistinct paler transverse un- 
dulating line on outer margin, ana a distinct darker narrow 
marginal line. Underside paler, transverse lines very indi- 
stinctly visible. Legs dusky above. Antennae brownish. 

Exp. If inch. 

Hab. Chiklik (14,480 feet), Yarkund. 

CrambidsB. 

Homoeosoma venosella. 

Upperside — fore wing pale greyish ochreous, minutely 
brown-speckled, sparsely disposed along the veins, and 
having a transverse pale discal indented line and an indistinct 
space at end of the cell ; hind wing cinereous white, with 
pale brown marginal line. Cilia white. Body and palpi 
above greyish ochreous, paler beneath. Underside whitish 
cinereous. 

Exp. ~ inch. 

Hab. Ak Masjid (8870 feet), Yarkund. 

Myelois griseella. 

Upperside cinereous grey ; fore wing densely irrorated with 
brown, crossed by two median, undulating, very indistinct 
speckled lines ; an indistinct streak at end of the cell ; both 
wings with an outer marginal narrow lunular brown line : 
hind wing whitish, with a very pale cinereous-brown margi- 
nal and an indistinct narrow subraarginal band. Cilia 
whitish, with a narrow darker marginal line. Underside 
paler cinereous. Head and thorax brownish. Abdomen 
cinereous brown. 

Exp. 1-i- inch. 

Hal. S.E. of Chiklik, Yarkund. 

Myelois undulosella. 
Male and female. Upperside ochreous grey j fore wing 



On a neto Species of Land-Plananan. 237 

speckled with brown, crossed by two pale-bordered, median, 
oblique, undulating, blackish lines, both of which are sinuous 
at the costal end, and enclosing a dark pale-centred streak at 
end of the cell ; middle of hind margin and the outer border 
grej, the latter with an indistinct pale sinuous line slightly 
black-speckled ; cilia whitish, alternated with two dark mar- 
ginal lines : hind wing pale brownish cinereous externally j 
cilia white, alternated with one dark marginal line, and a 
dark patch at the middle. Body ochreous grey. Underside 
pale cinereous. 

Exp. If inch. 

Hah. Ak Masjid (8870 feet), Ak Talla (7342 feet), Yarkund. 

Tortricidae. 
Conchylis StoliczTcana. 

ITpperside — fore wing white, with three transverse, out- 
wardly oblique, ochreous-brown bands, two inwardly oblique 
discal bands, and a spot at end of the cell ; a brown-speckled 
marginal band : hind wing cinereous white, with narrow 
brown marginal band. Body white, speckled with black, 
and with white segmental bands. Legs white. Palpi white, 
speckled with brown. Underside cinereous white j outer 
bands on fore wing indistinctly visible. 

Exp. finch. 

Hob. S.E. of Chiklik, Yarkund. 

Tineidae. 

Dejpressaria stigmella. 

Fore wing pale brownish ochreous, greyish along the apical 
portion of the costa, interspersed with a few dusky speckles ; 
a dusky grey short straight streak at end of the cell; a few 
speckles on outer margin: hind wing pale ochreous white. 
Underside paler. Legs pale ochreous. 

Exp. yy- inch. 

Hob. Yangihissar (4320 feet) , Kashgar. 

Nearest allied to the European D. suhpropinquella. 



XXVIII. — Description of a new Species of Lamd- Planar ian 
from the Hothouses at Kew Gardens. By H. N. Moseley, 
F.E.S. 

From time to time interesting worms and other invertebrates 
are found living in the various hothouses at Kew Gardens. 



238 On a new Species of Land-Planar ian. 

These are, by the direction of Sir Joseph Hooker, carefully 
preserved, and are sent to various naturalists for examination. 
The gardeners take an interest in the matter, and take care to 
bring the specimens in good condition to Mr. Thiselton 
Dyer. 

I received a short time since from Mr. Dyer a specimen of 
a living Land-Planarian of the genus Bijpalmm^ which was 
thus found in one of the hothouses at Kew. A similar 
worm was discovered in the same house a year or two ago, 
and one also on a former occasion, and it seems probable that 
the species is established and breeds in the house. 

The present specimen when it reached me was in a dying 
condition, having evidently suffered from exposure to cold. 
A sketch of it, however, was made by Mr. Ray Lankester 
(who received it from Mr. Dyer) whilst it was in a healthy and 
lively condition ; and assisted by this sketch I give here a 
description of the species, which appears to be new. It is 
remarkable in the genus for its great length, which surpasses, 
so far as I know, that of all other species of Bijyalium. Un- 
fortunately it is quite uncertain from what region it may have 
come, since the house in which it was found contains plants 
from various parts of the world. It will be remembered that 
Mecznikow's Rhynchodemus [Geodesmus) hilineatus, the ana- 
tomy of which was described by that author in the Bull. Acad. 
St. Petersburg, 1865, vol. ix. p. 433, was found in a hothouse in 
the Botanic Gardens of Giessen, and was probably introduced, 
like the present species, with foreign plants. It has not been 
met with since. I have given an account of the structure of 
Land-Planarians of the genera. Btpalimn an^ Rhynchodemus in 
a paper " On the Anatomy and Histology of the Land-Plana- 
rians of Ceylon," published in the Phil. Trans, for 1874, 
p. 105, and some details of the structure of members of other 
genera of the family Geoplanida3, and a list of all the known 
species of Land-Planarians, in a further paper, "On the Struc- 
ture of several Forms of Land-Planarians, &c.," published in 
the Quart. Journ. Microsc. Sci. vol. xvii. new ser. 1877, 
p. 273. 

Bipalium kewetise, sp. n. 

Body slightly rounded above, flat beneath, slightly nar- 
rower just behind the head, tapering very gradually poste- 
riorly to terminate in a long and slender hinder extremity • 
with a narrow but well-marked ambulacral line. Lunate 
head of moderate size, about twice as broad as the part of the 
body immediately behind it. 

General colour of the body light ochrc-yellow above ; 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 239 

beneath very pale, almost white. Five dark violet stripes, 
a mesial and two pairs of lateral, extending along the entire 
length of the dorsal surface. The mesial stripe narrow and 
linear, the succeeding pair broad and band-like, and the 
outermost pair again linear. The outermost pair placed at a 
short distance from the lateral margin of the upper surface, 
and the band- like pair at half the distance between these and 
the central stripe. Just behind the head the two lateral 
bands on either side fuse together, and form a pair of broad 
dark patches. 

Faint and narrow violet stripes mark the margin of the 
ambulacral line on the under surface of the body. 

Length of the single specimen 9 inches ; extreme breadth 
of the body \ inch, of the head -g- inch. 

Exeter College, Oxford, 
Feb. 18, 1878. 



XXIX. — Studies on the Hydroida. By C. Mereschkowsky. 
[Plates XIII., XIV. & XV.] 

I. Morphological Considerations. 

The human mind has not the power of retaining in its 
memory the representations of all the concrete objects which 
are presented to its five senses ; for the number of these objects 
and of facts is too immense for its faculties, which are still so 
imperfectly developed. But, at the same time, the mind de- 
sires to be in possession of as many facts as possible ; hence 
the tendency to generalization and the double character of 
every science : on the one hand, we have concrete facts 
without any bond between them, without any idea, serving 
only as raw material ; on the other, generalizations, more or 
less abstract ideas. Not only every science, but even every 
branch of each science, every group of events or facts, may 
therefore have its philosophy — that is to say, its generaliza- 
tions, its ideas, its laws which govern the facts. 

The usefulness of these laws or generalizations, even in the 
case of small groups of events, cannot be doubted ; in reality 
it is often only by taking advantage of them that a thinker can 
arrive at generalizations of a higher degree, without the neces- 
sity of busying himself in the midst of thousands of little facts 
and minute details. 

In the following pages I shall speak of a group of 
facts which may be observed among the Hydromedusfe, 



240 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 



and which may be generalized into a single idea, a single 
law of metamerism {Metamerengesetz) or oi articulation. This 
law may be formulated as follows : — The Hydroid may he 
composed of two or several metameres^ similar or not : each 
metamere in its turn is composed of several antimeres. 

Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically a Hydroid belonging to 
what I call the articulate type ; it will be seen that it con- 
sists of three very distinct metameres, each of which is in 
its turn composed of four antimeres*. 

This law governs a considerable number of forms among 
the Hydromedusse ; we may recognize it in the species be- 
longing to various genera — for example, in Stauridium^ Coryne, 

Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. 




Syncoryne^ Millepora^ Cladonema, Tuhularia, Cordylophora 
Gemmariaj &c. ; but all the cases in which we remark the arti- 
culate type among the Hydromedus^e belong exclusively to 
the order of naked Hydroids (Athecata). There is not a 
single Hydroid belonging to the order Thecaphora which 

* According to M. E. Hackel we should have to call such a type 
^[forma staurasfoma cfiplopola articulafa,'" 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 241 

has the least normal tendency to the production of meta- 
meres*. 

The number of metameres is very variable in different genera 
and species. We know several Hydroids (as, for example, 
Cladonema radiatum) which have only two metameres, usually, 
in this case, very distinct and well marked. Up to the pre- 
sent time we do not know a single Hydroid which has three 
distinct metameres ; but we know one with four very 
clearly developed ; this is Stauridiuni 'productum^ which I 
have found in the White Sea. After it come the forms 
which have more than four metameres ; but in these cases they 
are not very distinct, and their number is no longer constant, 
but varies with the age and development of the individual. 
At the same time, this variation in the number of metameres 
takes place within certain limits ; for there are species in which 
the metameres never attain the great number met with in 
other species. 

Among the forms which are very rich in metameres I can 
cite several, but especially Coryne pusilla and Gemmaria 
implexo^ in which we may see a very great quantity of meta- 
meres. It is true that in such cases it is impossible to fix 
clearly the boundaries of two metameres, and that it is often 
impossible to decide whether two tentacles belong to one or 
to two different metameres ; but nevertheless it is easy to see 
that we have to do with the same articulate type as in Stau- 
ridiuin and Cladonema ; only here the order of arrangement of 
the tentacles, in consequence of their great number, has be- 
come very much effaced. 

As to the nature [das Wesen) of the law of metamerism, the 
cause which has produced the articulate type among the Hy- 
droids, I think I am justified in explaining it in the following 
manner : — The Hydroid, in consequence of a great abundance 
of nourishment, or from some other cause unknown, began to 
grow in the direction of the primary axis of its body. Growth, 
as we know, does not differ generically from the process of 
multiplication ; the latter is only a particular case of the 
former ; and the two processes depend greatly upon each 
other. 

The growth of the Hydroid beyond its specific limit causes 

* A single anomalous fact is known to me in the Tliecapbora, in which 
there appears a tendency, although a very feeble one, to take on the arti- 
culate form. This is the Clytia poterium, Agassiz (fig. 2), in which one 
hydrotheca is placed above another, which has produced it, no doubt, by 
division. But this case can only be regarded as an anomaly, the nor- 
mal individuals never having any trace of metamerism. This anomaly 
has been described by Agassiz, ' Contributions to the Natural History of 
the United States,' iv. p. 303, pi. xxix. fig. 1. 



242 M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

multiplication by means of incomplete transverse division 
{imvollstdndige Quertheilung) — that is to say, the appearance 
of one or several new systems of secondary axes, which 
are all, at first, in accordance with the law of heredity, equal 
among themselves and to the first axial system from which 
they have proceeded. But instead of separating from each 
other and entering upon a free and independent life, as we 
see in a very analogous process of gemmation in the Scy~ 
pMstoma of the Discophorous Medusae (fig. 3)*, each system 
of secondary axes remains connected with a small community 
and leads a social life (fig. 4) . 

In order to demonstrate that this view is correct, and that 
the articulate type is nothing more than the product of an 
incomplete transverse division, we may consider the singular 
anomaly presented by Glytia ])oterium, Ag. (fig. 2). There 
is no doubt that this form is produced by increase of growth, 
which for its part produces a transverse division analogous to 
that which takes place in the ScypMstoma^ but with the dif- 
ference that here the superior articulation does not separate 
from the colony, because the division is incomplete. But if 
we imagine the Hydroid deprived of its calycle we shall have 
fundamentally the same picture that is presented by the digram- 
matic figure of an articulate Hydroid in fig. 1. 

Let us now consider fig. 5, which represents, after Mr. 
Hincksf, the interesting Hydroid Vorticlava proteus. Owing 
to its great contractility it can take on different forms ; and 
one of them (fig. 5), in which the superior metamere is 
removed to a great distance from the inferior metamere, and 
in which the two articulations are united only by a long and 
very thin peduncle, proves very clearly that the metameres 
are true articulations produced by incomplete division. Just 
the same thing (that is to say, the great individuality of each 
metamere, united only hj a fine peduncle) occurs also in Cory- 
morpha pendula, Agass.J ; only the individuality of the meta- 
meres is unequal, being easy to see in some Hydroids (such 
as Vorticlava, Stauridium, and Gladonema) ^ and more or less 
effaced in others with many metameres (Zanclea, Co?'yne, 
&c.). But in any case we must regard the articulate type as 
a small colony. 

The number of individuals in such a community may be 

* Each tentacle (each antimere), or rather each pair of antimeres, is 
nothing but an axis vertical to the axis of the body (principal or primary 
axis), which is ordinarily called a secondary axis. The different types of 
Hydroids have I, 2, 3, 4 n, ... . secondary axes, t. e. 2, 2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 
2 X n tentacles. 

t Mon. Brit. Hydr. vol. ii. pi. xxiii. fig. 2, d. 

J Contrib. Nat. Hist. Un. States, vol. iv. pi. xxvi. figs. 14 and 17. 



M. C. Mereschkowsky ow the Hydroida. 



243 



considerable, as we have already seen, about ten or even 
more ; and, in fact, it is most usual for their number to ex- 
ceed four or five. 

Fig. 4. 



Fig. 3. 








Fiff. 5. 



In these cases, and especially where we have to do witli 
about ten raetameres, the explanation of the origin of these 
articulated forms which I have just given cannot suffice ; 
and hence it must be supplemented by a very in- 
teresting law, which Prof. N. Wagner of St. Peters- 
burg has denominated tlie law of ijliysiological inertia^ 
and has so happily applied to the explanation of the 
incredible number of metameres (articulations) with 
which various worms (Annelida) are furnished. 

According to this law, some cause having origi- 
nated two or three metameres, the appearance of the 
following raetameres may be brought about without 
the further aid of the primary cause, but solely under 
tlie influence of a tendency that the organism has to repeat 
the process of the appearance of metameres (a process at first 
induced by some external influence \choque\^ such as abun- 
dance of food) by inertia^ as it were, until finally resistance, 
under different forms, may put a stop to it. 

The difi^erent qualities and properties of an organism are 
often retained, by force of heredity, without interruption and 
without modification during a long series of generations, 
even when the cause which has induced these qualities has 
long disappeared. It is so in the case in question : a certain 




244 M. C. Mereschkovvsky on the Hydroida. 

cause has induced iu the organism the tendency to grow 
constantly in length by incomplete transverse division ; and 
if it happens that this cause acts for a long time, through a 
long series of generations, it is easy to understand that this 
tendency may acquire so great a persistency, and may become 
so powerful, that it will continue to manifest itself even after 
the disappearance of the original cause. Considered from this 
point of view, the laio of physiological inertia appears simply 
to be a particular case of another more general law — the law 
of heredity ; and I believe that if we apply this law (without 
which the phenomena of the Annelida are perfectly obscure 
and incapable of explanation) to the group of Hydroids, and 
especially to the articulate type, we shall attain the possi- 
bility of explaining and understanding the appearance of such 
forms as Coryne pusilla and Gemmaria implexa. 

In the articulate type there is a peculiarity which is very 
interesting, especially because it can be very clearly explained, 
and to which I wish to call attention, namely the form of the 
tentacles. One of the most characteristic features which 
always accompany the law of metamerism in the Hydroids, is 
the capitate form of the tentacles, which in this case, are 
always very short (figs. 1, 4). This peculiarity of the articu- 
late forms is especially observable in the species with nume- 
rous metameres, in which the tentacles are excessively short. 
There are very few exceptions to the rule that articulation is 
combined with the capitate form of tentacles ; and nearly all 
these exceptions can be perfectly well explained. 

In seeking to explain this fact, and to find the cause of its 
occurrence {raison d^etre)^ we must first of all call attention to 
the coexistence of the two facts, articulation and capitate ten- 
tacles, and inquire whether this singular and invariable coex- 
istence is not due to a causal relation between the two facts. 
It is more than probable that this is the case ; and, as we shall 
see immediately, it is the articulation that is the cause 
of the form of the tentacles. 

The articulate type has no doubt originated from the non- 
articulate type with 4, or, in general, Ixn filiform tentacles. 
The tentacles of this general type (2 x w) are: — 1, usually 
rather long and slender, not capitate, endowed with great con- 
tractility ; and, 2, covered over all their surface with a quan- 
tity of thread-cells. Such an organization is adapted to sub- 
serve two functions at once — namely, (1) seizure of food, 
and (2) defence against enemies by means of the veno- 
mous thread-cells. When the Hydroids furnished with meta- 
meres began to be developed from this type thus constructed 
and non-articulate, and, at the same time, the length of the 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 



245 



Fig. 6. 




whole animal increased considerablj, so that the long, slender, 
original tentacles, which previously extended beyond the apex 
of the body (where the mouth is placed), became relatively 
shorter, they would no longer reach the buccal orifice, which 
would deprive them of all power of acting as organs of nutri- 
tion. This must certainly take place, especially with the 
lowest tentacles. The part which they performed being thus 
diminished, and their significance in the economy of the 
animal changed, the tentacles would no doubt undergo, if not 
complete atrophy, at least a consi- 
derable diminution in their develop- 
ment. This is, in fact,what we ob- 
serve. In such articulate forms as 
Gladonema radiatum (fig. 6), for ex- 
ample, which is furnished with two 
very distinct metameres, we remark 
that the four lower tentacles, belong- 
ing to the inferior metamere, are too 
short to reach the mouth, and conse- 
quently cannot possibly assist in the 
process of nutrition; at the same time 
they are much less developed, much 
shorter and more delicate than the 

other four tentacles belonging to the upper metamere, which 
can very easily reach the mouth. 

The form wnth four metameres [Stauridium productum) 
shows us the same thing. In this also the four tentacles of 
the inferior metamere are, to a very great degree, atrophied*. 
The same thing takes place in all the other articulate forms, 
even when the number of metameres is very considerable, as, 
for example, in Coryne pusilla and Gemmaria implexa. In 
all cases the inferior tentacles are less developed, half or one 
third of the length of those of the superior metameres, and the 
more they approach towards the basal extremity of the body 
the shorter they are, so that in the lowest regions the length 
of the tentacle often does not exceed its thickness ; but the 
superior tentacles, as well as the inferior, are comparatively 
much shorter in the articulate than in the non-articulate type. 
This atrophy of organs evidently depends upon a diminution 

* We know no form governed by the law of metamerism having 3 
metameres ; but it is easy to see that such a form must once have existed, 
and that it, perhaps, still exists in some little-iuvestigated sea. If it be 
found some day, we may predict with great probability, from the evidence 
of the forms with 2 and 4 metameres, that it will also have 4 tentacles 
(or 2xw) belonging to the inferior circle more atrophied than the rest. 
The genus Triridium, to which this hypothetical Hydroid must belong, 
is repre-sented in fig. 1. 



246 M. C. Mereschkowsky o« the Hydroida. 

of their utility to the organism ; for in the articulate type the 
tentacles, instead of fulfilling two functions at once, only per- 
form one, namely that of defence against enemies. At the 
same time it has become possible for the organ to adapt itself 
better to the single function of defence than before, when it 
required also to capture food ; it has attained the possibility 
of retaining the characters which are only useful for defence 
and which are even injurious to prehension. It is precisely 
this possibility of adapting themselves to the single function 
of defence that is the cause of the tentacles in the articulate 
type being very short and capitate at their extremity. 

Imagine now a Hydroid reposing after a full meal, with 
its tentacles quietly expanded in the water and gently moved 
to and fro by the waves. When any enemy approaches it 
with hostile intentions and is inclined to attack it, the assailant 
must most certainly strike against the ends of the tentacles 
before it can touch the body of the Hydroid. Upon the effect 
produced by this first contact with the ends of the tentacles 
will depend all the subsequent actions of the enemy : if it 
receives a very strong charge it will be killed on the spot, 
or will make its escape as quickly as possible ; in the contrary 
case, when the pain caused by the thread-cells arranged in 
the ends of tentacles is too insignificant, the enemy may arrive 
at the very body of the Hydroid, which is then menaced with 
great danger. We see, therefore, that, for the purpose of 
self-preservation, it is very important that the first line of 
fortifications, so to speak, should be as strong as possible — in 
other words, that the ends of the tentacles should be as for- 
midably armed as possible, that there should be as many 
thread-cells as possible in these ends ; for those which are 
placed in the other parts of the body and tentacles are not of 
equal importance for the purpose of defence. To fulfil all 
these conditions it is clear that the tentacles must be inflated 
at their extremities, in order that a great quantity of thread- 
cells may be accumulated in the enlargement. When once 
these tentacles have ceased to act as organs of prehension, it 
is no longer necessary that they should be long, fine, supple, 
and movable ; this is why in the articulate type, at the same 
time that they acquire the capitate form, they also become 
much shorter than usual. 

It generally happens that in those cases in which the body 
becomes very much elongated it acquires great flexibility and 
the faculty of twisting about very briskly, and so assists the 
proboscis in the capture of food, whilst, on the other hand, 
this organ in such cases also becomes strongly developed and 
very mobile. This flexibility of the body consequently re- 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 247 

places the want of tentacles for the function of alimentation, 
as is veiy well shown in fig. 5, p. 64, of the ' Histoiy of British 
Hjclroid Zoophytes' byMr.Hincks, as well as by the description 
which accompanies it*. In the Hydroids without metameres, in 
Avhich the body is consequently very short and not flexible, 
the tentacles are always filiform, long, fine, and very supple ; 
their length sometimes even becomes very great, as, for ex- 
ample, in Monobrachium parasitum^ mihif, which has only a 
single tentacle. 

This, then, is the explanation that, I tliink, may be given 
of the fact that the articulate type of the Hydroids is asso- 
ciated with short and capitate tentacles. 

This view is further supported by the fact that the capitate 
tentacles are exclusively met with in the order Athecata, or 
the Gymnoblastic Hydroids — that is to say, among the naked 
Hydroids, — and that, on the contrary, in the order Thecaphora, 
in which each hydranth is furnished with a hydrotheca or 
calycle of chitine within which it can entirely withdraw itself, 
and which often may even be closed by a small operculum, 
we only find filiform tentacles. This is very easily explained, 
seeing that these Hydroids, which are very well defended from 
all attacks of their enemies by the hydrothecaa, within which 
they can conceal themselves in case of danger, have no neces- 
sity for organs so well designed for defence as are the capitate 
tentacles. On the other hand, as the Thecaphora grow in 
very numerous colonies, the number of individuals sometimes 
exceeding 1000, it is necessary for them to adapt themselves 
to the possibility of procuring food in sufficient quantity for 
so great a number of individuals living together. This adap- 
tation in the case in question consists in the number of long, 
fine, filiform tentacles appropriated to prehension with which 
each individual is provided becoming very great, greater than 
it usually is in the naked Hydroids. (There are generally 
not fewer than 16, most frequently 20, 22, 24, and sometimes 
30, 32, or more.) 

Finally, I may mention another fact, which will serve in 

* In fact the flexibility of the body of such Hydroids as Cladonema 
radiatum, Stauridium p7-oductum, and others is excessively developed, and 
may very -well compensate for the want of filiform tentacles in the func- 
tion of prehension of nourishment. But it is especially in Clavatella 
prolifera that the length, contractility, and flexibility of the body have 
attained their maximum : and it is, I think, by this cause that we may 
explain why it also has capitate tentacles, although not belonging to the 
articulate type. It furnishes the only example of capitate tentacles in a 
non-articulate type. 

t See my paper, " On a new Genus of Hydroids from the White Sea," 
in this journal for September 1877, ser. 4, vol. xx. p. 220. 



248 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 



support of the explanation above given of the forms with 
capitate tentacles. I refer to the blastostyles of the genus 
Hydractinia. It is well known that the gonophores, or sexual 
individuals, appear upon the surface of the body of the tropho- 
somes, or nutritive individuals, which are furnished with 
several filiform tentacles. When these gonophores appear, 
the individual upon which they are seated, and which is then 
called a " blastostyle," becomes much thinner and smaller (the 
material of the animal being absorbed by the sexual bodies), 
the mouth closes, and the tentacles (which, from this moment 
lose their importance as organs subserving the purpose of 
nutrition, since the mouthless individual cannot feed) become 
shorter and shorter and more and more insignificant. Soon 
we can only perceive a few knobs or tubercles furnished with 
a great quantity of thread-cells, greatly resembling the dila- 
tations with which the capitate tentacles are furnished. At 
the same time these tentacles or tubercles only retain the 
function of defence from enemies. 

But I have said that there are exceptions to the rule that 
articulation is associated with capitate tenta- 
cles, and that these exceptions are not con- Fig. 7. 
tradictory to the explanation that I have 
given ; on the contrary, it is possible to 
explain these exceptions only by admitting 
all that I have said above. 

There are some forms, evidently belonging 
to the articulate type, which do not possess 
capitate tentacles, but, on the contrary, have 
those organs slender, filiform, and very long. 
For example, Clava'^, Cordylophoraj &c. 
(especially Cordylojphora) have tentacles 
longer than in any other species. This is 
to be explained as follows : — In becoming 
developed into the articulate type the Hy- 
droid became more and more elongated, 
whilst the tentacles remained the same, which 
rendered them relatively shorter ; and it is 
precisely this that induced their capitate 
form. But if we assume that all the time 
the elongation of the tentacles proceeded Cordylophora 
side by side with the elongation of the body, lacustris. 

we shall see that their original significance, 
as aiding in alimentation at the same time as for defence, 

* Especially Clava leptostyla, Ag. (A. Agassiz, Illustr. Cat. Mus. Comp. 
Zool. ii. p. 170, tig. 274). In the cases in whicli the tentacles are not 
too long we maj' admit that these species have only become articiilate 




M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 



249 



Fig. 8. 



must remain intact ; for in proportion as the body became 
elongated, the tentacles lengthened likewise, so that they 
could always reach the mouth and convey food to it (fig. 7). 

But if the functions of the tentacles did not undergo any 
change, we need not expect them to change their form, except 
perhaps to become longer. This is what we remark in such 
forms as Cordylojjiioraj Clava, &c., in which the lowest ten- 
tacles are not in the least shorter or less developed than the 
upper ones; on the contrary, they are sometimes a little longer; 
and in all cases they are all, without exception, longer than 
the body, owing to which they all have the faculty of assisting 
in the capture of prey, as has been very well described by 
Van Beneden in the case of Cordylo^jhora* . 

I must still mention an articulate type, represented by the 
genera Tubular ia, Acliaradria^ Gorymorpha^ Pennaria^ &c., 
in which the superior metamere has 
the tentacles capitate, but much less 
developed than those of the other me- 
tamere. All these forms are derived 
from a non- articulate form with tenta- 
cles so well developed, so long, and in 
such great quantity^ that when the 
formation of the second metamere was 
induced by some cause, the tentacles 
belonging to it were perfectly useless 
to the organism, which caused them 
to become atrophied, and at the same 
time capitate — that is to say, adapted 
solely to the defence of the organism 
(fig. 8). As the Medusa may be re- 
garded as a hydranth reversed, and in 
which the tentacles (radial canals) are united together by a 
gelatinous substance (ectoderm or bell), it may be understood 
that the Medusse which have tentacles at the extremity of 
the manubrium belong to the same articulate type as Tuhu- 
laria^ Acharadria^ &c., with two metameres, the inferior of 
which is more strongly marked than the upper. 

To complete this morphological chapter I propose to explain 
in a few words a point of view from which I regard all the 




Acharadria larynx. 



quite recently, and that they are in process of forming capitate tentacles, 
or of lengthening them. Thus Mr. Allman remarks, "Some Hydroids 
with filiform tentacles show, like Clava squa?nata, a tendency to the ter- 
minal enlargement of the tentacles in certain states of contraction" 
(Allman, Mon. Gymnobl. Hydr. p. 245). 

* Van Beneden, ' Faune littorale de Belgique,' Polypes. 

An7i. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol i. ' 17 



250 M. C. Mereschkowsky 07i the Hydroida. 

forms and in general all the morphological facts presented by 
the Hydroids, and which I think may contribute somewliat to 
the better comprehension of the idea of the Hydroid, so to 
speak, and to concentrate all the differences presented by this 
group in a single representation. 

Every one at present regards a hydranth, with its tentacles, 
as a single individual, furnished with organs radially ar- 
ranged. For my part, I believe we must regard such an 
organism, not as an individual, but as a colony composed of 
two kinds of individuals — the one kind appropriated to the 
function of seizing food, with the gastral cavity but slightly 
developed, without a mouth, very flexible and thin {tentacles) ; 
the other destined exclusively to nourish the whole colony, 
furnished with a mouth, and Avith a large cavity in the body 
which is but slightly flexible [the actual body of the hydranth). 
We should thus have a polymorphic colony after the fashion 
of the Siphonophora ; and this polymorphism is explained here 
also by adaptation to different functions by the division of 
labour. Certainly before this division of labour was effected 
the colony only consisted of similar individuals, produced from 
the parent individual by gemmation ; and it was then that the 
individuality of each individual must have been most strongly 
marked ; but in course of time, in proportion as the division of 
labour was effected, this individuality was effaced, and the 
whole acquired more or less the character of a single individual 
furnished with several organs. This is what we see now-a- 
days. Therefore, in saying that the hydranth must be re- 
garded not as an individual but as a polymorphic colony, T 
do not wish by any means to say that each tentacle is a true 
individual, but only that it has been so formerly, and that it 
has retained [this character] in part even to the present day. 
I may, moreover, urge the enormous difference which exists 
between the organ tentacle and the organs of other animals 
— a foot, for example, and still more the hand of man ; 
this difference is profound and primordial {'principielle)^ be- 
cause a hand (or, in general, any organ) is not homologous 
with a tentacle, and is only analogous to it in its physiological 
function. 

Such a view as this would perfectly explain the origin of 
the organ tentacles, which would be merely the result of the 
reproduction of a Protohydra^ Leuck., or rather an Archhydra^ 
Hack., by the process of gemmation. From this point of 
view, therefore, I must give the name of individual to each 
axisoi cylindrical form, composed of ectoderin and endoderm ; 
and it is very remarkable that any Hydroid, however com- 
plicated it may be, appeared at first precisely in the form of a 



M. C, Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 251 

cylinder with a single diplopolar axis, in this respect differing 
in no way from the first appearance of a tentacle upon a 
hydranth, or of a medusa. In fact it is impossible to distin- 
guish a tentacle, a medusa, and a hydranth at the first moment 
of their appearance (fig. 9) ; each of them 
is merely an Archhydra or a Protohydra^ ^^S- ^• 

which, if we accept the biogenetic law, C^'\_^ 

leads us to believe that they are all dif- ^ i^ 

ferent modifications of a single primitive 
organism, and that they are all homolo- r\ 
gous. u\ \c\ a 

At any rate, I believe that to regard ' 
a (stauraxonic) hydranth as a colony of «^ Young hydrotheca. 
(monaxonic) Archydrce is to look at the ^- X°^^°^ tentacle. 
£c ■ -i. • i.' 1 i. n f- i oung medusa, 

aiiair as it is lundamentally. ° 

Let us farther remember two interesting Hydroids, namely 
Ophiodes mirahilis^ and Ophiodes parasiticus^ Sarsf, which, be- 
sides the tentaculiferous individuals (colonies according to me), 
have monaxonic individuals, without tentacles, and absolutely 
presenting no difference from the tentacles of certain Hydroids. 
And this case proves further that the tentacle (an individual), 
which cannot serve the colony either by procuring or by 
digesting food, only remains useful to it by serving to defend 
it, a function which induced the capitate form of the tentacles. 
In fact, the monaxonic individuals have no mouth, and there- 
fore do not aid in nutrition ; and, at the same time, they are 
often placed so far from the colony-individuals that they can- 
not serve for seizing food. The function of defence, therefore, 
alone remains for them ; and we find that they have acquired 
the capitate form, which we have seen to be appropriated to 
defence. 



Il, Remarks on the Reproduction o/'Obelia 
flabellata, Hincks. 

Among about forty species of Hydroids that I have ob- 
served and collected in the White Sea, Ohelia Jlabellata, 
Hincks, is very frequently met with. At the end of the 
month of June I found it with a great quantity of gonothecse, 
all filled with young Medusje in various stages of development. 
Although in all other respects the Ohelia flabellata of the 

* Hincks, Mon. Brit. Hydr. Zooph. pi. xlv. fig. 2, p. 231. 
t Gr. Sars, "Bidr. tilKundsk. om Norges Hydroider," Forh. i Vidensk/ 
Selsk, i Christiania, 1873, p. 109, pi. iv. figs. 5-8. 

17* 



252 M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

White Sea did not differ at all from that described by Hincks*, 
the gonotheca was distinguished by the absence of the little 
tubular elevation placed upon its flattened summit, of which I. 
never observed any trace ; nevertheless it can only be re- 
garded as a feeble arctic variety of the British Obelia jiabel- 
lata. 

The development of the Medusae has been studied princi- 
pally by L. Agassizf, who was the first to publish some im- 
portant facts, and by F. E. SchultzeJ, as well as by Mr. All- 
man (the last on Gorymorpha nutans)^ who have made some 
alterations in the views current before their time. But as most 
attention has been paid to the Meduste belonging to the order 
Athecata, I have thought that it might not be altogether with- 
out interest to have their results confirmed by a Medusa be- 
longing to the quite different order Thecaphora. 

Plate XIII. fig. 1 shows the first commencement of a Medusa, 
which only consists of a protuberance (expulsion) of the walls 
of the blastostyle, composed, like the latter, of two layers, the 
ectoderm and endoderm, separated from one another by a very 
thin layer, which is not so distinctly contoured as in the buds ; 
it is, no doubt, the hyaline intermediate layer between the 
ectoderm and endoderm which Schultze calls the " Stlitzla- 
melle," In form, this bud differs in no respect from a young 
hydranth developed from a planula ; and both have exactly 
the same form as Protoliydra Leuckartii, Greef, and the same 
as must have been possessed by Hackel's Archhydra^^ i. e. if 
we choose to accept Hackel's biogenetic law. The next 
stage is represented in fig. 2 (PL XIII.) ; we see that the bud 
has considerably widened, and that the ectoderm (which is 
here also distinctly separated from the endoderm by the double- 
contoured line) has become much thicker at the summit of 
the bud than elsewhere. The thick part, which is in the form 
of a cone, is turned downwards towards the endoderm, in which 
the cone buries itself; the inner surface of the endoderm and 
also the general cavity of the body retain their original form : 
they do not form any expulsion ; and their apex is always 
hemispherical. But, at the same time, we already remark 
that the depression of the outer surface of the endoderm is not 
a regular cone, but, on the contrary, that the edges of this 
depression are dentate. There are four teeth formed by the 
superior layer of the endoderm, and between these teeth four 
depressions occupied by the inferior layer of the ectoderm. It 

* 'History of British Hydroid Zoophytes/ i. p. 157. 
t ' Contributions.' 

X ' Ueber den Bau der Syncm-yne Sarsii,^ 1873, p. 27. 
§ It is his form " monaxonia diplopola inarticulata." 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 253 

is easy to see that the first stage consists in the depression of 
the ectoderm (it is the latter that is active here), and that 
the first indications of radial canals are not the result of the 
expulsion of the endoderm into the ectoderm, but, on the con- 
trary, of the impulsion of the ectoderm into the endoderm. 
The latter continues quite passive ; it submits to the action 
of the ectoderm, which of itself begins to thicken, and by this 
means to bury itself in the endoderm. The following stages 
(figs. 3, 4, and 5) are only the more advanced stages of 
the process which we have already analyzed : the ectoderm 
becomes more and more developed, at the same time that it 
buries itself in the interior, leaving in their place only the 
four spots, which thus become converted into radial canals. 
In fig. 3 the apex of the cavity is already excavated, and there 
are faint indications of the four canals (only two are repre- 
sented) ; but speedily this cavity again becomes convex, and 
it is from this moment only that the endoderm becomes active ; 
it thickens in the middle (fig. 4), and begins in its turn to 
penetrate the ectoderm in order to form the manubrium. In 
fig. 5 we see the same stage with the four canals. It will be 
seen that between the two neighbouring canals there is only a 
uniform layer of ectoderm in which they are immersed, which 
proves that F. Schultze is right in not admitting any interme- 
diate layer between the canals and distinct from the ectoderm, 
as was done by Agassiz. After all this, according to F. 
Schultze, the ectoderm itself splits into two layers, one of 
which produces the muscular sac belonging to the umbrella, 
and the other forms the superior layer of the manubrium*. 
Unfortunately various circumstances drew me away from 
these observations ; so that I have not seen the stage inter- 
mediate between fig. 5 and fig. 6, in which the Medusa is 
I'cady to detach itself. 

As the Medusa of Ohelia Jlabellata is, so far as I know, 
undescribed, I will give a short account of it. PI. XIII. fig. 7 
represents a mature example, and shows that this Medusa 
differs very little from other Medusse of the same genus, as, 
for example, that of Ohelia dichotoma figured by Hincks t- 
The umbrella is very flat, but slightly campanulate, without 
thread-cells, with four radial canals, four oval sporosacs filled 
with ova and placed at the extremities of the four canals, 
where they unite with the circular canal, and where conse- 

* By this the development of the Medusa of Ohelia fiahellata differs 
from that of Corymoi-jyha nutans, in which the division of the ectoderm 
takes place sooner, as early as the first indications of the radial canals 
(AUman, Monogr. Gynmobl. Hydr. p. 77). 

t TjOc. cit. pi. xxviii. fig. 1, c, d. 



254 M. 0. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

quently the nutritive material attains its maximum abun- 
dance ; for here the current of the radial canal unites with the 
current of the circular canal. The margin of the Medusa is 
furnished with eight lithocysts and a great quantity (more 
than thirty) of short tentacles, which are only sixteen in 
number at the moment of liberation. The manubrium is 
short, changes much in form, and is furnished at its orifice 
with four rounded lobes. The size is very variable, but it is 
usually about 6 millims. in diameter. It is completely colour- 
less, whitish ; the sporosacs are slightly yellowish. By 
leaving in a marine aquarium a branch of Ohelia Jlahellata 
with gonothecse, one can always obtain as many Medusae as 
one wants. Fig. 7 a shows a Medusa of the natural size. 

The ova are large, of irregular form (PI. XIII. figs. 8, 9, 10), 
with a very thin membrane and granular contents. In the 
middle, or more frequently near the margin, we always ob- 
serve very distinctly a large, clear and non-granular nucleus, 
more regular than the ovum itself. In the nucleus we always 
observe one or several nucleoli, and in each nucleolus a nu- 
cleolulus. All these formations are distinguished from each 
other by their behaviour with transmitted light ; when the 
first of them is lighter, the second is darker, and the third 
again lighter. On changing a little the focal distance of the 
microscope all is changed ; what was dark becomes lighter, 
and vice versa. In the youngest ova we see only one nucleo- 
his and one nucleolulus (fig. 8) ; the latter is usually very 
variable in its form, whicli is most frequently irregular. 
Sometimes it is very large (fig. 11, representing a nucleus 
very much enlarged). Further, we see ova in which the 
nucleolus has acquired a biscuit-shape, in each half of which 
we observe a nucleolulus which has evidently divided into 
two (figs. 9, 14) . A subsequent stage may be seen in fig. 10, 
in which the nucleolus is completely divided and each half 
contains a nucleolulus, A still more advanced stage shows 
(fig. 12) a nucleus with four nucleoli, each containing a 
nucleolulus, which is very large and variable in form. The 
form changed before my eyes with considerable rapidity, and 
the whole moved like a little Amoeba. Lastly, the succeeding 
stage that I have been able to observe (fig. 13) is furnished 
with a nucleus with a great quantity (about twenty) of 
nucleoli, almost every one of which contained a very small 
nucleolulus, which, however, it was sometimes impossible to 
define. 

It is evident that all these nucleoli have originated from a 
single one by division, and that this division was always 
preceded by the division of the nucleolulus into two. Only 



M. C. Meresclikowsky on the Hydroida. 255 

once I observed in a perfectly round nucleolus more than one 
nucleolulus, or rather a single nucleolulus in the centre sur- 
rounded by five or si:?^ very small granules forming an aureole 
round the centre. 

As I observed all these stages of development in ova which 
had not issued from the sporosac, and, moreover, there was 
not a male individual in the neighbourhood, all the processes 
described took place in ova not yet fecundated. It would be 
interesting to know wliy there is all this enormous complica- 
tion. But as yet the facts are too few to permit us even to 
think of an explanation. 

Lastly, this hydroid has offered me another interesting fact 
which I will mention. For the purpose of observing the 
development of the Medusae I placed a branch of Obelia 
jiabellata upon a slide, and laid over it a covering-glass ; the 
sea water by evaporating became salter and Salter, which 
(and perhaps also the want of oxygen) appeared to affect the 
organism in a singular manner. In a short time J remarked 
that the coenosarc of the stem detached itself in fragments of 
different sizes, especially near the end. First of all there 
appeared a constriction in a particular spot ; this constriction 
became deeper and deeper ; and finally the two parts separated 
entii-ely, so that the end of the stem formed a fragment quite 
independent of the colony. The two parts contracted, moved 
away from each other, and became rounded at their ends, so 
as to leave no trace of their lesion (PL XIII. fig. 16); the 
ectoderm and the endoderm recurved at the newly formed end 
just in the same way as in the end of the stem : the cavity 
was very distinct ; and I could even observe the movement of 
nutritive granules, which I also saw in perfectly fresh 
specimens. Except wanting the mouth and cilia, this little 
cylinder much resembled a planula. In fig. 17 is repre- 
sented a hydrotheca not yet completely developed, closed at 
its future aperture, in which the coenosarc is contracted, not 
into a cylinder, but into a perfectly regular globular form, 
with a cavity, and surrounded by two layers. At one spot a 
very fine and colourless membrane, evidently produced by the 
ball, is seen to detach itself ; this, no doubt, is a w&sv layer of 
perisarc formed by the ectoderm ; and I believe that in tlie 
other cases the perisarc is also present, but that in them it 
adheres very closely, for which reason it cannot be perceived. 
What is the signification of these structures ? For what 
purpose are they formed? Is it not a sort of encysting, 
analogous to the process so often met with among the Infu- 
soria ? Are not these fragments of the Hydroid the result of 
its dismemberment, caused by the evaporation of the water ? 



256 Geological Society. 

and is it not their function to survive these unfavourable con- 
ditions and thus serve, not only for the preservation of the 
individual, but also for propagation ? 

I think we may answer all these questions in the affirma- 
tive, and regard these fragments as formations analogous to 
what is known to us from Prof. Allman's * observations on 
the spontaneous fission of Schizocladium ramosum and Cory- 
morpha nutans, as a means of reproduction by fission. In 
Schizocladium ramosum the upper portion of a branch becomes 
detached as a little cylinder, just in the same way as in Obelia 
flahellata ; and then, after having ruptured the perisarc, this 
free portion departs from the colony, ibrms the perisarc again, 
and becomes transformed into an individual. 

[To be continued.] 



PEOCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

April 11th, 1877.— Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., F.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

2. " The Bone-caves of Creswell Crags." — Third Paper. By the 
Eev. J. Magens Mello, M.A., P.G.S. 

In this paper the author gave an account of the continued ex- 
ploration of these caves, and of the completion of the examination 
of the Robin-Hood Cave, noticed in his previous communications. 
Five deposits could be distinguished in the Robin-Hood Cave, 
namely, when aU present :— 

1. Stalagmite, 2 ft. 

2. Breccia, with bones and flint implements, 1 ft. 6 in. 

3. Cave-earth, with bones and implements, 1 ft. 9 in. 

4. Mottled bed, with bones and implements, 2 ft. 

5. Red sand, with bones and quartzite implements, 3 ft. 

Variations both in thickness and in character occur in different 
parts of the cave. The surface-soil yielded traces of Romano-British 
occupation, such as enamelled bronze fibulae, fragments of pottery, 
&c. The most important discoveries were made in the cave-earth ; 
and chief among these was a fragment of bone, having on it a well 
executed outline of the head and neck of a horse, the first recorded 
discovery of any such work of art in this country. The cave-earth 
also yielded a canine of Machairodus latidens, hitherto obtained in 
England only in Kent's Hole. Numerous remains of the Pleistocene 
Mammalia already recorded were found, together with a great 

* AUman, " Reproduction by Fission in Hydroids," Brit. Assoc. Report, 
1870; and Quart. Jom-n. Micr. Sci. 1871, pi. ii. figs. 2, 3. 



Geological Society. 257 

number of implements of quartzite and flint, and two of clay-iron- 
stone. The quartzite implements were most abundant in the lowest 
bed. 

In the other cave examined, the Church Hole, which consists 
principally of a long fissure in the south side of the crags opposite 
Robin Hood's Cave, the succession of beds was nearly the same as 
in the latter. In the surface-soil near its mouth a fine bronze 
brooch was found. Some of the implements met with in the cave- 
earth were of great interest, and several of them were of bone. 
Bones of Rhinoceros were found in great abundance ; and those of 
the Mammoth, Horse, &c. were also plentiful. 

As the result of the exploration of these caverns, the author said 
it is evident that during the Pleistocene period Derbyshire and the 
adjoining counties were inhabited by a very numerous and diversified 
fauna, the vast forests and pastures which extended far to the east 
and south off'ering a congenial home to the Mammoth, the Woolly 
Rhinoceros, the Hippopotamus, the Irish Elk, the Reindeer, the 
Bison, and the Horse, whilst among them the Hyaena, the Glutton, 
the Bear, the Lion, the Wolf, the Fox, and the great sabre-toothed 
Machairodus roamed in search of prey ; and that with these and 
other animals man lived and waged a more or less precarious 
struggle, amidst the vicissitudes of a varying climate, sheltering 
himself in the numerous caves of the district, which were already the 
haunts of the hyaena and its companions. 



3. " On the Mammal-fauna of the Caves of Creswell Crags." By 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

In this paj)er the author gave an account of the remains found in 
the caves explored by the Rev. J. M. Mello. He stated that the 
recent explorations had proved that the Robin-Hood Cave was 
inhabited by Hyaenas, not only during the deposition of the cave- 
earth and breccia, but also during that of the red-sand and clay 
underlying it, which had also furnished traces of the existence of man. 
An immense number of specimens were collected in this cavern, 
including bones of the following animals : — Machairodus latidens, 
Cave-Lion, Wild Cat, Leopard, Spotted Hyaena *, Fox *, Wolf, Bear, 
Reindeer*, Irish Elk*, Bison*, Horse*, Woolly Rhinoceros*, 
Mammoth *, and Hare * — those marked with an * occurring in the 
red sand and clay as well as in the cave-earth, although much more 
sparingly. The traces of man consisted of more than 1000 imple- 
ments ; and, as before, those made of quartzite were generally 
found in the lower strata. The most important indication of 
human handiwork was the outline of the head and fore quarters of 
a horse, engraved upon a fragment of the rib of some animal. 
Among the animal remains the most interesting discovery was that 
of a canine of Machairodus latklens ; it consisted of the sabre- 
shaped crown only, which appeared to have been purposely broken 
away from the root. 

The superficial laj^er of earth in the cave contained remains be- 



258 Miscellaneous. 

longing to the historic and prehistoric ages, including a Eomano- 
British enamelled bronze brooch, of the same pattern as one found 
in the Victoria Cave, fragments of pottery, human bones and 
teeth, and bones of both wild and domestic animals. 

The distribution of the remains found in the Church Hole Cave 
agreed generally with that above described ; traces of human occu- 
pation and remains of the Hyaena occurred both in the cave- 
earth and in the red sand and claJ^ The bones found indicated the 
following animals : — Lion, Polecat, Hysena, Fox, Wolf, Bear, Rein- 
deer, Irish Elk, Bison, Horse, Woolly Rhinoceros, Mammoth, and 
Hare — all common to both the cave-deposits, except the Lion,' 
which was found only in the cave-earth, and the Polecat, of which 
a single jaw occurred in the red sand. The latter contained a 
larger proportion of the remains than in the Robin-Hood Cave ; but, 
as in the latter, the quartzite implements were more abundant in 
the lower strata of the deposits. Among the articles of human 
workmanship was a perfect and well-shaped bone needle. The 
superficial soil of the Church Hole Cave also contained articles of 
the historic and prehistoric age, including a bronze fibula, frag- 
ments of pottery (one mediaeval), and bones of man and animals. 
From the presence of these objects in the surface-soil the author 
inferred that the caves of Creswell Crags, like those of Yorkshire 
and elsewhere, were used as places of refuge by the Brit-welsh 
during the conquest of the country by the English. 

After noticing the conditions of the fossil bones found in the 
caves, the author proceeded to remark upon the general results of 
the explorations with regard to their Pleistocene fauna, and con- 
cluded that there is no evidence from these or other caves in this 
country to prove that their faunas are either pre- or interglacial, 
and that we have no proof of the existence of pre- or interglacial 
man in Britain. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

On the Migrations and Metamorphoses of the Tapeworms of 
the Shrews. By M. A. Villot. 

Dtjjakdin discovered and described several species of tapeworms in- 
habiting the intestines of the shrews : thus Tcenia scutigera Kves in 
Sorex tetragonurus ; while the little Sorex araneus harbours three 
species, namely T. scalaris, tiara, uni pistillum. Dujardin was ac- 
quainted with the various stages of the development of these species, 
except the place and manner of the passage from the proscolex to 
the scolex, a gap in our knowledge of their history which M. Villot 
has filled up by the discovery that this change takes place in 
Glomeris, and that the cystic parasite described by him last year 
under the name of Staphylocystis hiliarius represents this stage in 
the development of a species very near to T. scutigera and T. scalaris, 
which, moreover, are very closely allied. In these two species, 
according to M. Villot, the hooks are of the same form and dimen- 



Miscellaneous. 259 

sions, measuring from 0-033 to 0-040 miUim. Their number is ten 
in T. scutigera, twelve in T. scalaris. Staphylocystis biliarius usually 
has fourteen hooks, which also attain a length of 0-040 millim. 
The difference in number is so small that it may be a question 
whether Dujardin did not observe individuals of a single species 
which had lost more or less of their hooks. M. Villot unhesita- 
tingly refers his Staphylocystis micr acanthus to Tcenia pistillum. He 
sums up his results as follows : — 

It is now easy, taking into consideration the habits of their suc- 
cessive hosts, to summarize the history of these parasites. The pro- 
glottids, adult individuals, loaded with ova and embryos, detach 
themselves from the strobile and escape from the intestine of the 
shrew along with the excrements ; then the embryos pierce the 
envelopes, and, having got free, wait patiently in the moist ground 
on which they have been deposited for the moment when they can 
introduce themselves into the body of the Glomeris. Their migra- 
tion must, in the first place, be purely passive ; for we cannot other- 
wise understand the important fact that the Staphylocysts are 
always attached to the Malpighian tubes. They probably pass into 
the stomachs of their hosts along with the half-decomposed vegeta- 
ble debris upon which the latter feed. At the entrance of the 
intestines the embryos may get into the bihary vessels, travel 
through these for some time, and then traverse their walls, to take 
up their abode in the adipose tissue which surrounds those organs. 
Arrived at their dwelling-place they lose their hooks, which have 
now become ixseless, pass into the vesicular state, proliferate, and 
become scoleces. A shrew meeting with an infested Glomeris will 
devour it as readily as another, introducing into its own stomach at 
once a hundred scoleces, which on arriving in the intestine of the 
insectivore will attach themselves, and in their turn bud and form 
strobiles. The proglottids of the latter will acquire genital organs, 
and give birth to a new generation. — Comptes Bendus, November 19, 
1877, p. 971. 

On some Monstrosities of Asteracanthion rubens. By M. A. Giard. 

On the beach at Wimereux, where the common starfish {Astera- 
canthion rubens) is excessively abundant, especially during the 
winter and spring months, we find pretty frequently among these 
animals various interesting monstrosities. Thus we may every 
year obtain many individuals possessing six rays, instead of five, 
the normal number. 

As the number of rays varies in the group Asteriadse in allied 
species, and sometimes even in a particular species, it was natural 
to see in these aberrations either a simple case of jwlymeUsm, or a 
numerical variation in the constitution of the cosnobium, according 
as one gave to each ray of a starfish the value of a member or that 
of an individual. 

There is no doubt that a good many of the six-rayed Asteracan- 
thions are really monstrosities of this kind. In fact we find, from 
time to time, specimens in which one ray is bifurcated about the 



260 Miscellaneous. 

middle, or only in the outer fourth ; and we may explain, by a similar 
division taking place at the level of the disk, the numerous cases of 
Tiexamelism, in which, except in the number of rays, we find nothing 
abnormal in the constitution of the starfish. 

But this is not always the case. I have long since expressed the 
opinion that the radial symmetry of the Echinoderms is only appa- 
rent, and that the antimera of those animals are arranged in ac- 
cordance with a quincuncial spiral, in such a fashion that an urchin 
or a starfish may be compared, from the point of view of general 
morphology, not to a regular corolla, but to those flowers which are 
symmetrical with respect to a plane, such as those of the Papiliona- 
cese or Labiatse. In the latter, in fact, there exists a combination 
of bilateral symmetry and of the spiral arrangement which we also 
meet with in the Echinoderms. Starting from this notion I wished 
to see whether the anal glands of Asteracanthion ruhens had not the 
same morphological value as one of the pairs of hepatic caeca. For 
this purpose I opened a certain number of specimens with six arms, 
and saw, with surprise, that several of them presented two sand- 
canals terminating at a single madreporic plate, which, however, 
was formed by the union of two plates. Consequently I had before 
me true double monsters. Couch, the excellent author of the 
* Fauna of Cornwall,' has described* a specimen of A. ruhens (which, 
following Fleming, he calls A. f/lacialis), possessing eight rays. 
This individual presented three madreporic plates, forming the three 
angles of a triangle inscribed between the bases of four rays ; the 
four other rays were outside this triangle. This specimen was 
therefore a triple monster, evidently of rarer occurrence than the 
double monsters of which we have just been speaking, but perfectly 
analogous to them. 

From the preceding statement it follows that the examples of 
Asteracanthion ruhem possessing more than five arms may be likened 
sometimes to the coenobia of BotryUus, in which the number of 
unities constituting the ccenobium varies from one cormus to 
another, and sometimes in the same cormus ; and sometimes to the 
compound coenobia of the genera Amaroecium and Polyclinimi. In 
other words, they are sometimes double monsters, sometimes simple 
cases of polymelism. It is remarkable that these two distinct cases, 
presented in a teratological form in Asteracanthion i-ubens, also 
exist in the normal state in the group of Echinoderms. The So- 
lasters, for example, have a variable number of arms, but only a 
single sand-canal ; while some examples of Ophiactis have several 
sand- canals, and are even capable of multiplying by a spontaneous 
scission of their compound ccenobium into several independent 
colonies. — Compte's Bendus, November 19, 1877, p. 973, 

On the Feeding of Dinamoeba. 

Prof. Leidy remarked that bias frequently proved to be an obsta- 
cle in the way of research. In his study of the Ehizopods he had 
repeatedly watched different kinds of Amoeba for long periods with 

* Majr. Nat. Hi«t. 2nd ser. no. 27. 



Miscellaneous. 261 

the view of ascertaining their usual mode of feeding. Ordinary 
experience had prepossessed him to direct his attention to the fore 
part of the body (that is to say, the part in advance in the move- 
ments of the animal) as the point at which food would be taken. 
He had been surprised at the rarity of the occurrence in which he 
had seen Amceboi swallow food when the apparent greediness of the 
animal was taken into consideration. In the last number of the 
' Popular Science Review ' there is an interesting article by Dr. P. 
M. Duncan, entitled " Studies amongst Amcebce." From this he 
learned, from the observations of Dr. Duncan, that the Amosbce 
habitually take their food at what may be considered the posterior 
part of the body. With this hint he examined specimens of the 
curious amoeboid animal described under the name of Dinamoeha, 
of which he had recently obtained a good supply from the ditches 
of a cranberry-iield at Atco, New Jersey. He had since on several 
occasions had the opportunity of seeing the Dinamoeha take its food, 
which was done, as indicated by Dr. Duncan, at the posterior part 
of the body. One instance appeared to him to be particularly inter- 
esting, and was related as follows : — 

Seeing a specimen of Dinamoeha with its left side in contact with 
a filament of the alga Bamhusina Brebissonii, he was led to watch 
it. On closer examination it proved that the alga entered to the 
left of the tail and extended through the body, causing a slight 
bulge of the ectosarc by its other end to the left of the head. The 
Dinamoeha became slightly elongated, and the alga sunk more in- 
wardly from behind. The former moved with an inclination to 
the right, causing the alga to assume an oblique position from left 
to right. The anterior end of the alga suddenly protruded from 
the body of the animal, so that this appeared to be pierced by it. 
In this condition the alga entered the Dinamoeha to the left of the 
tail and protruded at the right of the head. Gradually the alga 
was made to assume a transverse position. The right extremity 
of the alga now became depressed and the left elevated, so that 
the alga assumed nearly its original position, in which it appeared 
to perforate the left border of the animal obliquely from the tail 
end. It gradually acquired a central position, penetrating the 
animal from tail to head. The Dinamoeha now elongated at both 
ends, a third greater than its former length, extending in a fusi- 
form manner upon the alga. The animal next doubled upon itself, 
so that both ends of the alga approached in front and protruded 
side by side from the head. One extremity of the alga then sunk 
within the Dinamoeha, and subsequently the other extremity, so 
that the filament, about three times the length of the animal, be- 
came coiled up within it. 

The observation of swallowing the Bamhusina was made in the 
afternoon of September 15. In the evening, several hours after 
the first observation, on looking at the Dinamoeha^ which had been 
preserved in an animalcule-cage, it was observed sitting, as it were, 
on a large filament of the alga Diclymoprium Grevilii. The pos- 
terior end of the animal extended as a cylindrical expansion along 
the alga to a greater length than the breadth of the body of the 



262 Miscellaneous. 

Dinamosba, and so closely clasped it as to contract the gelatinous 
envelope of the alga to little more than the thickness of the green 
cells. After some time the alga suddenly broke, and the two por- 
tions were gradually bent backward and made slowly to approach, 
so as to become parallel with each other. One of the pieces was 
then drawn within the animal a convenient length, broken off, and 
completely swallowed, and this was followed by a similar move- 
ment of the otlier piece. Shortly after the first rupture of the 
alga, when the two portions projected at an obtuse angle from the 
back portion of the Dinamoeba, the animal contracted in length, 
and discharged from the right side a mass of bodies, which con- 
sisted of the separated cells of Bamhusina, probably from the fila- 
ment it had swallowed in the afternoon. 

Prof. Leidy remarked that the two successive observations on 
the feeding of Dinamosba appeared to be particularly fortunate, 
as they apparently explained certain facts in the habits of the 
animal. Dinanioeha had been noticed to be especially fond of the 
alga Didymoprkim ; for it was found to be present as the principal 
element of the food in numerous specimens. Bamhusina was less 
frequently found among the food contents of the animal. The 
algse were equally abundant in the localities of the Dinamoeba ; 
and, from the observations detailed, it would appear that the Didy- 
moprimn is preferred as food from the comparative ease with which 
its filaments arc broken into pieces of convenient size for swal- 
lowing. 

The observations are, moreover, interesting from their indicating 
discrimination and purpose in the movements of one of the simplest 
forms of animal life,. The movements are to be viewed as reflex 
in character, though resembling the voluntary movements by which 
the most intelligent animal would prepare morsels of food of con- 
venient form to take into the mouth. In striking contrast were 
the movements, noticed on several occasions, by which an Oscilla- 
toria obtained entrance into the empty shell of an ArceUa, and 
there, coiled up, crept round and round incessantly. — Proc. Acad. 
Nat Sci. Philad., Oct. 1877. 

On the Structure of Amphioxus lanceolattis. By Prof. Schneider. 

The longitudinal muscles of the body-wall may be divided into 
the longus dorsi and rectus abdominis. The rectus reaches from 
the third segment to the anus, and lies beneath the chorda and 
within the longus dorsi. Its segments are the same as those of the 
longus ; so that for the above extent each myocomma divides into a 
portion belonging to the longus and a portion belonging to the rectus. 
The laminae of which, as Grenacher demonstrated, the fibrillar sub- 
stance of the longitudinal muscles consists, converge in the longus 
towards the spinal cord ; in the rectus towards a point situated out- 
side the body — to the right for the right side, to the left for the left 
side. 

The nervous system may he very beautifully isolated by the 
method described by Owsianikow, but only partially ; and, indeed, 
Owsianikow's figure by no means shows the whole nervous system. 



Miscellaneous. 263 

as was formerly supposed, but, besides the spinal cord and brain, 
only the upper sensory nerves. The inferior roots are best seen in 
transverse sections, as Stieda correctly states. The description of 
the nerves gis-en by Stieda would be perfectly correct had he not 
started from the supposition that the nerve-roots lie only iu the 
sheaths of the myocommata (ligaments). According to Stieda the 
nerves entering the ligaments would be alternately a sensory and a 
motor one. But only the former enters the ligaments ; the motor 
nerves are interligamental. Behind each ligament originates an 
upper root, which soon enters the ligament and runs towards the 
skin. The fibres are very delicate, and united at their issue from 
the spinal cord into a round cord. There is no dilatation ; small 
nuclei lying in the commencement of the cord probably represent 
the spinal ganglion. The motor roots behave differently. The en- 
velope of connective tissue, which closely embraces the spinal cord, 
is furnished along its lower edge, and, indeed, in the entire posterior 
half of each myocomma, with apertures through which fibres of the 
spinal cord, the motor nerves, issue. The fibres proceeding from the 
apertures unite first of all into a flat cord, and then radiate upwards 
and downwards over the inner free edges of the fibrillar laminae. 
Their direction crosses the edges. For each edge a fibre bends 
round in a wide curve, and applies itself thereto under a very acute 
angle. These fibres enter into the fissure between the rectus and 
the longus dorsi. Large specimens, 4 centims. long, present a re- 
markable appearance in the five segments following behind the anus. 
Those fibres which go to the upper half of the part of the myo- 
comma lying below the spinal cord are converted into transversely 
striated muscular fibres from the laminae nearly to the spinal cord. 
I use the term " converted " only for the more easy description of 
the facts. When the spinal cord is isolated by Owsianikow's 
method, the origins of the motor nerves appear upon it only as slight 
conical elevations. 

The heart commences at the free end of the caecum, runs along 
the upper edge of the latter towards the intestine, and, bending 
round, then passes along the ventral surface of the intestine towards 
the branchiae. The part lying on the caecum is at first a simple 
tube, then a system of from four to five parallel tubes repeatedly 
communicating with one another and possessing caecal diverticula 
on both sides. The part situated by the intestine is again simple. 

Of the branchial rods some, which are rather thicker, are cleft at 
the lower end, the others not. Besides this previously known 
peculiarity, they are distinguished by the form of the transverse 
section and the shape of the canal contained in them. The blood 
passes from the branches of the branchial artery first of all into the 
canal of the cleft rods, and thence through the vessels running along 
(not in the interior of) the transverse rods, into the uncleft rods. 

The canals of the branchial rods open above into branchial veins, 
which, bending backwards and downwards, open into the aortas. 
From the aorta, which is double in the branchial part, although 
simple further back, there originates on each side interligamentally 
an upper branch to the longitudinal muscles, and ligament-ally an 
inferior branch, which, running along the ligaments, ramifies upon 



264 Miscellaneous. 

the surface of the ventral cavity. No breaking-up of these branches 
into capillaries, or union of them with veins, was to be detected. 

Behind the branchial part, along the intestine, capillaries issue 
from the aorta on both sides without the intervention of arteries ; 
and these spread out reticularly in the connective layer of the 
muscularis mucosce, hereafter to be described. Their occurrence was 
detected by Langerhans. The intestinal vein is situated upon the 
same layer ventrally. It consists posteriorly of about five reticularly 
communicating parallel tubes ; anteriorly the number is reduced 
until there is 0]ily one, which gradually narrows, and finally disap- 
pears at the commencement of the coecum. From behind, as far as 
the region whore some three tubes are present, short transverse 
branches, into which the capillaries open, are given ofi^ on both sides 
from the margin of the tubular system. Then follows a space with- 
out transverse Ijranches or other openings for the capillaries, until 
finally, before the termination, transverse branches again occur ; 
these receive no capillaries, but probably open freely into the lym- 
phatic space, which has still to be described. The intestinal veins 
and their transverse branches are closely covered with transverse 
muscular fibres. 

Job. Miiller, to whom a portion of these vessels was known, sup- 
posed that there was a vascular connexion of the intestinal veins 
with the vessel that I have called the heart : but nothing of the kind 
can be demonstrated. 

The intestinal canal is formed by an inner and an outer layer. 
The inner layer consists of the intestinal epithelium and a mttscu- 
laris composed principally of transverse fibres, which, tlierefore, 
may very well be regarded as a muscularis mucosce. In its funda- 
mental substance this layer contains the capillaries ; and the intes- 
tinal vein is applied to its outer surface. The outer layer consists 
of the peritoneal epithelium and a muscular layer also composed of 
transverse fibres. At the spot where the intestine passes into the 
branchial region the muscles are particularly thick and partly trans- 
verselj' striated. Between these two layers, which may also be 
traced in the branchial part, there is a wide space. Its complicated 
structure has been described by Langerhans, and particularly accu- 
rately by Rolph. I can confirm his description, and only add to it 
that from the portion of this space which surrounds the branchial 
artery a branch may be traced along the outer surface of each of 
the cleft branchial rods to the section running above along the 
branchiae. But whatever may be the development of this space, in 
adult animals it does not serve, as Rolph supposes, as a body-cavity, 
but as a venous or lymphatic space, which cannot well be separated 
in Amphioxus. It not only bears a great quantity of materials 
which coagulate in chromic acid and alcohol, but it also leads into 
the heart. The heart may be traced for some distance forward from 
the apex of the caecum, where it then opens into the venous space 
running along above the branchiae. Besides these largest and long- 
est veins, there are shorter veins, which, on each branchial rod along 
the caecum, enter the heart. These veins of the heart were seen by 
J. Miiller, but regarded by him as bands between the caecum and 
the branchiae. — Oberhessischen Oeselhch. fur Natur- und Heilkunde, 
Oiessen, November 14, 1877. 



THE ANNALS 



MAGAZINE or NATURAL HISTOEY. 

[FIFTH SERIES.] 
No. 4. APRIL 1878. 



XXX. — On the Genus Haliphysema, with Description of seve- 
ral Forms apparently allied to it. By the Rev. A. M. 
NOKMAN, M.A. 

[Plate XVI.] 

It is now many years since Haltphysenia first attracted my 
attention ; and well do I remember the extreme interest felt 
at finding the type of ^. ramulosum, which was dredged oflf the 
Guernsey coast, attachedto a dead Oorgonia verrucosa, which 
came up laden with a forest of treasures growing on it. 

The genus is now attracting considerable attention ; and as 
I cannot entirely agree with some of the views either of Mr. 
Carter, on the one side, or of Prof. Haeckel on the other, I 
propose to give my reasons for dissenting from certain points 
which they hold with regard to the systematic position of 
these animals, or the relationship which exists between the 
known forms. 

I feel the more called upon to state my opinion upon the 
questions at issue because I have undertaken to edit the fourth 
and last, posthumous volume of my late friend Dr. Bower- 
bank's ' jyionograph of the British Spongiadge.' It will be 
necessary, in the first place, briefly to trace the outlines of 
what has been written upon Haliphysema before entering upon 
an investigation of the views of different authors with respect 
to the species of this and allied genera which have fallen under 
their observation. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 18 



266 Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Halipliysema. 

I. History of the Genus Haliphysema. 

In the year 1862 Dr. Bowerbank first characterized the 
genus Haliphysema^ in the third part of his memoirs " On the 
Anatomy and Physiology of the Spongiadge," published in 
the ' Philosophical Transactions.' The characters given were 
as follows : — 

" Sponge consisting of a hollow basal mass, from which 
emanates a single cloacal fistula. Skeleton : spicula of the 
base disposed irregularly ; spicula of the fistula disposed prin- 
cipally in lines parallel to the long axis of the sponge, with- 
out fasciculation." 

The type species was H. Tumanowiczii^ Bow., figured 
pi. Ixxiii. fig. 3. The author stated that he was unable to 
detect either oscala or pores, but held that the general struc- 
ture of the organism showed relationship to Alcyoncellum and 
Polymastia. In the first volume of the ' Monograph of the 
British Spongiadas,' the above-mentioned figure and descrip- 
tion were reproduced ; and there can be no question that up to 
the year 1865 Dr. Bowerbank held that the spicules incorpo- 
rated in the structure of Haliphysema were the secretion of 
the animal, and not the product of other sponges selected by 
Haliphysema and built into its walls. It was in this year 
that I discovered in Guernsey a second species of the genus, H. 
ramulosum^ and, sending it to Dr. Bowerbank for examina- 
tion, called his attention to the masonic properties of the 
animal. In his second volume (1866), in describing H. ra- 
mulosum, he fully recognized "' the selection and incorporation 
of the extraneous material of the skeleton," and, in his account 
of H. Tumanoiciczii, described the pedicel and head as having 
" an incorporation of fragments of spicula of various sizes 
and forms and of minute grains of sand." 

It seems extraordinary that after this, in one of his very 
last papers, Bowerbank should have described a sponge as 
belonging to this genus, of which he states that there are " no 
adventitious substances incorporated in the skeleton, as in the 
other two species, and all its spicula are undoubtedly secreted 
by itself " — a statement which seems fully borne out by his 
description and figures, and which renders it impossible that 
Haliphysema tuhulatum^ should be retained in the genus to 
which it was assigned by its describer. 

* Bowerbank, " Report on a Collection of Sponges found at Ceylon 
by E. W. H. Holdsworth, Esq.," Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873, p. 29, pi. vii. 
figs. 1-6. IT. tubulatutn appears to be a remarkable sponge, consisting of 
an agglomeration of very numerous elongated tubidi without terminal 
openings, closely appressed together and forming a mass nearly 3 inches 
long by 2 wide. The cylindrical tubuli, when separated from each 



Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Hallphysema. 267 

In 1868 Mr. Parfitt* described with accuracy the structure 
of the base or dome-shaped bulb by which the type species 
is attached to the seaweed or Hydrozoon on which it lives. 
This bulb, when carefully opened, Mr. Parfitt stated, has 
" five, six, or even seven radii, like the spokes of a wheel." 

We now come to the observations of Mr. Carter, who, in 
1870, having met with Haliphysema Tumanowiczii at Bud- 
leigh-Salterton, accurately described the test with its incorpo- 
ration and garnishing of extraneous objects, consisting chiefly 
of sand-grains and both siliceous and calcareous spicules 
belonging to various species of sponges, which Haliphysema, 
by some wonderful collective and selective power, gathers 
together, and, clever builder as it is, appropriates and usss 
either for the purpose of strengthening its test or as weapons 
of defence, inserting them, in the latter case, into the walls of 
its dwelling, like pins stuck into a pin-cushion. Next Mr. 
Carter entered into a minute description of the chambered 
character of the discoidal base, thus confirming Mr. Parfitt's 
observation, of which, however, he does not seem to have been 
aware. Mr. Carter expected to find pseudopodia issuing from 
the minute rounded orifice which is situated at the distal end 
and immersed among the brush of terminal appropriated 
spicules ; but he did not succeed in detecting them. Arguing, 
however, chiefly from the pseudo-septate structure of the 
adherent bulb-disk, he gave it as his opinion that Bower- 
bank's so-called sponge was no sponge at all, but a Foramini- 
fer, which he assigned to Schultze's genus 8quamul{na, and 
called Squamulina scopida. 

In the next number of the ' Annals ' Mr. Carter made a 
few observations upon Haliphysema ramulosum, a specimen of 
which he had examined in the British Museum f. These 
specimens were sent to the Museum by Prof. Oscar Schmidt, 
having been collected by Count Pourtales on the coast of 
Florida. 

Four months later Mr. Carter was fortunate enough to meet 
with H. ramulosum (or, as he calls it, a " branched form of 

other, are found to have their surface bristling with numerous acuate 
spicula, some of which are subflecto- attenuate and incipiently spinous, 
while other spicula, used for defence and as skeleton-spicula, are large 
flecto-attenuate-acuate and smooth. The latter spicula are of great size 
as compared with the diameter of the tubuli. Tubuli apparently devoid 
both of oscula and of pores. The sarcode is blood-red. I know of no 
genus into which this Ceylon sponge can fall, and will propose for it the 
name Aulospouf/us (alXos and a-n-oyyos) ; and the species will become 
Aulospongiis tubulatus (Bow.). 

* Trans. Devon Assoc. Sci. Literat. and Art, p. 14 (separate copy). 

t Ann. k Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. v. (1870) p. .389. 

18* 



268 Kev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 

Squamulina scopula ") at Budleigli-Salterton, and made the 
following observations : — " On cutting off the branched head 
with a pair of scissors across the main stem, and placing it in 
a watch-glass, the truncated end soon after threw out a bunch 
of obliquely branching and anastomosing filaments or pseudo- 
podia, to the extent of a sixtieth of an inch long, all round, which 
continued retracting and extending themselves and exhibit- 
ing the granule-circulation, after the manner of the sarcode 
of the Foraminifera, for six hours, when the whole were gradu- 
ally withdrawn and did not reappear. Thus the Foramini- 
ferous character of Squamulina scopula and its branched 
variety is proved. I could not see any filaments projected 
from the head in any of the specimens ; nor would it be easy 
to do so, as these probably entwine themselves about the 
spicules which are always raised up from the bottom of the 
water ; but the truncated end of the stem lay on the watch- 
glass, over which it was easy to see the extended filaments 
with a one-inch compound power" *. 

Mr. Carter has also met with what he regards as another 
form of the same genus at Budleigh-Salterton. To this he 
has given the name Squamulina varians. It consists of a 
little rounded dome, commonly semiglobular, but varying 
much in shape, attached by its flat side to the fucus or other 
object on which it grows, having a test composed of colourless 
grains of quartz and sponge-spicules incorporated in a chiti- 
nous substance, with a slight admixture of calcareous parti- 
cles. The dome is furnished with an extended margin, 
projecting beyond the body of the test, and terminating in a 
thin edge, the basis of attachment of the organism being thus 
greater than the size of the dome itself. A single rounded 
aperture is situated either at the base or summit, or anywhere 
between the two, and tliis aperture is somewhat funnel-shaped, 
widening outwards. Size seldom exceeding l-30th of an inch 
in diameter. 

It is this Squamulina varians which comes nearest in gene- 
ral form to Squamulina Icevis, Schultze ; but, besides other 
differences, while the test of Carter's so-called Squamulina 
is arenaceous, that of the type of the genus is calcareous. 

Squamulina varians is in general form very like the base 
of H. Tumanowiczii before the development of the column 
and clavate head ; but unless it be the immature stage of that 
or of an allied species, it cannot take its position with them 
in Haliphysema. 

But we have to consider the position of the type with refer- 

• Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. vi. (1870) p. 347. 



Rev. A. M. Norman on the Germs Haliphysema. 269 

ence to Mr. Carter's investigations. Even granted, for the sake 
of argument, that he has made out a strong case for the Fora- 
miniferal, or, at any rate, Rhizopodal character of the animals 
constituting Bowerbank's genus Haliphysema, it appears to 
me that they have not the remotest claim to be included in 
Schultze's genus Squamulina. But on what principle has 
Mr. Carter changed the specific name and substituted scopula 
for the prior appellation given by Bowerbank, Tumanowiczii'i 
There can be no justification for such a step. No one could 
possibly mistake the animal which was first described and 
figured ; and the supposition that Dr. Bowerbank had as- 
signed the dead tests of an obscure organism, which he had 
not observed in a living state, to a wrong class, is no justifi- 
able reason for rejecting the specific name he gave. If errors 
in first description invalidated the names then assigned, where 
should we stop in changes of nomenclature ? Confining criti- 
cism to the Protozoa, and not even there condescending to 
notice mistakes as regards single species or even genera, are 
all the Foraminifera to be renamed which were originally 
described as Mollusca ? or the sponges which were regarded as 
plants? If Mr. Carter's mode of proceeding as regards 
Haliphysema Tumanowiczii is right, such wholesale altera- 
tions in nomenclature as I have hinted at would, on the same 
grounds, be allowable. 

I was unable to regard the arguments which Mr. Carter 
adduced in favour of the Rhizopodal nature of these organ- 
isms as conclusive at the time when they were first published. 
The partitioned character of the base might perhaps be nothing 
more than a means of additional hold upon the body to which 
the test is attached, and of giving strength to the dome which 
supports the column. It is of importance, moreover, as bear- 
ing upon one of the arguments of Mr. Carter in favour of the 
foraminiferal nature of Haliphysema, to observe : — first, that 
he entirely failed to discover pseudopodial processes naturally 
extruded* ; and, secondly, that though, on being cut in two, 
the injured parts did elongate themselves after the manner of 
pseudopodia, yet we have evidence that pseudopodial move- 
ments are quite consistent wuth sponge-structure. Haeckel, 
in speaking of what he calls the ectoderm, or animal germ- 
lamella of the young calcisponge, says that if torn mechanic 

* Mr. Kent, in the 'Annals,' 1878, i. p. 14, speaks of Mr. Carter as 
" witnessing the protrusion of pseudopodia from the terminal orifice oi 
the types in question." I am not aware that Mr. Carter has anywhere 
stated that he has witnessed such a protrusion ; he only witnessed the 
extension of pseudopodium-like processes from the exuding syncytium 
which escaped from the pedicel ol //. ramidosum when cut in two with a 
pair of scissors. 



270 Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 

cally the fragments will take the form of Amoeba and walk 
about, and that if the endodermal cells, which so closely re- 
semble (if they be not actually) flagellate Infusoria, be libe- 
rated artificially they also will assume amoeboid shape and 
motions. Mr. Kent, again, says that he has frequently 
observed " the withdrawal by the adult individual collar- 
bearing monad of the characteristic hyaline collar and the 
extension of pseudopodic processes," and is of opinion "that 
in a true sponge, agreeing in all structural details with the 
simple Haliphysemata, we should expect to find the sarcode or 
syncytial element protruded in such a fashion for the seizing 
of the fragmentary foreign particles out of which it builds up 
instead of secreting, as do ordinary sponges, a protective and 
supporting framework." Just so. The supposition of such 
protrusion is the only possible way of accounting for the 
wonderful building-feats of this creature. Where is the hand 
to be found to select, to grasp, to convey, and to arrange the 
spicula and sand-grains built into the walls, unless it be in 
the extension, flexibility, and retraction of extrusive portions 
of the sarcode or syncytium ? Is such motion compatible with 
sponge-structure ? and have we any thing like it in a univer- 
sally acknowledged sponge which can serve as a precedent ? 
The genus Dysidea or Spongelia affords an almost exact 
parallel, saA^e that in that instance the extraneous material is 
taken into the interior of the organic parts instead of being 
built into their outer wall ; or, in other words, it is used to 
form an internal skeleton instead of to furnish a dermal crust. 
The grains of sand which occupy the areno-fibrous structure 
of Dysidea vaxxsX have been grasped, and placed in the position 
in which they are ultimately enclosed by the investing mate- 
rial, by a process similar to that employed in the case of 
Haliphysema ; and sarcodic extension is the only grasping- 
instrument which we can conceive possible in animals pre- 
senting the organization of these genera. 

I maintain, therefore, that the presence of pseudopodial 
action is not inconsistent with the position of Haliphysema 
among the sponges; and although such action has not yet 
been seen to take place from the body of the uninjured animal, 
we may pretty safely predict that it will hereafter be found 
to exist. 

We now come to Prof. Haeckel's memoir, in which he has 
described and figured the presence of flagellate epithelium 
with its flagellate cells [Oeisselzellen) as he calls them, or 
" collar-bearing monads " according to the views of those 
who differ from him. Presuming these observations to be 
substantiated, the theory that Haliphysema is a Forarainifer 



Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 271 

of course falls to the ground. Haeckel's observations alto- 
gether appear to give the strongest confirmation to the 
opinion originally entertained by Dr. Bowerbank as to the 
position of this animal, though in the arrangement of genera 
it is very far removed from Polymastia on the one hand, and 
from Euplectella {= Alci/oncellum, Bow.) on the other, in 
juxtaposition with which its describer placed it. Taking Mr. 
Carter's to be the best classification as yet suggested for the 
Spongida, I should place the " Physema7'ia " of Haeckel as an 
order between Carter^s Order II. Ceratiiia ( = the horny-fibrous- 
skeleton sponges), and Order III. Psammonemata ( = sponges 
having a skeleton composed of fibre in which sand is incorpo- 
rated) ; and I would suggest as the name of such an order 
PsamAioteichina (Tei;!^09, a wall). The genera and species 
adopted by Haeckel will be noticed further on. 

Mr. Kent's " Observations upon Prof. Haeckel's Group of 
the '■ Physemaria^ and on the Affinity of Sponges," published 
in the ' Annals ' for last January, while it makes us anxious to 
see the full illustration of his views in the forthcoming me- 
moir in the ' Linnean Transactions,' does not throw any 
special light upon Haliphysema^ which he does not appear to 
have ever seen. His observations confirm those of Prof. H. 
James-Clark in every particular, carrying investigation fur- 
ther into those orders of the sponges in which Clark had 
not observed the presence of the " collar-bearing " monads. 
Prof. Clark found himself unable to do more than infer the 
position of the mouth, which he regarded as situated at the 
base, or close to the base, of the flagellum, to which place he 
believed that the particles of food were brought by the rota- 
tory action of the flagellum. Mr. Kent assumes that the 
whole of the collar, " consisting of an exquisitely delicate 
film of sarcode, and exhibiting a circulating stream, ascending 
on the outside and descending on the inside," and " consti- 
tuting a wonderful and most admirably constructed trap for 
the purpose of drawing towards it and arresting passing parti- 
cles of food," "must necessarily be characterized as the oral 
or inceptive " organ. I would ask him to consider whether 
organs designed for the purpose of bringing food-particles 
within reach of the mouth are to be regarded as the mouth 
itself. The action of the collar performs, it would appear from 
his description, an office similar in function to that discharged 
by the cilia of the " wheels " of the Rotifera. 

Lastly, we have the paper by Mereschkowsky upon Wag- 
nerella^ a highly interesting little sponge. But this animal, 
though in form assimilating closely to Haliphysemaj apparently 
widely differs, since the spicules both of the stem and head are 



272 Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 

the result of its own secretion, and not extraneous matter in- 
corporated in the test. Attention may also be called to the 
fact that, whereas in Haliphysema the arrangement of the 
spicula in the pedicel is always parallel to the axis of the 
sponge, in Wagnerella the short acerates are uniformly ar- 
ranged transversely to the axis. 

II. The Species 0/ Haliphysema and its Allies. 

Order PSAMMOTEICHINA, Norman. 

Genus Haliphysema, Bow. 

= Sqtiamulina, Carter (but not of Schultze). 
= Gastrophysema, Haeckel. 

The characters of Schultze's genus Squamulina are : — "Test 
like a plano-convex lens, with the fiat side attached ; calca- 
reous ; enclosing a simple undivided cavity (' eine einfache un- 
getheilte Hohlung umschliessend ') ; a large opening on the con- 
vex side ; without small pores." Carter, in 1870, apparently 
had not Schultze's ' Ueber den Organismus der Polythalamien' 
at hand, and only knew that author's genus through Carpen- 
ter's * Introduction.' It so happened that Carpenter omitted all 
reference to the " simple undivided cavity ;" and thus Carter 
fell into the mistake of placing in Squamulina a form the 
foraminiferal nature of which he was attempting to establish 
on account of the non-simple and pseudo-septate character of 
the pedestal or plano-convex foot. Foraminifer or not, the 
pseudo-septate-based, arenaceous Haliphysema Tumanowiczii^ 
with its great (great as compared with the plano-convex base) 
obversely conical column and body, has most certainly no near 
relation to the little scale-like, calcareous Squamulina^ with 
its simple, little, dome-shaped undivided chamber. It is pro- 
bable that Mr. Carter, with his present knowledge, would not 
now attempt to maintain that position ; a much stronger argu- 
ment might have been based on comparison with such a 
masonic foraminifer as Lituola nautiloidea^ Lamk., which, 
commencing with a small spiral arrangement of cells, suddenly 
altering its growth, develops a straight series of chambers of 
great size as compared with those preceding. 

Haeckel's views of nomenclature are peculiar to, and, it is 
to be hoped, always will remain peculiar to, himself. He ap- 
pears to take pleasure in establishing spurious genera and 
subsequently demolishing them*. I am sorry to anticipate 

* It is really much to be regretted that Haeckel, using the slightest 
modifications, or supposed possible modifications, of character, which no 
other naturalist has ever dreamt of regarding as of even varietal importance. 



Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 273 

him with respect to Gastro])h7/setna, and thus deprive him of 
the pleasure he experiences in the art of "happy despatch." 
I thoroughly indorse Mr. Kent's argument. I have several 
two-celled, and some three-celled, examples of true Lagence in 
my collection ; are new genera to be created for them ? A 
Greenland Nodosarian [Dentalina jgaujperata^ Parker and 
Jones) has much more commonly one chamber only than two 



should manufacture, and often immediately afterwards proceed to destroy, 
innumerable genera and species. -We already, without this sort of thing, 
have only too much useless synonymy. As an example of Haeckel's 
treatment of the calcareous sponges take our poor little friend Grantia 
compressa, a species which, until the advent of the Professor of Zoology 
at Jena, we all thought we knew. Behold the atlas which Haeckel has 
laid upon this miserable little creature's shoulders to bear — 1. Sycarium 
compi'essum, 2. Artynas comjjressits, 3. Sycidium compressutn, 4. Artymurn 
compressum, 5. Sycocystis compressa, 6. Artynellu compressa, 7. Syco- 
phyllimi comjM'essum, 8. Artynophylhim compressum, 9. Sycometra com- 
pressa, 10. Sycum lingua, 11. Sycarium rhojialodes, 12. Artynas rhopa- 
lodes, 13. Artynella rhopalodes, 14. Dyssycum claviyerum, 15. Sycophyllum 
lohatiim, 16. Sycurus compi'essus, 17. Syconella compressa, 18. Sycothamnus 
compressus, 19. Sycintda comjjressa, 20. Sycodendron compressum, 21. 
Sycandra foliacea, 22. Sycandra pennigei'a, 23. Sycandra clavigera, 24. 
Sycandra. rhopalodes, 25. Sycandra lobata, 26. Sycandra polyinorpha, 27. 
Sycortis compressa ! The first fifteen of these names were established in 
the ' Prodromus eines Systems der Kalkschwamme ;' but in his ' Die 
Kalkschwamme ' he knocked upon the head eleven out of the fifteen 
generic names just before coined, but immediately proceeded to construct 
twelve more names to take their place. This done, he again bowls his 
nine-pins over, and leaves us with a twenty-eight-synonymed Sycandra 
compressa, which he would have us accept as the mother of all his still- 
born children. I am sorry that we cannot even oblige him in that. 
Grantia com2wessa is the name under which our old lady was baptized ; 
and that name has been, is, and will be the honoured name she loves to 
own ; but if she changes her name at all, it must be to that of Artynes, of 
Gray, of which she is the type. But the Professor has not even yet 
done. At page 381 he favours us with ''Zweite Abtheilung. Kiinstliches 
System der Kalkschwamme." " Kiinstliches " indeed ! Here we find I 
know not how many subgenera formed for the "generic varieties;" and 
the much-enduring Grantia compressa is made to undergo the further 
torture of having its disjecta membra thrown, in the form of six " sub- 
species," into each of the nine following new and euphonious " sub- 
genera '' — Sycwandra, Syconellandra, Sycandrarium, Sycocystandra, 
Sycothamnella, Sycinulandra, Sycodenandrtitn, Sycandrojjhylhmi, Sycan- 
drometra. The magician waves his waud : " Behold ! Grantia comjn-essa 
might be, can be, is divided into fifty-four (6x9) subspecies ; and then 
do not forget my 'connexive Varietat,' which makes fifty-five. It is 
done ! Veni, vidi, vici!!" We gladly leave with him the victory; 
but surely a man of Prof. Haeckel's genius might more worthily employ 
his time. Had his demonstration been that fifty-five forms which had 
been named and placed by other naturalists as so many species in twenty- 
seven genera, were nothing more than the unstable modifications of one 
type, and, as possessing no constant character, must be brought together in 
one so-called species, a benefit Avouldhave been conferred upon science. 



274 Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 

or more ; must a genus be created for this, to separate it from 
species which often have twenty and more chambers ? Lists 
of such comparisons might be multiplied to any extent. 
Gastrojiliysema is simply Haliphysema more fully developed. 

Halijjhysema Tumanoioicziij Bow. 

1862. Halyphysema Tumanowiczii, Bowerbank, Philos. Trans, p. 1105, 

pi. Ixxiii. fig-. 3 ; Monog. Brit. Sponges, vol. i. (1864) p. 179, pi. 

XXX. fig. 359, vol. ii. p. 76. 
1866. Halyphysema Tumanowiczii, 0. Schmidt, Zweites Supplem. d. 

Spong. d. Adriatischen Meeres, p. 13, plate, fig. 13 (copy from 

Bowerbank). 
1868. Halyphysema Tumanoioiezii, Parfitt, Trans. Devon Assoc. Sci. 

Literat. and Art, p. 14 (separate copy). 
1870. Squamulina scopula, Carter, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. v. 

p. 310, pi. iv. figs. 1-11, and vol. xx. (1877) p. 337. 
1877. Haliphysetna primordiale, Haeckel, Biologische Studien, p. 180, 

pi. ix. 
1877. Haliphysema Tumanoioiezii, Haeckel, /. c. p. 192. 
1877. Gastrophysema dithalamimn, Haeckel, /. c. p. 196, pis. xii -xiv. 
1877. Gastrophysema scopula, Haeckel, /, c. p. 206. 

Hah. Hastings {Mr. Tumanowicz\ Berwick Bay {Dr. 
Johnston) J CuUercoats (?) {Alder) ^ Budleigh-Salterton {Gar- 
ter) ; Bergen, Norway {Haeckel) j '"'■ H.irrimordiale^'' Mediter- 
ranean, Corsica {Haeckel) ; " G. dithalamium^'' Mediter- 
ranean, Smyrna {Haeckel). 

Mr. Carter found this species at Budleigh-Salterton, and, 
though he renamed it, at the same time identified it with 
Bowerbank's type species of Haliphysema. Haeckel, how- 
ever, denies that Carter had ever seen Bowerbank's species. 
Mr. Carter has replied that he has now had the opportunity 
of comparing his own specimens side by side with those of Dr. 
Bowerbank, and that they are identical. This last statement 

1 am in a position to entirely indorse. In my collection 
are some of Mr. Tumanowicz's type specimens on Halecium 
Beaniij which were given to me by Dr. Bowerbank, and also 
type specimens of Squamulina scopida, for which I am in- 
debted to Mr. Carter. They are absolutely identical. I have 
not seen any specimens with the constrictions so deep and 
strongly marked as Carter's pi. iv. fig. 2 ; but the largest of 
Mr. Tumanowicz's examples closely resembles his chief 
figure (3), while the youngest resemble the typical figures of 
2\manowicziij and primordiale and those of intermediate 
age, dithalamium ; at the same time monothalamous specimens 
often exceed in size the dithalamous. They range from 1 to 

2 millims. in length. 

Haeckel's characters for his so-called species are : — 

//. primordiale. " Body of person spindle-shaped, attached 



Rev. A. M. Norman on the Oenus Haliphysema. 275 

by a short thick pediceL Pedicel soHd, cylindrical, scarcely 
half as long as body. Body-cavity spindle-shaped. Mouth- 
opening simple. The extraneous bodies which incrust the 
exoderm consisting on the lower (aboral) half chiefly of sand- 
grains, on the upper (oral) half by preference of spicules of 
different sponges, both siliceous and calcareous, spicules ar- 
ranged oral wards." 

G. dithalamium. " Body of person, taken as a whole, long 
and club-shaped, divided by a median constriction into two 
chambers lying one over the other ; attached by means of a 
short cylindrical pedicel. Pedicel placed upon a disk-shaped 
widening base. At the opposite (upper) end a simple, cir- 
cular mouth-opening. The uppermost (distal or oral) cham- 
ber elliptical or egg-shaped, one third larger each way than 
the under round chamber. Pedicel and foot-disk solid. The 
cavities of the chambers joined by a narrow neck (sipho). 
In the aboral chamber (Bruthdhle) the ova are developed. A 
ciliated spiral is found in the oral chamber near the mouth- 
opening. Extraneous bodies which incrust the exoderm 
composed on the under half, for the most part, of sand-grains 
and fragments of spicula ; on the upper half (in the wall of the 
second or largest chamber), of long spicula of different species 
of sponges ; these stand out on all sides, and have their points 
directed forwards." 

I cannot think that the fact of the pedicel in the forms 
described by Haeckel being characterized as solid, while in 
those examined by Carter it is hollow, is of any consequence. 
Carter's observations were quite correct as regards dead spe- 
cimens ; but he himself, in cutting a living H. ramulosum across 
the pedicel, observed the escape of the sarcode or syncytium 
with which it was filled ; and I take it that all that Haeckel 
means, and all that he figures, is that the pedicel is filled with 
such syncytium, whereas the chambers have a hollow cavity. 
In drying, the syncytium, shrinking up against the pseudo- 
skeleton of the surrounding wall, leaves the pedicel, as ob- 
served by Carter, hollow ; and the cavity of the body will, in 
that condition, extend from the mouth-opening to the plano- 
convex disk of attachment. 

I have given Haeckel's characters of jprimordiale and 
dithalamium J which will speak for themselves. Without fur- 
ther evidence these scarcely appear to be of specific or even 
varietal importance. 

2. Haliphysema ramulosum^ Bow. 

1866. Halyphysema rmnulosa, Bowerbank, Monog. Brit. Sponges, vol. ii. 
p. 79, and vol. iii. (1874) pi. xiii. fig. 1. 



276 Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 

1870. Hahjphysema ramulosa, Carter, Ann, & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 
vol. V. p. 389. Squamulina scopula, var. ramulosa, id. ibid. vol. vi. 
p. 345. 

1877. Halijjht/sema ranmlosum, Haeckel, Biologisclie Studien, p. 193. 

Hob. Dredged off Guernsey on Oorgonia verrucosa, and in 
Birterbuy Bay, Ireland, on Phyllojohora ruhens {A. M. N.) ; 
among sponges and on rocks between tide-marks, Budleigh- 
Salterton, Devon (Carter) • off the coast of Florida, U. S., 
dredged by Pourtales, Jide Schmidt ( Car-ter) . 

I regard this as entirely distinct from H. Tumanowiczn • 
indeed the differences are so important that it is probable 
they will hereafter be regarded as generic. 

In H. Tumanowiczn, with the development of the animal, 
a series of incompletely separated chambers is formed by 
greater or less transverse constrictions of the test. 

In H. ramulosum, with the development of the animal, a 
series of completely separated chambers is formed by longitu- 
dinal fission and entire partition of the last- formed chamber ; 
and this process, continually repeated, issues in the building- 
up of a colony consisting of a many-branched head sur- 
mounting a long pedicel, the branches dichotomously divided 
with great regularity, and each terminating in a rather small 
rounded chamber. 

A single head of either, however, may be distinguished at 
a glance, apart from the mode of growth ; or they may again 
be separated in the early stages when only a single chamber 
is developed, since in H. Tumanoioiczii that chamber is more 
or less elongate-ovate, and has the points of its garnishing 
spicula all directed forwards ; but in H. ramulosum it is round 
or subrotund, and has its garnishing spicula radiating in every 
direction. 

In 1874 I procured in Birterbuy Bay a piece of Phyllo])hoi'a 
ruhens covered with the young of this species in their early 
unbranched condition with only a single head ; from their 
young state they were very fragile, and the greater num- 
ber in drying separated from their bases. But the Pliyllo- 
phora was sent for Dr. Bowerbank to see ; and among his un- 
published manuscript I find the following note : — " Among 
the specimens I received from the Be v. A. M. Norman for 
examination there was a portion of a thin foliaceous Fucus, 
rather exceeding two inches in length and three in width, 
both surfaces of which were nearly covered by small patches 
of various species of Lepralia, small shells, and other para- 
sites ; and amid these, based on the Fucus, there were nume- 
rous young specimens of Halyphysema ramulosd. They con- 
sisted of single tubes of the sponge, very rarely exhibiting 



Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 277 

any rudiment of terminal branches, each springing from a 
small circular basal patch. Although in so young a condition, 
they were identical in structure with the type specimen repre- 
sented in pi. xiii. fig. 1, vol. iii., Mon. Brit. Spongiadse." 
I quote this as confirming my own opinion respecting the 
unbranched young of ^. ramulosum. 

On the other hand, the largest specimen I have seen is one 
for which I am indebted to Mr. Carter, who found it at Bud- 
leigh-Salterton. It is 7 millims. high, of which 5 millims. is 
occupied by the slender unbranched stem, nearly another 
millim. is taken up by the first fork ; and in the last millim. of 
length the branches divide and subdivide, extending themselves 
in all directions, and terminating ultimately in sixteen branch- 
lets with their terminal heads. 

3. Haliphysema echinoides^ Haeckel. 

1877. Haliphysema echinoides, Haeckel, Biologische Studien, p. 186, 
pi. X. 

" Body of person round or subspherical, attached by a long 
and slender pedicel. Pedicel cylindrical, conically widened 
above, solid, 2-3 times as long, but scarcely -^ as wide as the 
diameter of the ball. Body -cavity round or subcorneal. Mouth- 
opening widening into a somewhat funnel-shaped form. Ex- 
traneous bodies, which incrust the exoderm of the pedicel, 
consisting of sand-grains and longitudinally arranged sponge- 
spicules ; extraneous material of the ball-shaped body consist- 
ing of spicules of various sponges, which stand out on all 
sides, chiefly, however, radiating from and covering the mid- 
dle of the body " {Haeckel). 

There is but little in the above description to distinguish 
this from the last-described species, to the young unbranched 
stage of which it bears a very close resemblance. I, however, 
keep it apart, because the ball is represented as much larger 
in proportion to the pedicel than I have ever seen it to be in 
H. ramulosum ; and the character of the spicules employed 
seems to show that it is a deep-sea species, whereas H. ramu- 
losum lives in shallow water. When Haeckel's species is 
better known, it may prove to be more distinct than it now 
appears. Moreover the large size of the ball, as compared 
with the axial column, will be seen to present difficulties in 
the way of the longitudinal fission of the heads and their con- 
version into branches, which I regard as so important a feature 
in the evolution of the colony of H. ramulosum. 

Hah. Atlantic Ocean [Koren fide Haeckel). 

It is surprising that Haeckel should have thought that 
there was any relation between the animal he described as 



278 Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Hallphysema. 

above and Wyvilletomsonia WalUchii, P. Wright. The 
apparent resemblance is a mere matter of isomorphism. Any 
spongologist looking at Stewart's beautiful figure illustrating 
Wright's paper will at once see that he has a sponge 
before him, that the spicula are in natural position in the 
tissues, and the whole spicules are those of Tisiplionia 
agariciformis^ Wyv. Thomson, of which I agree with Mr. 
Carter in considering Wright's little sponge to be the 
young stage. The aspect of H. ecMnoides is wholly dif- 
ferent ; the spicules are stuck into the tissues as adornments or 
objects of defence, and clearly have just as much connexion 
with the animal that wears them as the upstanding feathers of 
the head-dress of a Red Indian have with the man who puts 
them on. It is true that H. ecMnoides has appropriated, for 
the most part, the spicula of Wyvilletomsoma or of some 
closely allied corticate sponge ; but mixed with these are the 
spheroids of a Oeodia, together with some recurvo-ternates, 
which, from the robust character of their prongs, also seem 
referable to the latter genus. 

4. Hallphysema glohigerina, Haeckel. 

1877, Haliijhysema glohigerina, Haeckel, Biologische Studien, p. 189, 
pi. xi. 

" Body of person pear-shaped, attached by a very slender 
and long pedicel. Pedicel solid, cylindrical, conically widened 
above, about 4-6 times as long, but scarcely one tenth as wide 
as body. Body-cavity pear-shaped. Mouth-opening simple. 
Extraneous bodies, which incrust the exoderm, composed of 
the elements of deep-sea mud, consisting in the body- wall 
chiefly of Rhizopod shells, in the pedicel chiefly of coccoliths 
and coccospheres." 

Hah. " North Atlantic Ocean {Randropp) " {Haeckel). 

The above species differs entirely from the rest in its selec- 
tion of shells of Foraminifera, Polycystina, Coccoliths, and 
Coccospheres as the strengthening material of its body-wall, 
which exhibits, on the other hand, a total absence of sponge- 
spicules. 

I am strongly reminded by this species of an approaching 
isomorph found in deep water in the Atlantic, and which 
Mr. H. B. Brady proposes to describe under the name " ^- 
perammina^^'' on account of its pestle-like form. There can, 
however, I think, be no doubt that Hyperammina is a fora- 
minifer. The expanded extremity has no mouth-opening; 
and the colour of the walls, which consist entirely of sand- 
grains, is, as in many other arenaceous Foraminifera, ferru- 
ginous. 



Rev. A. M. Norman 07i the Genus Haliphysema. 279 

5. Hal'ipht/sema confertum, n. sp. (PI. XVI. figs. 1, 2.) 

Animal consisting of a bunch of " persons " attached toge- 
ther by their bases, and forming nearly a complete ball. 
Body of person nearly spherical, attached by a long slender 
pedicel. Pedicel 3-4 times as long, and not more than one 
fourth as broad, as the body. Mouth-opening very large. 
Extraneous bodies, which incrust the animal, consisting, on 
the pedicel, of sand-grains and other very minute bodies ; on 
the body, of sand-grains and Foraminifera. 

Diameter of a cluster, containing forty or fifty " persons," 
about one miUim. ; length of a " person " about one third of a 
millim. 

Hab. ' Valorous ' Expedition, 1875, Station No. 9, lat. 59° 
10' N., long. 50° 25' W., 1750 fathoms. The position of this 
dredging is just within Davis Strait. 

Two clusters of the above organism were found ; the one 
had all the bodies broken ofi", and consisted of a nearly 
globular aggregation of the pedicels ; the other had several of 
the bodies still remaining. It is not without doubt that I 
place this organism in the genus Haliphysema^ because the 
extraneous material is not apparently completely built into 
the substance of the body-wall, but appears rather as though 
clinging to a viscid substance which holds it. The fact, 
however, that in the pedicels the extraneous bodies are all of 
very minute size, whereas on the exterior of the round body- 
cavity an occasional minute Globigerina is found to have a 
place, seems to argue a selection on the part of the animal ; 
and I know of know other order to which these animals can 
be referred. 

III. On two new Genera perhaps allied to Haliphysema. 

Genus Technitella, n. g. 

(TexviTqs, an artificer.) 

Test elliptical, cylindrical, or subfusiform, composed of the 
broken fragments of sponge-spicula arranged parallel to the 
axis and enclosed entirely, or rarely only partially, in the 
body-wall. Unattached below and closed. A tubular mouth- 
opening formed by a contraction for a short distance of the 
body-walls so as to form a short tube. 

Technitella legumen, n. sp. (PI. XVI. figs. 3, 4.) 

The form of the test in this animal reminds one somewhat 
of the outline of the pod of the edible pea, being cylindrical 
throughout the greater part of its length, with the aboral 



280 Rev. A. M. Norman on two new Genera 

extremity slightly extruded, and that rather out of the central 
line, as is the distal point (style) of the pea-pod, while the 
mouth-opening is in the form of a contracted tube, repre- 
senting about the same proportional length and width to the 
cylinder as the basal portion of the pea-pod, where it passes 
into the calyx, does to the pod itself. 

The body-wall of Teckmtella is an exquisite specimen of 
perfect masonry: it is beautifully built up of the fragments of 
minute acerate spicula, laid in regular order side by side, and 
cemented with a mortar composed probably of the finest dust 
of quartz, so that the whole test is of exquisite snowy white- 
ness, corresponding in this respect to that of H. Tumanowiczii. 
Length 1*25 millira. 

Hob. Found among rich foraminiferous sand dredged by 
Dr. JeiFreys's yacht ' The Osprey,' in 112 fathoms, 30 miles 
west of Valentia, Ireland, in 1870. 

Technitella melo, n. sp. (PI. XVI. figs. 5, 6.) 

Test regularly ovoid, broadly and evenly rounded below 
■ (aborally) ; greatest diameter below the middle ; above the 
middle sloped away to the central anterior (oral) opening. 
Oral opening not markedly extruded or tubular as in the last 
species, but compressed, so that the opening is in the form of 
a slit ; this slit in the type is wider at the sides than in its 
central portion. The test is formed of minute linear sponge- 
spicules, built carefully into the wall, and the interstices filled 
with the same sort of snow-white cement as in the last species. 
Instead, however, of the whole of the spicula being entirely 
built into the body-wall as is the case in Technitella legumen^ 
in this species the aboral portion is garnished with scattered 
acerate projecting spicula, the pointed ends of which are pro- 
truded considerably from the body- wall, and are invariably 
directed backwards. Length 1*4 millim., breadth 1 millim. 

Hah. Found among material dredged about 60 miles south 
of Rockal, by the ' Porcupine ' Expedition, in 1869. Station 
No. 28, lat. 56° 44' N., long. 12° 52' W., 1215 fathoms. 

The form of this little animal is just that of such a Lagena 
as L. melo^ D'Orb. ; and its aspect under a high power, with 
its imbedded and here and there projecting little spicula, 
reminded me forcibly of the appearance of a cocoa-nut when 
the outer husk is stripped off. 

The type was picked out from the ' Porcupine ' material by 
Mr. H. B. Brady, and sent to me marked "sponge? " There 
is no higlier authority among the Foraminifera than Mr. 
Brady; and it is important therefore, as bearing upon the posi- 
tion which I have provisionally assigned to tliis genus, that 



perhaiys allied to Hali})lijsema. 281 

he has rejected it from among the Foraminifera, on the 
description of which he was engaged. 

Genus Maesipella, n. g. 

(lidpcrnros, a purse.) 

Test elongated, fusiform, centrally cylindrical, and drawn 
out to gradually attenuated extremities, open at both ends, 
monothalamous ; anterior extremity much produced into a 
narrow contracted mouth-opening. Extraneous matter of 
body- wall consisting for the most part of sand-grains, but at the 
oral extremity composed almost solely of fragments of sponge- 
spicula longitudinally arranged. 

Marsipella elongata^ n. sp. (PI. XVI. fig. 7.) 

1875. Proteonina , Carpenter, The Microscope, p. 533, woodcut, 

d, e,f. 

Test greatly elongated, the diameter equal to one seventh 
to one twelfth of length, gradually drawn out to the extremi- 
ties, and nearly equally so orally and aborally. Oral extre- 
mity in the form of an elongated narrow mouth-opening. 
Test built up of coarse sand-grains roughly put together, 
interspersed here and there with a sponge-spicule. Tubular 
mouth-opening having its wall entirely formed by a faggot of 
acerate sponge-spicula longitudinally disposed and cemented 
together. Length 4-5 millims. 

Hab. ' Porcupine ' Expedition, 1869, No. 87, lat. 59° 35' 
N., long. 9° IV W., 767 fathoms. 

Dr. Carpenter has referred the foregoing to the genus Pro- 
teonina of Williamson ; but that genus appears to have been 
founded upon imperfect specimens of Lituola nautiloidea, 
Lamk., and its connexion with the present species cannot be 
maintained. 

I have introduced the descriptions of the genera Techni- 
tella and Marsipella — not that I am at all satisfied that their 
organization will ultimately prove such as to cause them to be 
left in juxtaposition with Haliphysema, but because they 
appear to me to be genera tncertce sedis, to which it appears 
desirable to call attention in connexion with Haliphysema. 
From this genus it will be obvious that they are at once to be 
distinguished by their free and unattached character; but there 
is much in the form of their body-cavity, as well as in the 
structure of their masonic walls and the peculiar way in 
which the incorporation of the sponge-spicules takes place, 
which suggests possible relationship. The snowy whiteness 
of the test of Technitella is,, as far as I am aware, without 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 19 



282 Eev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 

parallel among tlie arenaceous Foraminifera, wliile it is emi- 
nently characteristic of Haliphysema. Marsipella is described 
as unattached and open on the aboral extremity ; for such is 
the condition of the specimens which I have seen ; but it is 
possible that when living it may be attached by the base, 
since, if this were the case, it is hardly likely that such a little 
organism would maintain its attachment after the rough 
treatment of being dredged and drawn up through two miles 
of water. 

Though these two forms appear to have so much in com- 
mon with Haliphysema as regards external features, yet the 
deep Atlantic dredgings of the ' Porcupine ' and ' Valorous ' 
have brought to light such a remarkable assemblage of arena- 
ceous Foraminifera, most of which are still undescribed, that 
it appears impossible to say where the line of demarcation is 
to be drawn between Technitella and Marsipella and such 
genera as Trochammina and Lituola. Future investigation 
can alone settle this point. Meanwhile I describe them here 
as appearing to me more nearly related to Haliphysema^ 
though still I leave them as genera incertce sedis. 

Postscript. 

The foregoing paper was sent to the Editors of the 'Annals' 
at the end of January. Mr. Carter's notes in the February 
number call for one or two additional observations. 

Mr. Carter makes the following remarkable declaration : — 
"Whether there be collared flagellated monadic bodies in 
Squamulina scopula or not, the polythalamous character, so 
appropriately given by the illustrious Ehrenberg to what we 
now call Foraminifera, decides the question with those who 
are well acquainted with the structure of the latter as well as 
that of the Spongida. No sponge, that I know of, presents 
the polythalamous character of Squamulina scopula, in its 
foot (root) or anywhere else." 

I must decline to acquiesce in such a statement. 

First. Because I deny that there is any " polythalamous " 
character in the base of Haliphysema ; and I believe that this 
is the first time that Mr. Carter has made such a statement. 
He has before always correctly spoken of this dome-shaped 
base of attachment as internally "partially divided," "pseudo- 
septal," "sMZ>-polythalamous." There really is but a single 
chamber, with recesses at the sides formed by the 5-7 radii, 
which, originating at the margin, stretch thence " toward the 
centre, which they seldom, if ever, reach." To compare great 
things with small, the single-chambered dome of the Reading- 



Rev. A. M. Norman on the Genus Haliphysema. 283 

Room of the British Museum with its radiating desks (sup- 
posing them carried up to the roof) will be analogous to what 
we have in the dome-shaped base of Haliphysema, while the 
long series of Libraries connected with each other only by 
doors represents the typical polythalamous character of the 
Foraminifera. 

Secondly. Are we really to understand Mr. Carter to mean 
that if his own examination of living Haliphysema should 
confirm Haeckel's discovery of the existence of " collared, fla- 
gellated monadic bodies," or, as Carter has elsewhere named 
them, " spongozoa," he will still maintain that the organism 
furnished with these spongozoa is a Foraminifer ? All I can 
say is that I should await with interest the arguments by 
which he would maintain such a view. 

Further on Mr. Carter states that Schmidt (Archiv f. 
mikroskop. Anat. Bd. xiv. p. 260) has referred Haliphysema 
echinoides^ Haeckel, to the genus Stelletta. I have not seen 
this paper of Schmidt. It is hardly conceivable that that 
eminent spongologist can have come to such a conclusion 
from the examination of Haeckel's figure and description ; for 
if tab. X. represents accurately the type *, it appears to me 
as impossible to suppose that the spicules drawn belong to the 
sponge and are in natural position, as it is to suppose (as 
Haeckel wrongly imagined) that the spicula in Perceval 
Wright's admirable illustration of Wyvilletomsonia are not 
in their natural position f. It may be that Schmidt has exa- 
mined the type specimen, that the drawing is wrong, and 
that on this ground he asserts that Haeckel's species is a 
Stelletta. If that be so, cadat qucestio. 

Lastly, I do not understand what Mr. Carter means when, 
in reference to the form of the dome-shaped base of Haliphy- 
sema, he contrasts with it the " embryo of the Spongida," 
which "grows up into branches from a root.'''' BarroisJ has 
represented the early canal-system (pi. xv. fig. 35) in the 
young of Halisarca lohularis, Schmidt, just passing from the 

* Unfortunately we are never sure when looking at Haeckel's beautiful 
plates whether we have before us what the draftsman actually saw, or 
whether the figure is a representation of what he thought he ought to see, 
and which his theorizing led him to the conclusion should be seen. 

t I have many specimens of Wyvilletomsonia Wallichiii, P. Wright 
(= Tisiphonia agariciformis, Wyv.-Tom., = Dorvillia agariciformis, Kent), 
as small as that represented in the type, and one specimen not one fourth 
of that size ; and it is from the examination of tliese specimens that I 
state positively that Wright and Carter have correctly regarded it as a 
corticate sponge. 

X Barrois (0.), "M^moire sur I'Embryologie de quelques Eponges de la 
Manche," Annates des Sci. Natur. vi^siSr. Zoologie, torn. iii. 1876. 

19* 



284 Rev. A^ M. Norman on the Architectural 

embiyo stage ; and the form of that incipient canal-system 
is remarkably like the chamber left in the semiseptate dome 
at the base of Hali'physema. I may add, when referring to 
Barrois, that at pi. xiii. fig. 15 he gives a capital illustration 
of pseudopodial action in the young of Orantia compressa — an 
additional witness to what I have stated in the earlier part of 
this paper, that the protrusion of pseudopodial processes in 
Haliphysema is no proof whatever that it is not a sponge. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVL 

Fig. 1. Haliphysema cotifertiim, Norman, x 40. 

Fig. 2. Haliphysema conferUmi, Norman, a single individual separated 

from the group, X 150. 
Fig. 3. Technitella legumen, NoiTuan, x 40. 
Fig. 4. Technitella legumen, Norman, anterior portion, X 40. 
Fig. 5. Technitella melo, Norman, X 100. 
Fig. 6. Technitella melo, Norman, posterior portion, X 40. 
Fig. 7. Marsipella elo'ngata, Norman, X 100. 



XXXI. — On the Architectural Achievements of little MasonSj 
Annelidan (?) and Rhizopodan^ in the Ahyss of tJie At- 
lantic. By the Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A. 

No group of Tnvertebrata has received more important addi- 
tions through the recent dredgings in the North Atlantic than 
the Arenaceous Foraminifera. The mode of incorporation of 
extraneous material in the tests of these and of other Rhizo- 
poda, and also in the tubes of wdiat are presumed to be cases 
of minute Annelids, is not only marvellously beautiful, but 
appears also to be almost endlessly diversified. The power of 
selection evidenced is truly wonderful : from the same ground, 
and therefore from the midst of the same material for use, I 
have seen as many as seventeen different species, each of which 
has a specific individuality of its own in the choice and mode 
of appropriation of the particles, whether of mineral or organic 
origin, which it selects from the mud — and this wholly apart 
from characters which depend on the form of the one or more 
chambers which constitute the animal or tube. To exemplify 
my meaning I will throw the classes of diversity into tabular 
form, so as to give some slight idea of the varied ways in which 
these clever little artificers set about their work and_construct 
tlieir dwellings. 

A. Material chosen hy the Artificers. 

1. Coarse sand-grains, almost entirely of quartz. 

2. Medium-sized quartz-grains. 



Achievements of AnneliJa (?) and lihizopoda. 285 

3. Comminuted dust of quartz. 

The above workers, though living together and, so to 
speak, getting their material from the same quarry, are 
most particular as to the size of the stones they respectively 
build with. 

4. Various grains of different colours, many black (apparently 

manganese), giving the whole test a grey colour*. 

5. Sponge-spicules, rarely of any other form than acerates ; 

but while one (A) will select only fragments of large 
acerates, another (B) will reject every thing save the 
smallest spicules. 

6. Olohigerma-ii\\t\\% used exclusively. 

7. Test made of sand-grains of small size, with here and there 

a Globigerina stuck in a conspicuous manner on the out- 
side, as though for ornament. 

8. Tests formed of the minutest particles of " Glohigerina- 

ooze," consisting of coccoliths &c. 

9. Tests in which flat fragments of the shells of bivalve Mol- 

lusca form conspicuous objects ; the fragments may be so 
built together as to form (A) a produced series of cham- 
bers (after the form of Valvulma gramen, D'Orb.), or 
(B) a flattened disk, as, for example, Astrorkiza limi- 
cola^ Sandahl. 

So much for the material employed; but there are also 
various ways of working up the objects into the structures. 
Here ai-e some : — 

B. Modes of using the Building-material. 

1. A promiscuous mixture of little pebbles of various kinds, 

of larger Glohigerince and other Foraminifera. This is, 
perhaps, the least-interesting builder (see " coarse type 
of Nodosarine Lituola^'' Carpenter, Microscope, p. 531, 
fig. 271, e). 

2. The selected quartz-grains (whether 1, 2, or 3 of last list) 

may be used in various ways — either roughly cemented 
together, with their angles projecting, as in a " rough- 
cast" wall: of this mode of building, Botellina, lihab- 
dammina ahyssorum., Sars, Storthosphcera alhida^ Schultze, 
and some microscopic (annelid ?) tubes are examples. Or, 

3. They may build with most wonderful exactness, each grain 

fitted carefully into the interstices of its neighbours, so 
that there is hardly any space left to be filled up by the 

* This is tlie species wliicli has just been recorded by Mr. H. B. Brady 
under tlie name S^nroloctdina celata, Costa, in a paper "On the Occiurence 
of Chalk in the New-Britain Group," Geo!. Mag. dec. ii. vol. iv. no. 12, 
Dec. 1877, p. 7 (separate copy). 



286 Architecture of Annelida (?) and Rhizopoda. 

cement-mortar, the mode of building reminding us of the 
careful dovetailing and fitting of the stones in a Cyclo- 
pean wall : of this mode of building, a Diffiugia (?) from 
Davis Strait affords a type. Or, 

4. The material may be so built as to present a tolerably even 

smooth surface, although the faces of the grains are still 
exposed, as in the " Globigerine," " Nodosarine," and 
" Orbuline Lituola,^'' figured by Carpenter ' Microscope,' 
p. 533, fig. 273, a, J, c, g, h. Or, 

5. The sand-grains may be entirely plastered over and 

covered by the sarcode-cement, so that the surface is 
smooth and polished, like the face of a wall built of 
rubble imbedded in cement : of this, Cyclammina can- 
cellata, H. B. Brady, MS., and some other beautiful 
undescribed forms are examples. 

6. So with the employment of sponge-spicules. Nothing but 

fragments of large spicules may be employed : and these 
may be (A) laid longitudinally and cemented into a rough 
tube, or (B) they may be used only in one particular 
part of the structure, as in Marsipelh, elongata, Norman. 
Or, 

7. Nothing but the smallest spicules may be used, and these 

incorporated with great exactitude in the walls, none of 
them projecting to the smallest degree, as in Technitella 
legumen, Norman, and an undescribed tube. Or, 

8. They maybe projected at right angles to the surface, stand- 

ing out hedgehog-fashion from the wall, as in Pilidina 
Jeffreysii, Carpenter, and in some beautiful tubes in my 
collection. Or, 

9. A spicule may stand out here and there from a wall which 

is mainly built up of very finely comminuted material, 
as in Carpenter's " moniliform Lituola " {l. c. fig. 271,/) 
and in another species in my collection. Or, 

10. A single large spicule may be employed to form an axis, 

on the middle of which a little sand ball is wrapped, so 
that it has the appearance of being spitted by the spicule, 
which projects many times the length of the ball on each 
side of it. 

11. The Globigerine shells, to the exclusion of every thing 

else, are built up into a form closely related to Lituola 
scorpiurus (Montfort). 

C. Colour of Deep-sea Arenaceous Foraminifera. 

1. White: Technitella legumen, 'NoimsiTi, T. melo, Norman, 
or the Glohigerina-hinldmg form just referred to. 



On new Sj)ecies of Heterocera froT^i Japan. 287 

2. Dirty brown (sand-colour, as we ordinarily term it) : -45- 

trorhiza arenaria^ Norman, or " Orthocerine Lituola^'' of 
Carpenter. 

3. E-ust-coloured or ferruginous, the tint (a) dark : Cyclam- 

mina cancellata, Brady, MS. {h) rich and ruddy : Tro- 
chammina irregularis^ the tadpole-shaped form figured. 
Carpenter, Introd. Foram. pi. xi. fig. 6 ; Trochammina 
gordialis^ P. & J. ; and Astrorhiza catenata^ Norman, 
(c) pale : Lituola canariensis, D'Orb., and the forms 
mentioned under B. 

4. Grey : see A, 4. 

5. Very dark, almost black, as in an abyssal Foraminifer 

which seems to be identical with the fossil Nodosaria 
Schlichtii, Reuss. 

6. Green : the green sarcode in living specimens is often very 

vivid. I have an undescribed scale-like form which has 
been dead eleven years ; yet on being wetted the green 
colouring is most conspicuous. 

The above brief notes will give some notion of the wonder- 
ful skill displayed by these little architects. I have made no 
allusion to the very great variety of form in their dwellings ; 
and inasmuch as the greater number of the species from which 
these Notes are drawn remain still undescribed, I have only 
been able to illustrate my meaning by reference to a few 
named species. Brief as the Notes are, I have thought that 
they would have interest at the present moment as connected 
with structures built by Haliphysema^ Technitella^ and Mar- 
sipella. 



XXXII. — Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera fi'om 
Japan. — Part II. Noctuites. By Arthur G. Butler, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

[Continued from p. 204.] 

AmpMpyridsB. 

134. Amphipyra erehina, n. sp. 

Allied to A. perflua^ but rather smaller, more sericeous ; 
the primaries with the inner zigzag stripe obscured, the outer 
stripe less white and not so regularly dentate-sinuate, the ex- 
ternal area greyer, with the markings less distinct ; a blackish 
lunate subapical patch : secondaries dark grey instead of pale 
brown; fringe and marginal edge sordid whitish. Wings below 
streaked with grey, the discal band darker and more sharply 



288 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Species 

defined ; the discocellular spot of primaries dark brown, ill- 
defined, that of secondaries black; abroad submarginal greyish- 
brown band diffused internally on the primaries. Expanse 
2 inches 1 line. 

Yokoh am a [Jonas) . 

We have also a dwarfed example from Hakodate measuring 
only 1 inch 9 lines in expanse. 

135. Amphipyra tripartita, n. sp. 

Intermediate between the A. perjiua and A. livida groups. 
Primaries above glossy raven-black, crossed by two white 
belts, one near the base, the other running from the apical 
third of the costa to the external angle, slightly arched and 
partly intersected externally by a tapering dull red streak ; 
area beyond the band brownish, with an irregular submar- 
ginal scries of white-sj^ccklcd black spots : secondaries 
shining chocolate-brown ; fringe pale brown, with a broad 
central grey belt : thorax raven-black ; abdomen smoky brown, 
with a shining greenish lustre. Underside greyish fuliginous, 
sericeous ; the external area broadly darker, crossed by a paler 
discal band ; secondaries with the costal half dusky, base whitish ; 
a black spot at the end of the cell ; legs black, banded with 
whitish. Expanse 1 inch 11 lines to 2 inches 4 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

136. Orthogonia crispina, n. sp. 

Primaries above pale greyish whity brown (in some examples 
purplish brown and sericeous, with the exception of the in- 
ternal border), tinted here and there with green, and striated 
with grey ; a triangular dull greenish spot at the base of the 
cell, bounded above by a A-shaped black marking and 
below by a black y ; base brownish, a large black spot near 
the base of inner border ; a broad central brown band, tinted 
with lilacinc and green, clouded and striated with black, its 
inner edge angular, its outer edge gently bisinuate, both 
edges immediately followed by a grey line of the same form ; 
costal margin yellow, spotted with blackish from the end of 
the cell, a greyish discal streak in which (on the discoidal in- 
terspaces) are two black spots ; a broad external tapering 
greyish patch, bounded internally by a darker line and, oppo- 
site to the discal spots, by a black >; a marginal row of black 
lunulcs; fringe purplish brown, with a yellow undulated basal 
line : secondaries greyish brown, with broad diffused purplish 
brown outer border; costal area silky opaline whitish; fringe 
testaceous, tipped with white : body corresponding in tint with 



of Heterocera jrom Japan. 289 

the wings ; the thorax greyish whity brown in the centre. 
Wings below pale shining brown, a discal line and a diffused 
belt beyond it greyish ; fringe as above : costa of primaries 
yellowish ; a brown discocellular lunule in secondaries. Ex- 
panse 2 inches 6 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

Allied to 0. sera of Felder. 

137. Mormo mucivirens^ n. sp. 

Primariesabove dull olive-green, with darkermarkings,nearly 
as in Mormo maiira, edged with pale green ; the pale brown 
diffused areas of M. 7naura replaced by sericeous grey more 
or less mottled with olive-green : secondaries purplish brown, 
the external area broadly darker ; fringe testaceous, intersected 
by a grey stripe : body corresponding with the wings. Under 
surface fuliginous brown; primaries sericeous, especially 
towards the inner margin, which is greyish ; two dusky 
parallel discal stripes ; outer border rather paler than the rest 
of the wing ; costa spotted with testaceous beyond the cell ; 
fringe with a testaceous basal line : secondaries with a large 
spot at the end of the cell and a discal stripe blackish brown ; 
external area dusky ; fringe as above : legs blackish, speckled 
and banded with testaceous. Expanse 2 inches 6-7 lines. 

Yokohama (Jotias). 

Perin^nia, n. gen. 

Nearly allied to Nwnia, agreeing with it in the normal or 
three-branched median vein of secondaries*, but differing in its 
very broad compressed palpi, the terminal joint of which is at 
least twice as broad and abruptly truncated. Type P. 
lignosa. 

138. Perinoinia lignosa^ n. sp. 

Above shining fuliginous brown ; primaries reticulated 
with paler brown ; a longitudinal black streak through the 
cell, interrupted by white dots indicating the position of the 
orbicular and reniform spots, and terminating as it reaches 
a transverse undulated discal black line, beyond which are 
four or five decreasing black longitudinal dashes ,• a marginal 
series of black dots ; fringe greyish, with a basal undulated 
testaceous line : secondaries with a broad blackish border ; 
fringe whitish : abdomen greyish. Wings below whity brown, 
with diffused and blurred blackish discal line and black disco- 

* It is placed among the ''Quadrilidfe" because this Aein ouffht to have 
four branches in all genera of that group. 



290 Mr. A. G. Butler on neto Species 

cellular spots; discoidal cell of primaries greyish; margin 
and marginal dots black. Expanse 1 inch 10 lines. 
Yokohama (Jonas). 

139. Ncenia muscosa, n. sp. 

Primaries sericeous greyish brown, with darker and paler 
markings much as in N. typica^ but with the orbicular and 
reniform spots, a spot at the base, another near the base on 
interno-median area, and one near external angle pale greenish ; 
the inner geminate line much more undulated, the submar- 
ginal black-bordered whitish line strongly dentate, the centre 
forming two ^-shaped characters : secondaries sericeous grey, 
with darker central line and outer border ; fringe as in N. 
typica : thorax pale testaceous, the collar sordid whitish at 
the base on each side, and surrounded by semicircular blackish 
lines ; abdomen greyish. Wings below pale sericeous whity 
brown, the disk greyish ; two dark grey discal lines; marginal 
black liturge ; fringe with an interrupted central grey stripe ; 
secondaries whitish at the base ; a blackish spot at the end of 
the cell. Expanse 1 inch 8 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

Toxocampidae. 

140. Toxocampa lilacina^ n. sp. 

Allied to T. vicice^ but the primaries distinctly shot with 
lilac ; the spot at the end of the cell subtriangular, excavated 
in front, without the upper black dots ; the discal belt with its 
inner pale margin much more deeply sinuated, and its outer 
pale edge rather straighter ; this belt and the external area 
greyish brown : secondaries greyer, with broader and more 
uniform fringe : body greyer, collar and crest of head jet-black. 
Under surface greyer, the discal belt more diffused ; tarsi of 
anterior legs with the terminal joints black. Expanse 1 inch 
7-10 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

141. Toxocampa enormis^ n. sp. 

Primaries grey, with a slightly lilacine tint, crossed by five 
lines, the first basicostal, abbreviated, little more than an elon- 
gated brown spot, second straight, with a short angle above 
the costal vein, third regularly zigzag, bifurcate from the end 
of the cell (but interrupted by the reniform spot, which is 
black with brown centre and white margin), these three lines 
brown, indistinctly bordered with pale grey internally ; fourth 
or inner discal line whitish, zigzag, lunulated from the middle 



of Heterocera Jrom Japan. 291 

downwards ; the wing beyond this line and the costal area as 
far as the third line suffused with brown ; fifth line whitish 
and nearly straight to the first median branch, where it is 
replaced by a dark grey 3-shaped line ; a submarginal series 
of short longitudinal whitish lines terminating in black dots ; 
fringe dark grey, traversed by a whitish line : secondaries 
pale brown, with a broad fuliginous outer border ; fringe stra- 
mineous : thorax grey, black-speckled, crest of head and 
collar jet-black ; abdomen greyish, with the base and edges 
of the segments whitish ; anal tuft stramineous. Under 
surface pale sandy yellow : wings with a broad blackish ex- 
terno-discal band, outer border brownish, widest in primaries ; 
fringe of these wings dark grey, with basal whitish line, dis- 
coidal cell and interno-median area greyish : secondaries with 
a grey dot at the end of the cell ; front of pectus and legs 
above greyish. Expanse 2 inches 6 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

Of more than twice the bulk of any known species. 

Ommatophoridae. 
142. Nyctipao Icetitia, n. sp. 

Near to N. crepusculans, but altogether duller ; the white 
discal stripe not bordered with lilac ; the yellowish outer border 
of the arched white stripe and the diffused oblique bars on the 
external area replaced by dull pale brown ; all the dark areas 
fuliginous ; the ocellus smaller, its front margin more regu- 
larly convex ; the white lunules on the disk of all the wings 
more slender, and enclosing large blackish spots. Under 
surface darker and duller, the white spots of the discal series 
rather larger, and the other spots smaller; the inner arched 
streak of secondaries further from the discal series of spots. 
Expanse 4 inches 5 lines. 

Hakodate {White!?/) ', Yokohama {Jonas). 

Hypopyridse. 

143. Spirama tnterlmeata, n. sp. 

Spiramia (aic) japoyiica, Walker (nee Gu^n^e), Lap. Het. Suppl. iii. 
p. 948 (1865). 

(J , Yokohama {Jonas) ; ? , Japan {Fortune). 

S. interlineata chiefly differs from the 8. rectifasciata of 
M^netri^s, of which we also possess both sexes, in the creamy 
tint of the white belt, which in the primaries is traversed by 
two parallel brown lines. 



292 Mr. A. G. Butler on new Sjyecies 

144. Hypopyra Martha^ n. sp. 

Nearest to H. dulcina of Felder, but at once distinguishable 
by its shorter primaries, its paler and redder coloration above, 
the absence of the oblique streak from the apex of primaries, 
the well-defined central belt formed by the central incurved 
grey line, and the series of black dots which in H. dulcina 
touch the pale undulated discal stripe, the latter placed near 
tlie submarginal line, which is strongly undulated ; only two 
small black dots at the end of the cell ; the transverse stripes 
of secondaries straight ; body much as in H. dulcina^ but the 
thorax darker and the collar redder. Under surface quite 
different, uniformly red, crossed by three equidistant dusky 
discal stripes ; veins, base, and a submarginal series of <-like 
marks brownish. Expanse 3 inches 1 line. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

OpMusidaB. 
Cheysorithrum, n. gen. 

Allied to OpMusa [0. fidvotcema) , but differing in having 
the terminal joint of the palpi twice the length, the teguUe 
greatly developed laterally so as to form a roof-shaped crest 
over the back of the thorax, the secondaries without the angle 
at the end of the first median branch. Type " Catocala amata ' ' 
of Bremer. 

145. Chrysorithrum sericeum, n. sp. 

Smaller than C. amata ; primaries shining slaty grey, all 
the markings black, and surrounded by a line of the ground- 
colour, followed by a black line ; the angular subbasal band of 
G. amata replaced by a very irregular band, not reaching the 
inner margin, its outer and inferior borders forming three un- 
dulations, its inner edge ^-shaped : secondaries fuliginous 
brown, the disk deepest in colour, a broad tapering ochreous 
band, not reaching the anal angle, and widest just beyond the 
cell : body dark slaty grey ; back of head, collar, and tegulse 
blackish. Under surface fuliginous brown, outer border 
narrowly grey : primaries with a broad subbasal triangular 
patch, sordid ochreous ; a slightly curved discal belt, tapering 
at each end and crossed by black nervures, pale stramineous : 
secondaries with the basal third greyish ; a central oblique 
squamose stramineous streak ; palpi, tarsi, and the upper 
surface of the coxse and femora of the anterior legs brown. 
Expanse 2 inches 4 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 



of Heterocera from Japan. 293 

146. Ophiusa dulcis^ n. sp. 

Allied to O. angularis of Boiscluval, but rather smaller, 
greyer, the lilacine belt of primaries with parallel margins, 
the brown belt beyond it narrower, feebly and regularly exca- 
vated from the middle to the inner margin, but not sinuate 
angulated as in 0. angularis ; apical blackish spots larger and 
confluent : secondaries with whitish border. Expanse 1 inch 
4 lines. 

Yokohama [Jonas). 

0. angularis is figured in Boisduval's ' Faune de Madagas- 
car.' 

Euclidiidse. 

147. Euclidia censors^ n. sp. 

Primaries above like those of ^. cuspidea^ but paler, and with 
the oblique inner band formed like that of E. glyphica : secon- 
daries like those of E. glyphica^ but rather darker, the discal 
band broad and not interrupted, although narrow towards the 
apex ; the basal area also complete : body as in E. cuspidea. 
Wings below ochreous, more or less irrorated with brown, with 
two discal parallel stripes, the outer one of the primaries macu- 
lar, interrupted in the centre, the inner one of secondaries (where 
both are angular) indistinct ; cells terminating with dusky 
lunate spots ; marginal line blackish, fringe black-tipped : 
body somewhat greyish. Expanse 1 inch 5 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 

Bemigiidse. 

148. Remigia annetta^ n. sp. 

Upper surface like that of R. gregalis, excepting that the se- 
condaries are greyish brown, under surface altogether paler 
and yellower : primaries silky grey, with the costal and outer 
borders ochraceous, fringe grey ; limitation of outer border 
and a parallel line across the disk dark grey : secondaries 
ochraceous, irrorated with grey, disk crossed by two parallel 
greyish lines : body below sordid testaceous ; palpi and coxee 
of legs sordid orange. Expanse 1 inch 10 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas) ; Hakodate {Whitely). 

Also allied to R. mutuata. 

ThermesiidsB. 
149. Azazia unduligera^ n. sp. 

Wings above greyish brown ; primaries crossed by two 
irregularly zigzag central dusky lines, indicating a broad 



294 On new Species of Heterocera from Japan. 

central band, through the centre of which runs a straight dif- 
fused dusky streak enclosing the reniform spot, which is 
barely indicated, excepting by a small whitish spot ; two other 
dusky transverse lines near the base, the outer one subparallel 
to the inner central line, the inner one abbreviated; outer 
border dusky, cut off obliquely at apex by a black litura, which 
joins a nearly straight transverse black-edged yellowish line ; 
a marginal series of black dots : secondaries crossed by a cen- 
tral bracket-shaped dusky line ; outer border slightly dusky, 
crossed by a whitish nearly straight line ; a marginal series 
of black dots : body greyish brown. Under surface paler ; 
wings crossed by two parallel dusky lines, followed by a dif- 
fused externo-discal dusky belt ; discocellulars dusky ; a 
whitish line at the base of the fringe ; secondaries slightly 
paler than primaries ; venter pale sandy whitish. Expanse, 
^ 1 inch 9 lines, ? 1 inch 7 lines. 
Yokohama [Jonas). 

This species has somewhat the appearance of Entomogramma 
mediocris^ OpMusa Mstriaris, and Remigia congressa, but is 
clearly allied to Azazia ruhricans. 

150. Selenis lauta, n. sp. 

Allied to S. costalis from Natal ; wings above pale coppery 
brown, a broad white costal border occupying nearly the 
anterior half of the primaries and the basal fifth of the secon- 
daries ; two parallel dusky white-edged discal lines ; a mar- 
ginal series of white-edged black dots ; fringe grey : secon- 
daries with white costal area : head and thorax white, collar 
dark brown ; abdomen pale brown. Under surface sericeous 
white : primaries sordid towards the costa, with indications of 
two parallel greyish discal lines ; costa near apex marked with 
three black dots ; all the wings with a submarginal series of 
black dots and grey fringe: body below creamy whitish. 
Expanse 8 lines. 

Yokohama (Jonas). 

151. Capnodes cinerea^ n. sp. 

Blue-black, densely irrorated with white scales, so that it 
looks as if slaty grey striated with blackish : primaries with 
the basal two thirds of the costal area creamy whitish, inter- 
rupted near the base by a blackish spot followed by an oblique 
black dash, and opposite to the end of the cell by a large 
ferruginous spot followed by a similar black dash; a large 
ferniginous spot close to the base ; a small fulvous spot in the 
cell ; reniform spot fulvous internally, white externally, divi- 



On Races of Herring observed in the Sound. 295 

ded by a black line ; apical border pale tawny ; fringe alter- 
nately sordid white and grey : secondaries with the costa pale, 
fringe as in primaries : body blackish, collar black, prothorax 
and base of abdomen crossed by white belts. Under surface 
fuliginous, costa of primaries streaked and spotted with 
ochreous ; a black oval spot in the cell, and a fusiform spot 
closing the cell, both bordered with creamy white ; fringe as 
above. Expanse, ^ 1 inch 1 line, $ 1 inch 4 lines. 
Yokohama {Jonas). 

152. Capnodes cremata^ n. sp. 

Shining slaty grey, becoming brown towards the borders, 
crossed by two central parallel sinuous lines of black spots ; 
a discal series of white dots parallel to the outer line, and ter- 
minating near anal angle of secondaries in a white TT^-shaped 
character ; outer margin undulated, black, spotted with white, 
and followed on the fringe by a continuous series of black 
crescents ; fringe also blackish externally, particularly on 
primaries; costa of primaries irrorated with testaceous and 
crossed by four or five angular spots of the same colour, from 
the outermost of which (a >-shaped marking) runs a zigzag 
pale greyish, black-edged line across the disk : secondaries 
with a discal series of black-edged testaceous spots : body 
greyish brown, thorax slaty grey. Under surface fuliginous, 
crossed by two central angulated dusky lines ; a pale discal 
line ; outer margin dusky, fringe greyish ; discocellulars 
blackish ; primaries with three decreasing whitish spots on 
apical half of costal margin ; tarsi black, banded with whitish. 
Expanse, $ 1 inch 3 lines, ? 1 inch 5 lines. 

Yokohama {Jonas). 



XXXIII. — On Races of Herring observed in the Sound. 
By G. WiNTHER *. 

The common herring occurs along the coasts of the Kattegat, 
through the Sound, the Belts, and a large portion of the 
Baltic, in several varieties, distinguished by the size and rela- 
tive proportions of their body, as well as by their habits of 
life. In this respect the Sound offers some peculiarities on 
account of its constituting a connecting water between the 
Baltic and the North Sea, of which the Kattegat is a depen- 
dency. There are three distinct races of herrings in the 

* Extract of a paper in the ' Nordisk Tidsskrift for Fiskeri ' (Copen- 
hagen, 1876). 



296 M. G. Winther on Races of 

Sound. One of them spawns in the spring, and corresponds 
in its habits so closely with other fish which are known to be 
stationary in the Sound, that in all probability it is stationary 
like them. This variety is the smallest of the three — a circum- 
stance which is in good keeping with the supposition that it 
does not at any time leave this comparatively narrow and 
shallow basin. The other two varieties are migratory, and 
visit the Sound dm-ing the autumn for the sake of spawning — 
one of them coming from the south, the other from the north, 
both meeting in that part of the Sound which lies between 
the islands of Amager and Saltholm and the Swedish coast, 
and where a chain of shallows, intersected by winding chan- 
nels, stretches right across. The southern kind of herring 
agrees with Nilsson's description of the " Kiviksill " (in 
Skand. Fauna, Fiskar, p. 496) ; this is in all probability 
peculiar to the western part of the Baltic, which differs not a 
little from the portion beyond Bornholtn as to the saltness of 
the water &c. Every autumn large quantities of these 
herrings travel as far as the Flinterende, a channel, well 
known to navigators, between Saltholm and the Swedish 
coast, where they spawn, and from which they again return 
to the Baltic in the winter. Sometimes, but rarely, easterly 
winds and strong currents carry them further nortli after the 
spawning-season ; but until then they do not ordinarily go 
beyond the Flinterende. 

The second of the two varieties which spawn in the autumn 
arrives in the Sound from the Kattegat, and is intermediate 
between the Kiviksill and the Kullasillof Nilsson, or ordinary 
herring of the Kattegat. On account of its habits, this variety 
is called Bundsild or bottom-herring. Generally speaking it 
is very regular in its habits, keeping quiet near the bottom of 
the sea in the daytime, moving about in the deep from about 
an hour before sunset till an hour after sunset, or even as late 
as midnight if the moon is high, and then rising to the sur- 
face, where it remains until sunrise ; but in the spawning- 
season these herrings move about irregularly, and may be 
caught at any time. On their journeys they follow the 
deepest channels, allowing themselves to be carried along by 
the current, and in stormy weather regularly seeking the lee 
coast. The temperature of the water in the Sound in the 
spawning-season is from 50° to 53°' 6 Fahr. The principal 
spawning-ground of this kind is on a submarine plateau north 
of the Flinterende. After the spawning they usually take a 
turn south into the bay of Kjoge, and then return north- 
wards to the Kattegat. The most remarkable circumstance 
in connexion with them is the periodicity which has been ob- 
served in the take of them. Hei-ring-periods are known in 



Herring observed in the Sound. 297 

many foreign places ; but in this case an explanation of the 
phenomenon can be given. In the Sound a herring-period 
lasts eight years. At the commencement the fish are few and 
small ; but there is a steady increase in quantity and quality 
until the fifth and sixth years, which are the best, and are 
followed by two years of decrease in quantity, after which the 
large fish suddenly disappear; and in the ninth year only 
smaller herrings are taken, and the quantity is likewise defi- 
cient. How great the difiference between the fish in the bad 
and the good years is, may be concluded from the fact that 
the length of the meshes of the nets used in 1874, when 
the last completed period terminated, was 56 millims., 
whilst in the nets used in 1867, when that period com- 
menced, it was only 39*5 millims. In 1875, when a new 
period came on, hardly any large fish were taken, but only 
small ones ; and the question naturally arises, What has 
become of the large breed, and where does the small breed 
come from ? The former evidently have remained in the 
Kattegat ; and the latter were of the southern or Baltic 
variety, which had spread over the excellent spawning- 
ground north of the Flinterende, which in ordinary years is 
occupied by the northern variety, but in that year was free. 
Having thus established themselves in the northern portion 
of the Sound, they have gone north into the Kattegat after 
the breeding-season, instead of returning to the Baltic, as 
this kind usually do. From the Kattegat they will now 
return every year to the Sound ; and from living in a 
larger basin, and perhaps on account of the water being more 
salt there, they will increase in size until the Sound becomes 
too confined for them ; then the shoals, led as they always are 
by the biggest individuals, will seek other spawning-grounds 
in the Kattegat, leaving the one north of the Flinterende 
untenanted ; this will then be occupied by another instalment 
of Baltic herrings, probably in 1883. According to this view 
the Bundsild of the Danish fishermen is merely the Baltic 
herring, or Kiviksill, improved by emigration to more favour- 
able localities, where it remains till the improvement has been 
carried still further ; then they cease to return to the sound, but 
remain in the more open water of the Kattegat. Something 
quite analogous seems to hold good with regard to the herring 
in the Great Belt, and perhaps also with regard to other 
species of fish in these waters. It has not yet been observed 
whether the converse, a degeneration of races penetrating into 
the Baltic from the Kattegat, does not take place occasionally. 
In any case a similar explanation is very likely to afford the 
explanation of similar fishing-periods in other places. 
Ann. (fc Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 20 



298 Mr. H. J. Carter on new Species of 

XXXIV. — On neio Species of Hydractiniidae, Recent and 
Fossil^ and on the Identity in Structure of Millepora alcicor- 
nis with Stromatopora. By H. J. Carter, F.R.S. &c. 

[Plate XVII.] 

In tlie ' Annals ' for 1873 (vol. xi. p. 10) I have inserted a 
description of a branched chitinous polypary, to which the late 
Dr. J. E. Gray had given the name of Dehitella atroruhens, 
under the idea that it was a sponge, but which subsequently 
proved to be a species of Hydractinia ; and I have now to 
present the folio v^ing description of a chitinous polypary like 
that of Hydractinia echinata, but with short branches here 
and there similar in form and colour to those of Dehitella 
atroruhenSy which, on the contrary, grows into a bush-like 
polypary from a single, smooth, compressed, root-like stem. 

Hydractinia arhorescenSy n. sp. (PI. XVII. figs. 1—4.) 

Polypary chitinous. Laminiform, surmounted by spines 
and branches indiscriminately scattered over the surface. 
Colour dark amber-brown (PI. XVII. fig. 1). Surface follow- 
ing the form of the object over which the polypary may be 
growing (in this instance a turreted shell like Phos senti- 
cosus, family Buccinidge) ; uniformly even, except where in- 
terrupted by the presence of spines and branches ; presenting 
a granulated reticulation of short, broken, raised, serrulated 
ridges more or less surrounding minute holes once occupied 
by the polypites and other soft parts of the coenosarc (figs. 2, 
by c, and 3, a, b) ; traversed throughout by a venation of 
anastomosing grooves whose depth and distinctness is in pro- 
portion to their size, the largest being 1-1 80th inch in dia- 
meter (fig. 2, a, and fig. 4). Holes of the polypites, which are 
very numerous and equally present along the course of the 
vein-like grooves, as in the interstices of the granulated reticu- 
lation, may be best seen where the coenosarc has been well 
washed out, varying in size, according to their office, from 2 
to 3-1800ths inch in diameter (fig. 2). Spines conical, vari- 
able in size and length, scattered more or less partially over 
the surface so as to leave here and there plane intervals of 
greater or less extent ; often growing into erect branches 
variable also in length and thickness (fig. 1, a a a), the 
largest, which in this instance forms one of a group at the 
anterior extremity of the shell, being 1-1 2th inch in dia- 
meter at the base (fig. l,b), and the remaining longest portion 
of the rest (for they have all been broken off more or less close 
to their origin in the laminiform part of the polypary) l-3rd 



Recent and Fossil Hydractiniidas. 299 

of an inch. In all there were thirty branches or processes, of 
which those at the extremities of the shell respectively were 
the largest and most subdivided. Spines and branches pre- 
senting the same kind of surface as that of the rest of the 
polypary, with the exception that the serrulated ridges of the 
granulated reticulation being longer, thus give rise to oblong 
or more or less elongated interstices ; those on the spines 
forming a series of grano-serrulated ridges, diminishing in 
number upwards, until the last three or four, uniting into a 
point at the summit as in Hydractinia echinata^ thus close 
the cancellated structure of which the spine is otherwise com- 
posed. Branches more or less divided and covered with small 
spines, which terminate the free ends in an alternate manner 
like those of 8ertularia. Internal structure cancellous 
throughout and in direct continuity with the surface through 
the holes of the polypites, so that the coenosarc thus forms a 
continuous mass, in which the cliitinous, clathrous polypary, 
having been developed, becomes its skeleton or organ of sup- 
port, sometimes extending into the calcareous material of 
the shell itself, and transforming the whole lip, as in the pre- 
sent instance, into polypary (fig. 1, c?). Size depending upon 
that of the object over which the Hydractinia may be grow- 
ing ; in the present instance the shell covered by it is 2\ 
inches by f inch broad in its greatest diameters. 

Hob, Marine, growing over hard objects ; in the present 
instance completely covering a shell like Phos senticosus or 
Fusus sulcatus. 

Loc. ? Polynesia. 

Ohs. The specimen from which the above description has 
been taken now belongs to the British Museum, and was found, 
without any label or indication of its locality, among the late 
Dr. Bowerbank's collections. Whether by the waves origi- 
nally, or subsequently from other causes, it has been lament- 
ably treated ; for at the present time, as above stated, out of 
the thirty short branches which it once possessed, not one 
now remains entire, the whole having been broken off at 
variable distances respectively from their origin in the lami- 
niform portion, and some close to it ; while the only branched 
one which is left projects laterally from that part of the poly- 
pary which once entirely covered the apex of the shell as well 
as all other parts, but which is now broken away at this part, 
on the opposite side, so as to expose the apex of the shell 
itself, the only part consequently now uncovered (fig. 1, c). 

At first sight the specimen looks like a shell with branched 
spines ; but on closer inspection this is found to be a mistake, 
although the branches in some parts may have been initiated 

20* 



300 Mr. TI. J. Carter on neto Species of 

by the presence of short spines on the shell itself. At the 
same time, as with the lip so with the branches, the whole 
spine may have been replaced by the polypary of the Hydr ac- 
tinia ; yet then the shell could not have been either of those 
mentioned, especially as the largest and greater number of 
branches are to be found at the extremities ; but I shall 
hereafter show that such branches may arise independently of 
the presence of any spine at all on the shell over which a 
Hydractinia may have grown. The large branches are so 
like in form, structure, and colour, together with their spines, 
to the branches of Dehitella atroruhens that no doubt can be 
entertained of the latter being identical with the former, except 
in specification ; while the grooved, anastomosing venation on 
the surface, which does not exist on D. atroruhens and the 
other bush-like forms that I have examined, is equally iden- 
tical with that of the fossil species Hydractinia pliocena 
('Annals,' 1877, vol. xix. ph viii. fig. 8), which is also pre- 
sent, but less markedly seen, in H. ecliinata. 

This grooved venation (fig. 4), Avhich is the bed of the 
coenosarcal tubulation in which the whole organism originates 
from the commencement, and is the same in structure and 
function where it forms the first sarcodic lamina on the shell 
(' Annals,' 1877, I. c. p. 46) as on the surface of the full- 
grown polypary, is more or less repeated as a proliferous 
membrane on the surface of eveiy layer, although it may not 
be so marked in some as in other species ; yet, in the present 
instance, it is as striking in the chitinous polypary of the 
recent H. arhorescens as it is in the assumed calcareous one of 
the fossil species Hydractinia pliocena^ and will be found 
even more developed in the new fossil species I am about to 
describe. 

Previously, however, it is desirable that I should add a few 
words on the recent species. 

Hydractinia calcarea, Cart. 

Since the description of this was published (' Annals,' 1877, 
vol. xix. p. 50), Mr. Thomas Higgin, of Liverpool, has kindly 
sent me some more specimens on equally small shells of 
Fiisus and Nerita respectively, from the same locality, many 
of which possess short branches which, in two instances, 
growing from a specimen on the smooth surface of a Nerita, 
at once point out that they, at all events, do not originate in 
the presence of a spine on the shell which may have become 
covered or entirely replaced by the polypary of the Hydrac- 
tinia, as at first supposed ('Annals,' 1877, I. c. p. 51), but 
are distinct branches or processes similar to those of the 



Recent and Fossil Hydractiuiidse. 301 

chitinous species just described. On the smooth species of 
Nerita, to which I have alluded, the development of the 
branch can be followed throughout from the spine of the 
polypaiy to its ultimate form, which in the largest specimens 
is about 1-lOth inch in diameter and l-4th of an inch long, 
with a tendency to assume a compressed, palmate, bifurcate 
shape at the free extremity. So it should be remembered 
that the calcareous polypary of Hydractinia calcarea may 
also be branched like the chitinous one of H. arhorescens. 

Hydractinia Kingii, n. sp. 

Fossil. Polypary massive, growing over a turreted shell, 
somewhat like that supporting Hydractinia arhorescens, com- . 
pressed, extending here and there irregularly into a short, 
thick lobe, process, or branch. Composed of compact, greyish- 
white limestone. Surface uniformly even, thickly veined with 
anastomosing grooves amongst graimlar ridges once surround- 
ing the holes of the polypites, which are now tilled up and undis- 
tinguishable from the rest of the calcareous material ; pustu- 
liferous — that is, presenting numerous depressed papillary 
elevations, which are the representatives of the spines in other 
species, and where broken open (as many are) disclosing the 
grooved venation on the surface of the subjacent layer. In- 
ternal structure concentrically laminated, presenting in a 
vertical section roAVS of chambers (? the hollow bases of the 
pustules of each layer) , between which are the vertical tubes 
of the polypites, now, for the most part, filled with calcareous 
matter, but, where still hollow, possessing a diameter of 
3-1800ths inch, and at their openings into the roofs of the 
chambers respectively a calcareous diaphragm with central 
hole, similar in form to that of Hydractinia calcarea {' Annals,' 
1877, vol. xix. p. 51, pi. viii. fig. 4, g g), but apparently 
without its repetition which is seen along the vertical tubes in 
Hydractinia pliocena — a point, however, that must be de- 
cided by a more favourable specimen than the one which I 
possess. Size of the fragment from which the above descrip- 
tion is taken about an inch square and half an inch thick. 
Thickest portion of the polypary from the shell outwards 
5-12ths inch ; largest lobo-branch, which is circular in the 
section, but whose extremity has been broken off, ^ inch in 
diameter, and the same in length. 

Hah. Marine, on a turreted shell like PJios senticosus ; or it 
may have been a Cerithium, as there is only a fragment of 
the apex left in the specimen for this determination. 

Loc. ? Subapennine strata. 

Obs. At first I thought this was a specimen of Hydractinia 



302 Mr. H. J. Carter on 

pliocena] but subsequent and more particular examination 
shows that it has several specific differences, viz. : — 1, the visi- 
ble venation is much denser in H. Kingii than in H. pliocena ; 
2, there are no spines on the former, which, as before stated, 
are represented by pustuliform elevations ; 3, the entire mass 
is irregular in form and extended into a thick lobo-branch or 
process here and there ; 4, the vertical tubes present no dia- 
phragm or septal divisions, except the one above mentioned. 
It has been named after Prof. King, of Galway, who kindly 
sent me the specimen, which he thought came from the Sub- 
apennines and had already received a name. 

Millepora alcicornis. 

As this is a well-known species, having been named by 
Linnaeus, stated by Ellis and Solander to be so abundant 
in the West Indies as to be " used principally for burning 
into lime," and pronounced byAgassiz, in 1859, to be "very 
nearly related to the Hydractiniaj," I shall only describe so 
much of it (from a dried fragment which, by accident, has 
lately fallen into my hands with fragments of sponges which 
indicate that it came from the seas between the two Americas) 
as may be necessary for the purpose of showing how closely 
allied in structure its corallum or polypary is to that of Stroma- 
tojpora. 

Its specific designation well indicates the general form. 
The surface is harsh to the touch from being composed of the 
pointed free ends of a meandering reticulation of anastomo- 
sing more or less flat fibre, whose interstices form the openings 
of a subjacent structure, Avhich will be more particularly de- 
scribed hereafter, rendered uniformly uneven or bossed by 
gentle elevations and depressions ; over which, scattered more 
or less irregularly, are many apertures that may be divided 
into two sets, viz. large and small, the latter most numerous ; 
the largest, which more especially have a toothed or sub- 
asteroid margin, are about 1 -120th inch in diameter and 
l-12th inch, apart, while the smaller ones are about l-225th 
inch in diameter and l-48th inch apart ; but both vary 
slightly in size and in their distances from each other. Be- 
sides this, the surface 23resents here and there an intricate 
tubular venation composed of chitinous canals in relief, more 
or less covered with calcareous material, whose minute branches 
anastomose freely over the points of the meandering reticu- 
lation mentioned, and, in many instances, become lost beneath 
it, the largest branches averaging 1 -360th inch in diameter. I 
note this particularly because we shall find remnants of it 
by-and-by (fig. 8, a) on the surface of the fossil called 



Millepora and Stromatopora. 303 

Millepora Woodwardii). Internal structure : — The surface, as 
already intimated, is the outward limit of a subjacent cancellated 
structure (fig. 6^hh)^ formed by the anastomosis of more or less 
flattened reticulated fibre ; and this, which is the staple sub- 
stance of the corallum, is remarkable for its minuteness and the 
tortuous form of both its solid and cavernous parts, the latter 
in the fresh state being occupied by the coenosarc, which is 
thus brought into direct continuation with the exterior. After 
forming a layer of about l-180th inch in thickness and of 
yellowish-white colour, it becomes more compact and presents 
a bluish tint, which thus establishes a distinct line of demar- 
cation between the two ; while, when the superficial layer is 
carefully picked ofif with a sharp point, the horizontal surface 
of the subjacent one is seen to be traversed by a deep grooved 
venation similar to that of Hydr actinia arhorescens, &c., with 
here and there the remains of a dry sarcodic coenosarcal tube 
in it running along its course, thus indicating that the surface- 
layer, which is less compact, of a different colour, and overrun 
here and there by a tubular venation, is the external layer of 
the growing corallum ; and therefore we may fairly infer that 
successively the corallum has been formed in this way through- 
out, although somewhat modified in density &c. by age and 
subsequent development. 

Having now described the staple substance of the corallum 
from the surface to the axis of the branch (that is, from the 
circumference to the centre), we have next to follow the large 
apertures in the same way. These, in the vertical section, 
may be observed to be the openings of tubular spaces varying 
from l-360th to l-180th inch in diameter, which descend more 
or less vertically and nearly to the central plane that separates 
the two laminge of which the elkhorn-like compressed branch 
is formed (fig. 5, a a). Further, it may be observed that 
these spaces are horizontally but unequally divided into 
several compartments by very thin transverse septa or tabulce 
(fig. 5, c) , and that their internal surface is plentifully perfo- 
rated by more or less rounded apertures (fig. 5, e) such as may 
be seen in Stromatopora j which communicate with the tortu- 
ous cavities of the coenosarcal skeleton or cancellated structure 
of the corallum, so that the tubular spaces are as much fora- 
minated (fig. 5, c, d) as the coenosarcal skeleton is cancellated, 
being simply excavated in the midst of the latter, without the 
least trace of any distinct parietes after the cosnosarc has 
been abstracted. Indeed it is very remarkable that all 
the cavities of the coenosarcal skeleton (that is, of the 
whole corallum, like that of Parkeria &c.) are formed 
upon the coenosarc (identical in this respect with the can- 



304 Mr. H. J. Carter on 

cellous structure of bone) , so that, in tlie absence of the latter, 
as just stated, none of them presents the least sign of a 
wall. The only part which appears solid or different from the 
rest in structure is the tcibula or transverse septum of the 
tubular excavations (fig. 5, c). Indeed, here as elsewhere 
in the Hydractiniidee, it is the intricate anastomosis of the 
minute branches of the coenosarc which leads to the formation 
of the peculiar, cancellated, coenosarcal skeleton, which, again, 
is as indicative of the structure of the Hydractiniidae as it is 
opposed to that of the Foraminifera. Not unfrequently the 
tabula is surmounted centrally by a kind of style, which, in 
some species of Stromatopora, seems to be indicated by the 
presence of a white point in the centre of the transparent calc- 
spar filling the rest of the calicle. 

Finally, if the elkhorn-like branch of Millepora alcicornis 
be split in two through the centre parallel with its flat sur- 
face, the plane of each part thus exposed will present concen- 
tric lines of lamination in the cancellous structure, which, ex- 
tending from side to side parallel with the plane, indicate the 
progressive formation of the flat branch upwards from the 
point at which it commenced to expand. These lines of 
lamination, however, are, in accordance with the rest of the 
structure, not indicated by distinct laminse, but by the position 
of the rows of apertures in the coenosarcal skeleton or co- 
ralhira. 

Thus we have every tiling structural in the corallum of 
Millepora alcicorrns that is to be found in Stromatopora, 
excepting the stelUform systems of venation. 

What, then, were those " stelliform systems " which, in my 
paper on Hydractinia, &c. (' Annals,' 1877, vol. xix. p. 68, 
and pi. viii. figs. 19 &c.), I have likened to the superficial 
stelliform excretory canal-systems of some sponges, and sug- 
gested a like function ? 1 need hardly answer the question, 
after what has been above stated, especially when they are to 
be seen on the upper surface of every layer of a Stromatopora 
as it is split off from the entire specimen. They were not 
water-vascular excretory systems as in sponges, but tubular 
venations of the coenosarc on the surface, probably filled with 
" entodermic cells," as will appear hereafter, preparing the 
way proliferously for the new layer ; and, although in no 
instance that I know of, yet there may be an existing species 
of Millepora in which the grooved venation, instead of mean- 
dering generally over the surface in large branches and sending 
off smaller ones, which by subdivision become still smaller, 
and ultimately intermingle with each other (like the capil- 



Millepora and Stroraatopora. 305 

lary system of blood-vessels in the warm-blooded animals), 
proceeds from central points, and thus resembles the stelliform 
arrangement characteristic of Stromatopora. 

That this stelliform arrangement should not have been 
exactly the same even in the different species of Stromatojpora 
is as certain as that in all it seems to have been connected 
with the same function, and that function to have been what 
has been above stated. But let us now turn for a few 
moments to the able observations of Mr. H. Moseley, who has 
studied the Milleporidas in their living state (Phil. Trans. 
1876, vol. 166, p. 91). 

Mr. Moseley states that specimens of Helioporaccerulea^ 
which were obtained at Zamboangan, in Mindanao, one of the 
Philippine Islands, and MiUepora alcicornis^ in " great profu- 
sion " at Bermuda, were found to be as different in their 
minute structure as in their general form ; for while the 
corallum of Heliopora ccerulea was observed to consist of 
" tubes of circular section, of nearly uniform diameter, closely 
packed side by side . . . . with their walls, where touching, fused 
together," and the intervals filled up by a hard tissue, which 
appears above the margins of the tubes " in papilliform pro- 
minences " (/. c. p. 99), that of Millejjora alcicornis was 
found to be composed of a network of tortuous branches of 
hard tissue, in which " the soft tissues appear to occupy a 
series of tortuous canals," " that lead from the calicles in all 
directions, and, anastomosing freely with one another, join the 
cavities of the surrounding calicles " {I. c. p. 113) — to which, 
as before stated, might be added that the tubes of the calicles 
are imbedded in this tissue at variable distances from each 
other respectively, as further indicated by the distance between 
these apertures on the surface. 

Moreover Mr. Moseley describes our " grooved venation " 
as " canal-systems," the tubes of which are " not only lined 
by, but also always more or less filled with entodermic cells." 
They are divided into two systems, viz. a deep or horizontal 
and a superficial or more or less vertical system — the former 
being that which I have more particularly described in Mille- 
pora alcicornis^ and whose canals, cut across in the vertical 
section of this species, may be seen just below the last-formed 
or external layer in the same position as that figured by Mr. 
Moseley in Helio'pora (1. c. p. 105, pi. viii. fig. 1, V, and 
pi. ix. fig. 8). That this is not a water-vascular system is 
thus proved beyond a doubt, as clearly as that it is the grooved 
venation, in which the original soft tube may be seen, as first 
noticed in Hydractinia echinata (' Annals,' 1877, vol. xix. 



306 Mr, H. J. Carter on 

p. 48, pi. viii. fig. 3), and now in a dried state subsequently 
in the venation on the penultimate layer of Millepor-a alci- 
cornis. 

But these views are opposed to those of Drs. Nicholson and 
Murie, in the report of whose paper on the minute " structure 
of kitromatopora^'' read before the Linnean Society on the 
20th Dec. last, we read that the authors " discard the notion 
of its alliance [that of Stromatopora\ with the NuUipores, or 
belonging to the corals, Hydrozoa, or Foraminifera ; " while, 
" under negative evidence," they would constitute for the 
Stromatoporids " a new order of calcareous sponges — Stro- 
niatoporidea." Herein, I need hardly state, it is impossible 
for me to acquiesce. 

Millepora Woodwardti, cast. (PI. XVII. figs. 6-9.) 

Lastly I must advert to the fossil from the "Lower Chalk" 
of Dover, kindly sent to me by Mr. Woodward of the British 
Museum, last year, and described in the ' Annals ' (vol. xix. 
p. 64) under the provisional name of " Bradya tergestina^'' 
Stache, MS." — chiefly for the purpose of giving a figure of 
it, which I then had not the opportunity of doing, as my plate 
of illustrations had been filled up previous to its arrival. 

Having in my private journal, however, accurately sketched 
the upper portion of it, together with the section, of the naiu- 
ral size^ it is herewith reproduced (figs. 6, 7), as well as a 
magnified view of the fragments of the " creeping, branched, 
tortuous, dendriform fibre in prominent relief," mentioned at 
p. 65 (Lc.)j that remains on its surface (fig. 8, a), and a 
diagram, to scale, of one of the tubular spaces (fig. 9, a), now 
observed to be septate like that of Millepora alcicornis. To 
the great resemblance of the stelliform systems of venation 
(fig. Q^aa) to, if not identity with, those qI iitromatopora I have 
already alluded; I have also likened them to the "creeping, 
branched, tortuous, dendriform fibre in relief " on the surface of 
the chitinous one, Hydractvnia ecliinata ; and now they may be 
identified with the calcareous one on the surface of Millepora 
alcicornis. I have also since seen the base of this fossil, which 
presents no stelliform venation, but an irregular surface indi- 
cative of that of attachment, while the upper or sectionized 
polished part shows that the tubes had septa {tahulce) like 
those of Stromatopora and Millepora alcicornis ; lastly, I ob- 
serve towards the periphery a great number of minute spheri- 
cal bodies of different sizes below the 3-1800ths inch in 
diameter, which appear to have been ova. 

Can D'Orbigny's Stcllispongia variabilis, which extends 
from the Trias to the Upper Chalk (Senonien — not " Sues- 



Millepora and Stromatopora. 307 

sonien " or Eocene as stated by mistake in my paper, ' An- 
nals,' I. c. p. 67), be allied to Millepora Woodwardti? At all 
events the former brings down the stelliform systems of vena- 
tion seen in the Silurian Stromatopora &c. to the Chalk age, 
as indicated by the type specimen from the Trias, given by 
D'Orbigny (Com'S element. Paleont. et Geologic, vol. ii. 
p. 411, fig. 407), of which a tracing will be found among the 
illustrations (fig. 10). 

Through the kindness of Mr. Woodward I have also been 
able to examine the little globular fossils generally, in the 
British Museum, which have been obtained from the chalk of 
Dover, when being washed and prepared for officinal purposes. 
These would appear to have been first called by Phillips 
Millepora glohularis (' Geology of Yorkshire,' 1829, vol. i. 
p. 234, tab. 1. fig. 12), and are identical in structure with 
Millepora Woodwardii^ except that they have no stellate vena- 
tion or branched tubulation in relief on the surface. More- 
over they are frequently more or less perforated by a cylin- 
drical cavity filled with chalk, in which they are identical 
with some specimens of Parkeria, wherein the cavity appears, 
from its heterogeneous contents, to have been tilled with 
'^ sea-bottom " (p. 59, 1, c.) ; while, from the radiated structure 
in both Millepora glohularis and Parkeria not having been 
altered or turned out of its course by the presence of the 
cavity, it would appear that the latter had been made by 
some organism after the Millepora or Parkeria had completed 
their growth respectively. At the same time, in Parkeria, a 
nucleus of this heterogeneous material frequently aj^pears, 
singly or in plurality, in the midst of the structure, while 
some specimens of Millepo7^a glohularis present two or more 
such cavities of different depths, indicating that, if the exca- 
vating organism perished or left its cavity when the latter 
was shallow, and the Millepore or Parkeria continued to 
grow afterwards, the cavity might appear in the midst of the 
structure filled, as we see it in Parkeria, with " sea-bottom." 
Sometimes the excavation passes directly through both Mil- 
lepora glohularis and Parkeria, simulating, as Mr. Woodward 
states, the beads of a " prehistoric race ;" and sometimes, as 
just stated, there may be more than one excavation present. 

Frequently Millepora glohularis, when fixed, assumed a 
hemispherical shape ; and also, having frequently grown as if 
on a conical body, the base presents a corresponding excava- 
tion, which is annulated concentrically with alternate grooves 
and elevations, covered with a smooth compact material, 
which contrasts strongly with the rough apertured surface of 
the hemispherical or free side, arising from the projection of 



308 Mr. H. J. Carter on 

the free ends of the fibre forming coenosarcal cancellated struc- 
ture between the apertures of the tubular spaces (? Lunulites 
tcrceolata, Phillips, l. c, fig. 11). This form also occurs 
with a conical upper surface, when it somewhat resembles 
that species of Foraminifera called OrhitoUna lenticularisj 
but differs from it in the concentric annulation of the ex- 
terior being on the convex instead of on the concave side, 
to saj nothing of the internal structure, as may be seen by my 
elucidation of this fossil ('Annals,' 1861, vol. viii. pi. xvii. 
figs. 5-9). 

Lastly, there is another subglobular free form, with one or 
more conical elevations on its upper surface, from Avhich 
grooves radiate downwards, and, branching as they descend 
over the globular part of the fossil to its base, become shal- 
lower, and finally disappear before reaching the centre. This 
appears to be only a. free form of Millejyora Woudwardii. 

In all these fossils we may observe that the remarkable form 
of cancellated structure which I have described in Millepora 
alcicorm's, is excavated by tubular spaces that radiate from the 
centre to the circumference, where the same structure projects 
in little points above the surface around their apertures, iden- 
tically as the horny structure of the same kind projects above 
the apertures of the polypites in the polypary of Hydractinia 
ecJiinata. This structure is the same in all the branched 
species of Hydractinia, whether living or fossil, chitinous or 
calcareous; and it is perhaps nowhere seen more beautifully than 
in the branched Chitina ericojysis, where there is no cuticle 
and no core to the stems, which thus entirely and exclusively 
consist of this peculiar cancellated tissue excavated by tubular 
spaces. Such cancellated structure is never seen in any of 
the Foraminifera, not even in Polytrema, and only in a few 
stony corals ; so that its presence, as before stated, appears to 
be decisive against the Hydractinioe being Foraminifera. 

Having, on the 1st January last, received, with three other 
species of fossils allied to Hydractinia, from Dr. Steinmann of 
Munich, two specimens of Milleijora glohularis {Forosphcera^ 
Steinmann) from the Upper Chalk of Hanover, which he 
very properly identifies with Bradya tergestina, the old 
generic name of Phillips must take precedence of the latter; 
and therefore I have called the Dover fossil " Millepora 
Woodwardii ;" nor will it appear strange after this that Phillips 
should have applied the name of " Millepora " to these little 
fossils (Z. c), subsequently changed by Etheridge to Cosci- 
nopora (ed. 1875). 

When, too, we remember that Millepora alcicornis is found 
under a " variety of forms," one of which is stated by Ellis 



Millepora and Stromatopora. 309 

and Solander (p. 142) to be " like so many beads of a neck- 
lace," and that the structure is radiated, we probably should 
find these " beads " not only very much like Millepora glohu- 
lan's, but, in their hemispherical condition, diminutive forms 
of Stromatopora^ saving the stellate arrangement of the cceno- 
sarcal venation. 

Millepora glohularis and M. Woodwardii appear to be 
closely allied in structure ; but as yet I have only been able to 
see the septa (tabulse) in the tubular spaces of the latter, and 
this in only one instance (fig. 9) ; so it is either uncommon 
or difficult to recognize. 

There is yet another form in the British Museum, about the 
same size as Millepora Woodwardii^ which was free. It was 
irregularly elliptical (having been now cut in two), com- 
pressed, and seems to have been globular at first, subsequently 
overlapped by an additional growth, which causes one side to 
appear under tlie form of four triangular segments, crucially 
arranged, with their points in the centre, two of the segments 
opposite, being the overlapping parts of the last growth. 
But the structure otherwise is the same as that of all the 
rest, viz. radiating tubular spaces, increased in number by 
branching towards the circumference, where their apertures, 
therefore, are of unequal size and at slightly variable dis- 
tances apart, situated in the midst of the peculiar coenosarcal 
skeletal tissue above described. The specimen also presents 
four or more cylindrical excavations on its surface of different 
depths, one of which reaches nearly to the centre of the 
fossil. 

Thus the forms of this organism may be still more nume- 
rous, and, after all, like those of Millepora alcicornisj only 
various growths of the same structure ; hence the necessity 
of a review of all the species of D'Orbigny's Coscinoporce and 
the like, with which they seem to have been more or less 
identified, that they may be respectively relegated to their 
proper position in the animal kingdom. 

Postscript, Feb. 7, 1878. 

Since the above was written I have received from Dr. 
Steinmann (on the 4th inst.) a copy of his interesting paper, 
entitled " Ueber fossile Hydrozoen," published in the ' Pa- 
Iseontographica,' n. F. v. 3 (xxv.), p. 101, in which are 
enumerated all the species allied to Hydractinia^ both living 
and fossil, that have been identified, adding to the latter 
three new ones, viz. Splicer actinia diceratina^ Ellipsactinia 
ellip>soidea, and Cylindrohyphasma Milaschewitschi, besides 
changing the generic names of Millepora glohularis, Phillips, 



310 Mr. H. J. Carter on 

to Porosphcera, and Ceriopora crispa et favosa^ Goldfuss, to 
Thalimina respectively. 

It is worthy of notice that the specimen of Cylindrohy- 
phasma Milaschewitschi^ which consists of a cylindrical por- 
tion 2 inches long and 9-24ths inch thick, should have its 
cavity filled with sea-bottom — that is, a heterogeneous mixture 
of sand and minute Foraminifera &c., like that which I have 
stated to occur in Parkeria. How does this material, viz. 
sea-bottom, get there ? In a specimen from the " Chalk 
Marl" just received from Mr. Charles Moore, F.G.S., there 
is the same condition, viz. the growth of a Hydrozoic (? cal- 
careous) polypary or corallum, somewhat like that oi Parkeria, 
round a nucleus of " sea-bottom " — that is, quartz-sand and 
minute Foraminifera &c. Certainly it was the habit of these 
Hydrozoa, as it was that of Stromatopora, preceded by their 
soft, sarcodic, proliferous membrane, to run in between and 
over every thing with which they came into contact. I possess 
a block of Stromatopora from the Devonian Limestone in the 
neighbourhood of Ipplepen (near Torbay) and its environs, in 
which this is represented upon a large scale, there being frag- 
ments of half a dozen other things besides shells &c. in a 
mass of Stromatopora which must have originally been two 
or three feet at least in diameter. It was given to me by my 
friend Mr. William Vicary, of Exeter, who has perhaps as 
fine a collection of Stromatopora as any in existence. 

In his concluding remarks Dr. Steinmann places Stromato- 
pora under SpJioer actinia ; Loftusia under Ellipsactinia ; and 
Parkeria with Porosphcera. 

Porosphcera is adopted, as before stated, for Phillips's Mille- 
pora, generically ; and unquestionably the use of Millepora 
here is confusing ; at the same time it shows how sensible 
Phillips was of the real nature of this fossil originally. 

Dr. Steinmann's paper is beautifully illustrated, and an 
advance upon the subject which cannot be ignored by those 
who wish to keep pace with palseontological knowledge. The 
slight discrepancy that exists between my figure of Hydrac- 
tinia arborescens and that given by Dr. Steinmann arises from 
the latter having been lithographed from a rough sketch and 
the former from a finished drawing. 

As regards the Stromatoporoid origin of Eozoon, however 
(footnote, p. 114), of which a type specimen is now before me, 
it might be observed that " moss-agates " from the trap of 
Western India frequently present arborescent glauconite as 
much like organic remains as the so-called Eozoon is remote 
from such resemblance. When, therefore, the figure in the 
metamorphic rock is even as like organic remains as that in 



Millepora and Stromatopora. 311 

tlie Plutonic one, it will be quite time to speculate as to its 
original nature; till then it must remain in tlie abode of 
omne ignotum pro magnifico^ into which science forbids her 
votary to enter. (The specimen of Eozoon to which I have 
alluded (a slice about 2^x2 inches), was sent by Dr. Car- 
penter to Profs. King and Rowney, of the Galway College, 
Ireland, who kindly presented it to me.) 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII. 

Fig. 1. Ilydractinia ai'borescens, n. sp., on a turreted shell. Natural 
size. Branches of the specimen broken off. a a, branches ; 
b, largest branch ; c, apex of the shell exposed, from a portion 
of the polypary having been broken off; d, lip of shell trans- 
formed into polj^ary, also broken. 

Fig. 2. The same. Diagram of portion of surface of the polypary, to 
show: — a a, large branch of the grooved venation passing through 
the surface ; b b, apertures of the polypites, &c. ; c c, lines indi- 
cating the position of the grano-serrulated ridges of the polypary. 
Scale about l-96th to l-1800th inch. 

Fig. 3. The same. Diagram of portion of surface of polypary, more mag- 
nified, to show: — a a, apertures of polypites &c. in relation to 
b b, grano-serrulated ridges. Scale about l-48th to 1- 1800th 
inch. 

Fig, 4. The same. Diagram of portion of surface of polypary, to show 
the grooved venation 07ilg. Magnified about 2 diameters. 

Fig. 5. Millepora alcicorms. Diagram of portion of corallum including 
vertical section of part of a tubular space. Much magnified. 
a a, tubular space ; b b, coenosarcal skeleton ; c, transverse 
septa or tabidce ; d, apertm-es of the cancelli in the coenosarcal 
skeleton ; e, the same, opening into the tubular space. Trans- 
verse diameter of tubular space about l-120th inch. 

Fig. 6. Millepora Woodivardii. Surface of upper half. Natural size. 
a a, systems of stelliform venation. [NJB. For the description of 
this fossil see 'Annals,' 1877, vol. xix. p. 64, under the provi- 
sional name of " Bradya te7'gestina, Stache, MS."] 

Fig. 7. The same. Horizontal section. Natural size, a, horizontal 
section of tubular spaces at the centre ; b, oblique section of the 
tubular spaces at the circumference. 
Fig. 8. The same. Diagram of a portion of the surface, much magnified, 
to show the fossilized fragments of a superficial tubulation like 
that appearing above the outer layer on some parts of Millepora 
alcicornis. a, branches of tubulation ; 6, subjacent apertures 
of calicles or tubular spaces. Scale about l-48th to 6-1800ths 
inch. 
Fig. 9. The same. Diagram of portion of the corallum, including a ver- 
tical section of part of a tubular space bearing septa or tabulce. 
More magnified, a a a, radiating tubular spaces ; b b, coeno- 
sarcal skeleton between the radiating tubular spaces ; c, trans- 
verse septa or tabul(s ; d, apertures of the coenosarcal skeleton in 
the tubular space ; e, surface of corallum. 
Fig. 10. StelUsjjongia variabilis, D'Orb., from the Trias. Traced from his 
figure (Cours element, de Paleontol. et G^ologie, vol. i. p. 214, 
fig. 338). a a, systems of stelliform venation ; b, portion of 
surface, more magnified. 



312 Mr. J. S. Baly on some 

XXXV. — Descriptions of a new Genus and of new Species of 
Halticinge. By Joseph S. Baly, F.L.S. 

Genus Hyphasis, v. Harold, 

Deutsch. ent. Zeit., Dec. 1877, p. 433. 

Corpus rotundato-ovatum, modice convexum. Caput in thoracem 
insertum, facie perpendiculari ; encarpis distinctis, contiguis : 
carina lineariformi, elevata ; antennis filiformibus. Thorax 
transversus, lateribus reflexo-marginatis. Scutellum trigonatum. 
Elytra thorace latiora, reflexo-marginata, modice convexa, con- 
fuse punctata ; limbo inflexo concavo, margine externo deorsum 
producto. Pedes mediocres, femoribus posticis valde incrassatis ; 
tibiis dorso canaliculatis, posticis extus ante apicem emarginatis, 
apice spina acuta armatis ; tibiis anticis quatuor apice inermibus ; 
tarsis posticis articulo basali duobus sequentibus conjunctis lon- 
gitudiae aequali vel longiore ; wn^uiiits posticis inflatis; unguiculis 
appendiculatis. Prosternum oblongum aut anguste oblongum, 
apice obtusum aut truncatum, disco piano aut longitudinaliter 
concavo ; acetabulis anticis apertis. Mesosternwn obliquum aut 
subhorizontale, apice emarginatum. 

The short, plane or longitudinally concave prosternum, the 
concave ipflexed limb of the elytron, together with the general 
form of the body, will, combined, separate this genus from 
Homophoeta ; the form of the prosternum, together with the 
difference in the length of the basal metatarsal joint, will sepa- 
rate it from (Edionychis. 

Hyphasis coccinelloides. 

H. rotundato-ovata, modice convexa, pallide flava, nitida, antennis 
(basi excepta) f uscis ; oculis nigris ; thorace laevi, obsolete punctu- 
lato ; elytris subcrebre punctatis, utrinque maculis subrotundatis 
quinque nigris ornatis, harum prima communi circa scutellum, 
secunda vix infra basin supra callum bumerale, rotundato-ovata, 
duabus prope medium transversim positis, quintaque ante api- 
cem, prope limbum externum sita. 

Long. 2^ lin. 

Hah. Borneo, Sarawak. Collected by Mr. Wallace. 

Vertex shining, impunctate ; encarpae transversely quadrate ; 
carina elongate, its upper end thickened ; antennae with the 
four lower joints flavous, stained with piceous, the rest fus- 
cous. Thorax more than three times as broad as long ; 
sides broadly margined, strongly reflexed, rounded and con- 
verging from base to apex, parallel at the extreme base, the 
anterior angles thickened, armed with a small excurved, acute 
tooth ; surface nitidous, faintly impressed here and there with 
fine punctures ; lateral margin longitudinally excavated. Apex 



new Species^ of liiahicmse. 313 

of scutellum obtuse. Elytra much broader than the thorax, 
the shoulders broadly rounded ; above moderately convex ; 
sides dilated, reflexed; surface rather strongly punctured. 
Basal joint of metatarsus longer than the following two 
united. 

Hyphasis hipustulata. 

H. late ovata, modice convexa, picea, nitida, antennis (basi excepta) 
nigris ; thorace laevi, fere impuiictato ; elytris nigro-piceis, tenui- 
ter sed evidenter punctafcis, utriiique pustula magna ovata flava 
ornatis. 

Long. If lin. 

Hob. Celebes (collected by Mr. Wallace) , also Birmah. 

Head and thorax fulvo-piceous ; vertex shining, impunctate ; 
encarpffi transverse, oblong ; anteimte nearly three fourths the 
length of the body, filiform, the two lower joints piceous, the 
rest black. Thorax three times as broad as long ; sides rather 
broadly margined, reflexed, rounded, converging at the base, 
and again from behind the middle to the apex ; anterior angles 
thickened, obtuse, slightly excurved ; upper surface smooth 
and shining, nearly impunctate, a few fine punctures only 
being seen under a powerful lens ; lateral margin longitudinally 
concave. Scutellum piceous, its extreme apex obtuse. Elytra 
much broader than the thorax, rotundate-ovate, the shoulders 
broadly rounded ; above moderately convex, the lateral margin 
reflexed ; nigro-piceous, obscure rufo-piceous on the middle 
disk, finely but distinctly punctured ; each elytron with a large 
subovate pale yellow patch, which extends from just before 
to some distance below the middle of the disk, and laterally 
from within the outer limb to within a short distance of 
the suture. Basal joint of hinder tarsus equal in length to the 
following two united. 

Hyphasis piceipennis. 

H. rotundata, modice convexa, fulva, nitida, capite thoraceque rufo- 
testaceis, antennis (basi excepta) oculisque nigris, tibiis tarsisque 
nigro-piceis ; elytris tenuissime punctatis, piceis. 

Long. 2 fin. 

Hah. Borneo, Sarawak. 

Face elevated between the eyes ; the latter large, prominent ; 
encarpge quadrangular, well defined, contiguous; carina linear, 
strongly elevated ; antennae nearly three fourths the length of 
the body, filiform, two lower joints fulvous, the rest black, the 
third joint twice the length of the second, rather shorter than 
the fourth. 'J^'horax three times as broad as long ; sides 
broadly margined, reflexed, obtusely rounded, converging in 

Ann. & Mag. X. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 21 



314 Mr. J. S. Baly on some 

front, the anterior angles armed with a slightly excurved, 
obtuse tooth ; upper surface nitidous, very minutely punctured, 
the puncturing only visible under a lens. Scutellum trigonate, 
its apex acute. Elytra much broader than the thorax, the 
shoulders broadly rounded ; above moderately convex, flattened 
on the disk, minutely punctured, lateral margin narrowly 
dilated, impressed on its inner edge with a single row of 
distinct punctures. Prosternum twice as broad as long, its 
sides parallel, its apex truncate, its surface longitudinally 
concave. Apices of the thighs piceous ; tibige and tarsi nigro- 
piceous ; hinder tibia armed near its apex with a short acute 
tooth ; hinder metatarsal joint equal in length to the following 
two united. 

Hyphasis nigricornis. 

H. late ovato-rotundata, modice convexa, dorso pauUo deplanata, 
flava, nitida, antennis (basi excepta) ooulisque nigris, scutello, 
pectore tarsjsque piceis ; thorace minute punctate ; elytris dis- 
tinete, subcrebre punctatis. 

Long. 2 1 lin. 

Hah. Northern India. 

Face elevated between the eyes, the latter smaller and more 
widely separated than in H. piceipennis ; encarpge transverse- 
quadrate, contiguous, separated from the front by a deep 
transverse depression ; carina strongly raised ; vertex and 
front nitidous, impressed with a few minute punctures, only 
visible under a lens 5 antennge more than three fourths the 
length of the body, slender, filiform, the three lower joints 
obscure flavous, the rest black, the third joint one half longer 
than the second, distinctly shorter than the fourth. Thorax 
more than three times as broad as long ; sides broadly mar- 
gined, reflexed, nearly straight and parallel behind the middle, 
rounded and converging in front, the anterior angles armed 
with an obtuse, excm-ved tooth ; hinder angles distinct, sub- 
acute ; upper surface impressed with minute punctures, the 
interspaces still more finely punctured. Scutellum scarcely 
longer than broad, trigonate, its sides subsinuate, its apex 
subacute. Elytra very much broader than the thorax, the 
shoulders broadly and somewhat obliquely rounded 5 upper 
surface distinctly and rather closely punctured, the lateral 
margin broadly dilated, only slightly reflexed. Prosternum 
narrowly oblong, slightly sinuate on the sides, the apex 
obtuse ; surface only faintly excavated. Hinder tibiae un- 
armed ; hinder metatarsal joint longer than the following two 
united. 



netc Species o/" Halticinje. 315 

Hyphasis Wallacei. 

H. late ovata, convexa, sordide fulva, nitida, anteiiuis nigris, tarsis, 
tibiis posticis apice, tibiis anticis totis femoribnsque anticis dorso 
nigro-piceis ; thorace laevi, lateribus late nigris ; elytris subfor- 
titer punctatis, utrinque plaga magna bumerali, ad marginem ad- 
fisa, postice oblique triincata, alteraque pone medium, subovata, 
apice acuminata, vix intra marginem posita, ornatis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hob. Malacca {Wallace). 

Vertex smooth, impunctate ; eyes large, rotundate, promi- 
nent, black ; encarpge well defined, obliquely transverse, qua- 
drangular ; carina elongate, its upper half thickened ; antennee 
nearly three fourths the length of the body, black, lower por- 
tion of basal joint obscure flavous. Thorax three times as 
broad as long; sides broadly margined, strongly reflexed, 
rounded, the anterior angle armed with an excurved, subacute 
tooth, hinder angle with an obtuse tubercle; upper surface 
shining, very remotely impressed with minute punctures ; 
lateral margin longitudinally concave. Apex of scutellum 
rounded. Elytra broader than the thorax, oblong, convex, 
their lateral margin narrowly dilated, reflexed. 

Hyphasis Bevani. 

H. ovata, convexa, nitida, subtus fulva, metapectore, femoribus pos- 
ticis apice tarsisque posticis piceis ; supra rufo-fulva, antennis 
(basi excepta) nigris ; thorace evidenter, subremote punctato ; 
elytris subcrebre punctatis, obscure viridi-eeneis, limbo exteriore 
anguste rufo. 

Long. 1^ lin. 

Hah. Southern India. Collected by Lieut. Bevan. 

Head trigonate ; vertex and front smooth, impunctate ; inner 
orbit of eye coarsely punctured ; encarpaes well defined, sepa- 
rated from the front by a transverse groove, subtrigonate, 
contiguous ; carina linear, its apex thickened, obtuse ; an- 
tennae with the two lower joints fulvous, the following two 
piceous, the rest black ; labrum and apex of jaws piceous. 
Thorax nearly three times as broad as long ; sides obliquely 
rounded and converging from base to apex, the anterior angle 
thickened, broadly and obtusely truncate, oblique, produced 
laterally into an acute tooth ; upper surface transversely con- 
vex, distinctly punctured ; lateral margin moderately dilated 
reflexed. Scutellum trigonate, its apex obtuse, edged with 
black. Elytra oblong, broader than the thorax, convex, 
rather strongly and closely punctured ; obscure metallic green, 
the outer limb very narrowly edged with rufous; inflexed 

21* 



316 Mr. J. S. Baly o)i some 

limb slightly concave, its outer edge scarcely produced. Pro- 
sternum oblong-quadrate, the lateral margins concave, the 
apex truncate, the upper surface nearly plain ; outer edge of 
hinder tibise serrulate near the apex ; basal joint of hinder 
tarsus longer than the following two united. 

This species differs from the typical form of the genus in its 
broader prosternum, and in the less strongly produced outer 
edge of the inflexed limb of the elytra. 

(EdionycMs Mouhoti. 

(E. elongato-ovata, modice convexa, sordide flava, nitida, pectore 
piceo ; vertice scutelloque nigris ; thorace ante basin leviter 
transversim impresso, tenuissime, remote punctato, lateribus late 
reflexo-explanatis ; elytris sat fortiter, crebre punctatis, utrinque 
linea suturali maciilisque tribus disco exteriore longitudinaliter 
positis, prima super callum humerale, basi adfixa, secunda prope 
medium tertiaque ante apicem, nigris. 

Var. A. pectore sordide flavo, elytrorum linea suturali nigra obso- 
leta. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hah. Siam, Pachybouri. Collected by the late M. Mouliot. 

Vertex minutely punctured, front impressed with large 
round foveolate punctures ; encarp^e subquadrate, contiguous ; 
carina short, wedge-shaped, its acute apex extending upwards 
between the encarpge for rather more than a third their length, 
its base terminating on a strongly raised transverse ridge, 
which extends obliquely on either side entirely across the 
clypeus ; antennge filiform, the third and fourth joints equal. 
Thorax three times as broad as long ; sides broadly dilated, 
reflexed, straight and parallel for two thirds their length, 
rounded and converging near the apex, the latter anteriorly pro- 
duced, armed at its extremity with a slightly excurved, truncate 
tooth ; basal margin sinuate on either side near the outer 
angle, the intermediate space truncate ; upper surface im- 
pressed before the base with a broad but shallow transverse 
groove ; minutely and remotely punctured ; lateral margin 
longitudinally concave. Scutellum trigonate, its apex rounded. 
Elytra rather broader than the thorax, convex, the outer 
margin moderately dilated, reflexed. 

(EdionycMs jpretiosa. 

(E. ovata, convexa, nitida, subtus uigro-picea, lateribus flavis ; supra 
fulva, vertice, an tenuis, pedibus posticis scutelloque nigris ; thorace 
impunctato ; elytris subcrebre punctatis, metallico-cyaneis, vio- 



new Species of Halticixise. 317 

laceo micantibuS; utrinque macula prope medium limboque inflexo 

flavis. 
Var. A. elytrorum maculis discoidalibus flavis obsoletis. 
Long. 2^ lin. 

Hah. Brazil, New Friburg. 

Vertex strongly but not very closely punctured, shining 
black ; lower face, together with the inner orbit of the eye, 
obscure fulvous, encarp^ and carina piceous ; encarpge sepa- 
rated from the front by a deep transverse groove ; carina oval ; 
antennse with the three lower joints obscure piceous, the rest 
black, third joint shorter than the fourth. Thorax with its 
sides broadly margined, reflexed, nearly straight and parallel 
behind the middle, thence slightly rounded and converging to 
the apex, anterior angles produced anteriorly, thickened, 
obtuse ; basal margin slightly bisinuate on either side, the 
median portion opposite the base of the scutellum also slightly 
sinuate ; upper surface shining, nearly impunctate, longitudi- 
nally excavated on the reflexed lateral margin, obsoletely 
elevated on either side just to within the latter, the middle 
portion of both the apical and basal margins narrowly edged 
with black. Scutellum subtrigonate, its apex rounded, de- 
pressed. Elytra broader than the thorax, broadly ovate, 
moderately convex, longitudinally depressed along the base of 
the suture, distinctly punctured ; inflexed limb flavous. Basal 
joint of hinder tarsus much shorter than the following two 
united. 

(Edio7iychis porosa. 

(E. ovata, convexa, nitida, nigra, facie inferiore fulvo-picea, thorace 
flavo ; elytris irregulariter foveolatis foveis fundo punctatis, 
cyaneis, limbo laterali (apice dilatato) flavo, 

Var. A. elytris nigris, limbo laterali trienteque apicali flavis. 

Var, B. S thorace nigro, lateribus anguste flavis, elytris nigro- 
aBneis, limbo exteriore anguste flavo. 

Long. 3|-4 lin. 

Hah. Ecuador. Collected by Mr. Buckley. 

Front with a deep cruciform depression ; on either side near 
the eye are three or four deep round punctures ; the upper 
surface of the three lower joints of antenna? piceo-fulvous. 
Thorax with its sides broadly reflexed, parallel at the base, 
thence rounded and converging to the apex, anterior angles pro- 
duced into a short obtusely truncate tooth ; upper surface mi- 
nutely punctured. Scutellum trigonate, its apex obtuse. Elytra 
moderately convex, their apical margin finely serrulate ; closely 
covered with irregular punctured foveae, their interspaces 
thickened, irregularly confluent, shining, impunctate. 



318 Mr, J. S. Balyon some 

(Ediony cilia limbata. 

CE. elongato-ovalia, modice convexa, dorso subdepressa, subtus sor- 
dide albido-flava, prosterno, genibiis, tibiis tarsisque nigro-piceis ; 
supra nigra, antennarum articulis basali necnon ultimis quatuor 
pieeis ; facie, thoracis lateribus latis elytrorumque limbo exteriore 
lato albido-flavis ; prosterno inter coxas longitudinaliter elevate. 

Long. 3 1 lin. 

Hah. Ecuador. 

Vertex and front smooth, impunctate ; lower portion of front 
depressed, separated from the encarpge by a transverse grooved 
line ; encarpge large, quadrangular, slightly oblique, contigu- 
ous ; carina strongly raised, elongate ; antennge filiform, the 
third and fourth joints equal; labrum and jaws piceous,* eyes 
large, prominent. Thorax with its sides very broadly mar- 
gined, reflexed, slightly converging at the extreme base, 
rounded and converging before the middle to the apex, the 
anterior angles thickened, produced anteriorly into a slightly 
excurved, obtusely truncate tooth ; basal margin very faintly 
sinuate on either side close to the outer angle, the interme- 
diate space transversely truncate ; upper surface very faintly 
impressed transversely in front of the base, very minutely 
punctured ; lateral margin longitudinally excavated. Scutel- 
lum trigonate, its apex obtuse ; on the disk near its apex is a 
piceous spot. Elytra broader than the thorax, oblong, mode- 
rately convex, slightly depressed along the suture, the lateral 
margin broadly dilated, its outer edge slightly reflexed; 
surface rather closely punctured, interspaces subrugulose. 
minutely punctured. 

CEdionychis circumcinctaj Dej. 

CE. late ovata, convexa, flava, nitida, antennis (basi excepta) nigris ; 

thorace laevi, lateribus late explanatis, subruguloso ; scutello 

nigro; elytris crebre, fortiter punctatis, interstitiis granulosis, 

crebre rugulosis. 
Var. A. elytris metallico-viridibus, limbo externo flavo. 
Var. B. elytris rufo-testaceis, limbo externo flavo, fascia basali 

communi, extrorsum abbreviata, vittaque submarginali, a basi ad 

apicem extensa, metallico-viridibus. 
Long. 4—6 lin. 

Hob. Brazil. 

Vertex smooth, impunctate ; front very sparingly impressed 
with round punctures, its lower end depressed, separated from 
the encarpge by a transverse groove ; inner orbit of eye irre- 
gularly punctured ; encarpge transverse, contiguous above ; 
carina broad, its apex acuminate, separating the lower 
portion of the encarpse, its lower end terminating in a strongly 



new Species o/'Halticina3. 319 

raised transverse ridge which extends entirely across the 
clypeus ; jaws piceous ; antenna? filiform, two lower joints 
flavous, the third piceous, the rest black ; third joint distinctly 
shorter than the fourth. Thorax with its sides broadly mar- 
gined, reflexed, straight and parallel from the base to beyond 
the middle, thence rounded and converging to the apex, 
anterior angles thickened, produced into a short excurved 
obtuse tooth ; basal margin faintly sinuate on either side, its 
median portion truncate ; upper surface smooth and shining, 
very faintly reticulate-gratmlose ; surface of dilated lateral 
margin irregular, subrugulose. Scutellum trigonate, its apex 
obtuse. Elytra broader than the thorax, convex, slightly ex- 
cavated on the suture, a short distance below the scutellum ; 
coarsely and closely punctured, interspaces irregularly thick- 
ened, granulose. 

(EdionycMs recticolUs. 

(E. elongato-ovata, postice vix arapliata, convexa, subtus picea, ab- 
domine sordide fulvo, prothorace lacteo ; supra lactea, scutello 
pailide piceo, antennis (basi picea excepta) oculisque nigris ; 
thorace impunctato, lateribus rectis, a basi ad apicem convergenti- 
bus ; elytris tenuissime, subremote punctatis, utrinque plagis 
duabus erosis, una infra basin transversim ovata, altera inter 
medium et apicem transversa, irregulari, nigro-piceis ornatis. 

Long. 4 lin. 

Jiab. Mexico. 

Vertex smooth, impunctate ; front impressed with coarse 
punctures ; encarpje ill-defined, pale piceous, separated from 
each other by a deep longitudinal groove ; carina broad, 
oblong, convex, its apex obtuse, branching off on either side 
into a strongly raised oblique ridge ; lower edge of clypeus 
and mouth nigro-piceous ; eyes narrowly oval, their inner side 
sinuate ; antennse filiform, two lower joints piceous, the rest 
black ; third and fourth joints nearly equal in length. Thorax 
twice as broad as long; sides narrowly margined, straight, 
converging from base to apex, anterior angle thickened, 
strongly produced, its apex subacute ; basal margin slightly 
sinuate on either side near the outer angle, the intermediate 
space transversely truncate ; upper surface smooth, impunctate, 
lateral margin narrowly reflexed. Scutellum longer than 
broad, trigonate, its apex obtuse. Elytra broader than the 
thorax, narrowly oblong, moderately convex, the lateral mar- 
gin narrowly dilated. 

(EdionycMs Clarkii. 
(E. elongato-ovata, modice convexa, pailide flava, nitida ; thorace 



320 Mr. J. S. Baly on some 

Isevi, maculis nigro-piceis quinque notato, harum tribus pone 
apicem, linea transversa conjunctis, macula intermedia ad margi- 
nem adfixa, duabusque transversis, ad basin utrinque adfixis ; 
elytris subcrebre punctatis, punctis leviter impressis, pallide 
piceo tinctis; singulis linea suturali angusta, ante apicem abbre- 
viata, punctisque tribus, uno super callum humeralem, altero infra 
basin prope suturam, lertioque prope medium disci positis, nigro- 
piceis. 
Long. 4 lin. 

Hah. Brazil, Constancia. Collected by the late Rev. H. 
Clark. 

Face elevated between the eyes, the latter large, prominent ; 
vertex and front granulose, impressed with large, iiTCgnlar 
shallow punctures ; encarpge large, well defined, quadrate, 
contiguous ; carina linear, strongly elevated ; inner orbit of 
eye bounded by a row of irregular punctures ; antennge fili- 
form, third and fourth joints equal. Thorax with its sides 
broadly margined, reflexed, rounded and converging from 
base to apex, the anterior angles thickened, produced ante- 
riorly, subacute ; the hinder angles produced into a short sub- 
acute tooth ; basal margin sinuate on either side, the median 
portion also sinuate in front of the scutellum ; upper surface 
nitidous, very finely strigose, lateral margin longitudinally 
concave. Scutellum trigonate, its apex subacute. Elytra 
broader than the thorax, narrowly oblong, subacutely rounded 
at the apex, the apical margin obsoletely crenulate ; above 
moderately convex, impressed with round, shallow, pale pice- 
ous punctures, paler and less deeply impressed towards the 
apex, their interspaces finely granulose, faintly wrinkled ; 
each elytron with a narrow sutural line, abbreviated before the 
apex, and three small spots, nigro-piceous ; of these the first is 
placed on the upper portion of the humeral callus, the second 
on the inner disk, halfway between the callus and the suture, 
slightly lower than the former one, and the third on the 
middle of the elytron, about halfway between the suture and 
the lateral margin. 

(Edionyclns rugice'ps. 

(E. ovata, convexa, nigra, nitida, thorace flavo-albo, linea basali, 
utrinque abbreviata, maculisque novem, 2 super marginem apica- 
lem, 4 disci vix ante, 2 vix pone medium transversim positis, 
necnon una ante basin, nigris ; elytris subopacis, margin e exte- 
riore, vitta discoidali, apice ad marginem adfixa, fasciaque obliqua 
subapicali inter limbum et vittam extensa, nitide flavo-albis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hob. Brazil, Parana. 



new Species of Hd\i\c'n\yd. 321 

Head coarsely rugose ; encarpse and carina ill-defined, the 
lower end of the latter terminating on a strongly raised trans- 
verse ridge ; antennae scarcely half the length of the body, 
moderately robust, thickened towards the apex, entirely black ; 
third and fourth joints nearly equal in length. Thorax nearly 
three times as broad as long ; sides broadly margined, reflexed, 
straight and parallel, rounded and converging before the 
middle, anterior angles produced, thickened, obtuse ; basal 
margin slightly oblique and faintly sinuate on either side near 
the outer angle, the latter produced, acute ; intermediate space 
obtusely truncate, narrowly edged with black ; disk finely 
granulose, nitidous, sparingly punctate ; lateral margin con- 
cave, the outer edge thickened. Scutellum trigonate, rather 
broader than long, its apex obtuse. Elytra broader than the 
thorax, oblong-ovate, moderately convex, finely granulose- 
punctate, subopaque ; the white marking nitidous, finely 
punctured. 

(Edionychis nigro-lineata. 

CE. ovata, modice convexa, nitida, subtus piceo-nigra, prothorace 
abdominisque limbo exteriore sordide fulvis ; supra sordide fulva, 
vertice, scutello antennisque (harum articulis basalibus tribus 
piceis exceptis) nigris ; thorace laevi, tenuiter, remote punctate, 
maculis quiiique, 2 at 3 dispositis, nigro-piceis notato ; elytris evi- 
denter, subcrebre punctatis, ufcrinque linea suturali, vitta sub- 
marginali, apice cum linea suturali conjuncta vittaque discoidali, 
a basi fere ad apicem extensa, nigris. 

Long. 2| lin. 

Hah. Brazil, Bahia. 

Vertex smooth, nearly impunctate, lower portion of front 
coarsely punctured ; encarpse subquadrangular, separated from 
the front by a deep longitudinal groove ; antennas robust, 
second and third joints nearly equal in length ; labrum and 
jaws obscure piceous. Thorax with its sides broadly mar- 
gined, straight and nearly parallel behind the middle, thence 
rounded and converging to the apex, anterior angles armed 
with a slightly excurved, obtuse tooth ; upper surface nitidous, 
remotely and finely punctured, lateral margin reflexed. Scu- 
tellum trigonate ; its apex obtuse, piceous. Elytra rather 
broader than the thorax, oval, moderately convex, much more 
strongly punctured than the thorax ; lateral margin narrowly 
reflexed ; inflexed limb obscure fulvous, its inner edge nigro- 
piceous. Anterior border of prosternum deflexed. Basal 
joint of hinder tarsus nearly equal in length to the following 
two united. 



322 M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

(Edionychis Chevrolatii. 

(E. late ovata, convexa, nitida ; subtus, cum capite (encarpis flavis 
exceptis), nigra, abdomine piceo, margine externo segmentorumque 
marginibus pallidioribus ; supra j&ava ; thorace Isevi, impunetato ; 
scutello trigonato, nigro ; elytris sat remote, tenuiter punctatis, 
utrinque vitta suturali, altera submarginali, his apiee conjunctis, 
tertiaque discoidali, paullo ante apicem abbreviata, nigro-cyaneis ; 
limbo exteriore angusto piceo. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hah. Mexico. 

Vertex smooth, impunctate j inner orbit of eye and the 
upper surface of the front impressed with large, round punc- 
tures ; lower portion of front very finely strigate ; encarpae 
separated from the front by a distinct transverse groove, sub- 
quadrangular, pale fulvous ; carina strongly elevated ; second 
and third joints of antennas nearly equal in length. Thorax 
three times as broad as long ; sides nearly straight, very 
slightly converging behind the middle, thence converging and 
slightly rounded to the apex ; anterior angles mucronate ; 
basal margin bisinuate on either side, the median portion not 
produced, obtusely truncate ; upper surface shining, impunc- 
tate ; lateral margin broadly reflexed. Scutellum trigonate, 
its apex acute. Elytra broader than the thorax, increasing 
in breadth from the base towards the apex, the latter broadly 
rounded ; above moderately convex, longitudinally excavated 
along the base of the suture, the depressed surface rather 
strongly and coarsely punctured. 

[To be continued.] 



XXXVI. — Studies on the Hydroida. 
By C. Mereschkowsky. 

[Continued from p. 256.] 
III. Systematic Facts. 

As I am now busy preparing a complete description of all 
the Hydroids occurring in the Russian seas, which will 
shortly appear in my native language, I shall here give simply 
a list of the species which I have met with in my two visits 
to the White Sea, and only describe a few of the new species 
and the new genera. The deficiency of material in respect of 
Hydroids in our zoological museums sometimes renders the 
determination of the species very difficult, and in some cases 
rather doubtful ; for frequently it is very desirable to compare 
two specimens, one of which is already determined. But 1 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 323 

hope to be able to procure in England specimens of the most 
desirable species in exchange for my own, which will enable 
me to verify my determinations. At any rate, I shall attach 
a note of interrogation to any species that is in the least 
degree doubtful. The species are as follows : — 

Suborder Athecata. 

1. Oorhiza horealis, nov. gen. et nov. sp. 

2. Hydractinia, sp. indet. 

3. Syncoryne Sarsii: Medusae {Sarsia tuhulifera) in great 

numbers. 

4. Stauridium productum. 

5. Eudendrium arhuscula (?), S. W. 

6. E. minimum, nov. sp. 

7. Bougainvillia paradoxa, nov. sp. : the Medusae only in 

very large numbers. 

8. Monohrachium parasitum, mihi (see Ann. & Mag. Nat. 

Hist., September 1877). 

9. Tuhidaria simplex. 

10. T. indivisa. 

Suborder Thecaphora. 

11. Ohelia geniculata , lAxyn. 

12. 0. gelatinosa (?), Pall. 

13. O.Jlabellataj Hincks. 

14. Campanularia voluhilis, Linn. 

15. C. Integra (?), Macgillivray. 

16. G. verticillata, Linn. 

17. C. neglecta, Alder. 

18. Leptoscyphus Origoriewi, nov. sp. 

19. Lafoea dumosa, Sars. 

20. L. pocillum, Hincks. 

21. Calycella syringa, Linn. 

22. Cuspidella, sp. indet. 

23. Salacia abietina, Sars. 

24. Filellum serpens, Hassall. 

25. Coppinia arcta, Dalyell. 

26. Halecium Beanii (?), Johnst. 

27. Halecium, sp. indet. 

28. Sertularella gigantea, mihi, = 8. polyzonias, robust variety, 

of Sars and Hincks. 

29. 8. tricuspidata, Alder. ^ 

30. 8. rugosa, Linn. 

31. Diphasia, Agass., sp. indet. 

32. 8ertularia pumila, Linn. 

33. 8.Jilicula,m\\Q& Sol. 



324 M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

34. 8. abietina^ Linn. 

35. 8. argentea^ Ellis & Sol. 

36. 8. alhimaris, nov. sp. 

37. Hydrallmania falcata^ Linn., var. hidens, 

38. Thuiaria thuja. 

39. T. articulata (?) . 

40. Polyserias mirabilisj Verrill. 

4L P. Hincksii^ nov. gen. et nov. sp. 

Suborder Gymnochroa. 

42. Hydra oh'gactis, in the fresh water of the isle of Solo- 
vetzky. 

It will be seen that among the forty-two species there are 
about eight which are new ; the Hydroid fauna of the White 
Sea is therefore a rather peculiar one. Besides this we also 
see that as regards its fauna the White Sea belongs to regions 
which are quite polar, more polar, in fact, than the north of 
Norway and even the Mourmansky bereg (north of Lapland). 
Thus, while the White Sea has no representative of the family 
Plumulariidse, which is characteristic of the southern seas, 
and, on the other hand, has many representatives of the fami- 
lies LafoeidaSj Coppiniidse, and Sertulariidse, the Mourmansky 
bereg has furnished magnificent specimens of Antennularia 
antenninaj of which the Zoological Cabinet of St. Petersburg 
is in possession. The Baltic has several species in common 
with the White Sea; but all these species are represented in 
England, Germany, or Belgium ; they have consequently been 
able to arrive there through the Cattegat and Skagerrack, 
without its being necessary to explain this fact by the assump- 
tion of a union between the two seas ; so that, as far as the 
Hydroids are concerned, they do not present any facts in 
support of Lov^n's hypothesis, which, moreover, has been 
much shaken by the investigations of Prof. O. Grimm, ^of 
St. Petersburg*. Lastly, on comparing this fauna with that 
of the north of the Pacific Ocean, as represented by Mr. Clark, 
and also by the collection of the Museum of the Academy of 
St. Petersburg, it will be seen that there are relations between 
these two faunas. The genus Polyserias is especially charac- 
teristic of the north of the Pacific (I am acquainted with three 
species of this genus from the sea of Ochotsk) ; and, as we see, 
the White Sea possesses two species, one of which is common 
{Polyserias mirabilis). Further, the presence of Coppinia 
arcta, Lafoea dumosa^ Campanularia integra., Lafoea pocillum^ 

* 0. Grimm, 'On the Fauna of the Baltic Sea and its Origin' (in 
Russian), 1877. 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 325 

Calycella syringa^ several Sertularke^ Sertularella rugosa and 
tricuspidata proves that the fauna of the White Sea is only a 
special department of a circumpolar fauna. 

From what we now know of the distribution of the Hydroids 
it may be seen that, in fact, there exists such a circumpolar 
fauna, on the one hand perfectly special, and on the other 
represented by species which also occur in Europe, in England, 
the Baltic, &c. It is always easy to recognize to which fauna 
a species must belong, from a consideration of its size : in its 
native place, in the country from which it started, the species 
will certainly appear in all its splendour and of its largest size ; 
for it is there especially that the conditions of life are most 
favourable to it. Thus, among the Hydroids there are certain 
species which frequently occur in the north (Iceland, Green- 
land, Spitzbergen, &c.), and which are there distinguished 
from the same species obtained from England, for example, 
by their excessive size. It is clear, therefore, that the polar 
regions must be regarded as the native place of these species, 
as the starting-point from which they have spi-ead southwards 
into warmer seas, which certainly must have had an effect 
upon them, rendering them feebler ; and it is in this that I 
find the answer to the question raised by Hincks*, as to why 
this phenomenon is observed. But, on the other hand, it must 
not be forgotten that in the family PlumulariidjB there are 
species characteristic of the southern seas of gigantic size, as, 
for example, that described by M. Semperf, which proves 
that the native place and starting-point of all these Hydroids 
must be regarded as in southern regions ; and it is very pro- 
bable that the further to the north they are met with, the 
weaker and poorer they will be. 

I will now pass to the descriptions of new Hydroids. 

OORHIZA, nov. gen. (PI. XV. figs. 7-11.) 

Hydrorhiza a continuous layer consisting of a mass of 
anastomosing tubes, covering the shells of Gasteropods. From 
its surface rise spines and sexual and nutritive individuals. 
Trophosome cylindrical, with a single whorl of filiform tenta- 
cles. The sporosacs rise directly from the hydrorhiza, with- 
out the intervention of blastostyles. 

As will be seen from the character of this genus, it must 
undoubtedly be placed in the family Hydractiniidse, which 
appears at once from the habit of this Hydroid. The con- 
tinuous layer of the hydrorhiza, the spines, and the long and 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1874, vol. xiii. p. 147. 
t Zeitschr. fiir wiss. Zool. vol. xiii. p. 560. 



326 M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

slender hydrantlis, all unmistakably recall a Hydractinia or a 
Podocoryne ; so that from tlie trophosome alone it is impossible 
to distinguish Oorhiza from one of the above-mentioned genera. 
But the sexual individuals (gonosomes) present such charac- 
teristic peculiarities that it is impossible to place the Hydroid 
in question in any of the known genera of Hydractiniidse. 
Podocoryne^ as is well known, has the gonosomes consisting of 
blastostyles upon which Medusae are produced j Hydractinia 
differs in that the same blastostyles give origin to sporosacs ; 
lastly, Oorhiza has no blastostyles at all, but the sporosacs 
rise from the hydrorhiza itself. 

It is true that in Podocoryne the presence of the blasto- 
styles is not a constant character : their absence, indeed, is 
constant in Podocoryne areolata; in others, as for example 
Podocoryne aculeata, there may or may not be a blasto- 
style ; and, finally, in Podocoryne carnea the Medusge are 
constantly produced upon blastostyles. But this does not 
apply to the genus Hydractinia^ in which the presence of 
blastostyles is a perfectly constant character and essential to 
the genus. 

The genealogical relations between the genera and species 
of the family Hydractiniidae may be expressed by the accom- 
panying diagram : — 



echinata. liolyclina. 




Hydractinia Oorhiza boreaUs. P. areolata. P. carnea. 

/ 



Intermediate form*. . Podocoryne aculeata. 




* This hypothetical intermediate form must have existed analogically 
with Podocoryne aculeata ; it must have possessed indifferently sporosacs 
on blastostyles and without blastostyles : on one side Hydractinia was 
developed (analogically with Podocoryne carnea) ; on the other Oorhiza 
(analogically with P. areolata). If ever this hypothetical form is 
found, it will be necessary to unite the genera Hydractinia and Oorhiza 
into a single one, or else to establish a distinct genus for Podocoryne 
aculeata, which can bv no means be done. 



M. 0. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 327 

Oorhiza horealis, nov. sp. (PI. XV. figs. 7-11,) 

Trophosome. — The continuous layer of the hydrorhiza is 
furnished with fine spines in the form of elongated cones. 
The body of the hydranth, of a pale rose- or flesh-colour, has 
the form of an elongated cylinder. The number of tentacles 
varies from six to ten ; their length is not equal, in consequence 
of different states of contraction. 

Gonosome. — The gonozooids are placed very close together 
and in great numbers, and in consequence of their spherical form 
give the surface of the hydrorhiza a tuberculose aspect. Each 
gonozooid consists of a short spadix rising directly from the 
hydrorhiza, and a single ovum placed at the extremity of the 
spadix. 

Locality. — The neighbourhood of the island of Solowetzky, 
at a depth not greater than 10 fathoms. 

The spadix widens at its upper extremity ; and it is upon 
this dilated part that the ovum is placed, as if upon a plate 
(fig. 8). A single spadix never bears more than one ovum, 
which may be of different sizes, sometimes very considerable, 
wdiich proves that the ovum may grow up to a certain point — 
after which the absorption of nourishment changes the process 
of growth into a process of multiplication ; the segmentation 
of the ovum commences. In the granular contents of the 
ovum a pale nucleus is always observed, and frequently a 
nucleolus. It would appear from M. Wagner's drawings that 
the ovum is surrounded by a layer of ectoderm (PI. XV. fig. 8), 
the same ectoderm that covers the spadix, so that the ovum is 
placed between the ectoderm and the endoderm. The number 
of tentacles is very variable; but the numbers most frequently 
met with are those produced from 2, such as 6, 8, and 10, 
which leads us to regard 2 as the fundamental number of the 
Hydroids (fig. 7). 

The tentacles of Oorhiza horealis present facts of very 
great importance. Their surface at the end (PI. XV. fig. 11) 
is not smooth ; it is mamillated, and the maraillaj give origin 
to something like secondary tentacles, or, rather, like pseudo- 
podia. They consist of short, but not very fine, colourless, 
transparent, structureless cylinders, which spring from the 
surface of the mamillse usually in groups of three or four 
together. These pseudopodia move very slowly ; and M. I^ . 
Wagner has seen them issue and disappear just as in the 
Amoebce. Moreover he has seen issuing from the surface, but 
also very slowly, larger and thicker protuberances, which be- 
came more and more rounded and inflated, and at the same 
time became constricted, so that they remained attached to 



328 j\I. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

the tentacle only by a very thin peduncle (PI, XV. fig. 10). 
In the mterior there was to be seen a yellowish mass, the 
nature of which could not be ascertained by M. N. Wagner. 
At the same time the surface of this little sphere or protube- 
rance gave origin in its turn to cylindrical pseudopodia, 
exactly of the same kind as those which were produced by 
the surface of the tentacles. These protuberances move 
slowly, and are put forth and disappear under the eyes of the 
observer. M. N. Wagner has communicated to me the inter- 
esting fact that, on making thin sections across the brain of 
the frog, previously hardened by freezing, it has been observed 
under the microscope that after the nervous substance was 
thawed, it began to move after the fashion of the Amoehce, and 
thus changed its place, just in the same way as the protube- 
rances of Oorhiza which I have just described. M. N. 
Wagner thinks that there is an analogy between these two 
facts, and supposes that these protuberances may be of a 
nervous nature, although certainly but little differentiated. 

In one of the ends of tentacles of Oorhiza figured by M. 
Wagner, I observe the presence of pigment dispersed in the 
form of red granules of different sizes among the trichocysts 
(PI. XV. fig. 9). The presence of these in a spot to which 
they could not be conveyed by the current of digestive fluid 
(they are placed principally close to the surface of the end of 
the tentacle), as also their habit, which greatly reminds us of 
the pigments which are met with in the eyes of the Medusse 
(e. g. Syncoryne Sarsu), leads me to believe that we really 
have to do here with the first commencement of the organ of 
sight, which certainly could hardly choose a better place than 
the tips of the tentacles. This explanation of the pigment 
in question is placed absolutely beyond doubt and has become 
a proven fact for every one who has read the brilliant article, 
" Die Organ-Anfange : I. Seh-Organ," by M. G. Jager, 
which appeared in the second part of the new German perio- 
dical ' Cosmos ' *. M. Jager treats the question of the forms 
under which the organs of sight must appear in the animal 
kingdom, and proves with marvellous clearness that the first 
indications of these organs must consist in a part of the proto- 
plasm becoming pigmented (red, green, &c., and subsequently 
black), which retains the light and transforms the molecular 
movement produced by it into sensation of light, while the 
non-pigmented protoplasm, allowing all the light to pass 
through it, cannot feel the sensation of light. Thus not 

* Cosmos : Zeitschrift fiii- einheitliche Weltanschauung auf Grund der 
Entwickelungslehre in Verbindung mit Ch. Darwin und E. Ilackel, 1877, 
May, p. 94. 



M. C. Meresclikowsky ow the Hydroida. 329 

onlj the Mecluste, but also the Hjdroids, possess organs of 
sight. 

Oorhiza is always seated upon the shells of Gasteropods, 
especially Bucciniwi imdatum and Ftisus despectus, in large 
colonies, near the island of Solowetzkj, most frequently at 
a depth of 5-8 fathoms. 

Prof. M. Wagner, who first found, examined, and figured 
it, has most kindly furnished me with all his facts and draw- 
ings, some of wliich are represented in PL XV. It is from 
these drawings that I have prepared the description of the 
Hydroid. 

Leptoscyphus Grigorieioi, nov. sp. (PI. XIV. figs. 1, 2.) 

A small branching colony. The branches which bear the 
hydrothecai with their pedicels are regularly and slightly 
angularly bent and slightly ringed, especially above each angle. 
The pedicels which support the hydrothecaj are short, never 
exceeding half the length of the hydrotheca, and are much 
more strongly ringed than the branches. They are very 
regularly arranged alternately upon the branches, and always 
issue from the angle formed by the branch. The hydrotheca3 
are of an elongated form, in the shape of two cones, of which 
the inferior is the larger, and the upper, smaller one is divided 
into lobes, which form an operculum ; this division is not 
deep, never exceeding i of the length of the whole hydro- 
theca. 

The gonophores are unknown. 

Locality. — The colonies were found seated upon an Ascidian 
which is very widely distributed in the White Sea, in the Bay 
of Onega, at the mouth of the river Kem,in 34° 55' of longitude, 
at a depth of 5 fathoms, on a muddy bottom, July 5, 1875. 

The position that I have assigned to this Hydroid, in the 
genus Leptoscyphus^ is only provisional ; it might equally 
well be placed in the genus CampanuUna, which only differs 
from Leptoscyphus in the gonophores, with which I am un- 
acquainted here. In regard to its specific distinctness, there 
can be no doubt that the Hydroid in question constitutes a 
new species, which I have called Leptoscyphus Origoriewi^ in 
honour of my travelling companion, the botanist, A. W. 
Grigoriew. 

This species is distinguished principally by the form of 
the hydrothecffi, which have the segments of the superior 
cone not very deep, usually less than one third of the total 
length of the hydrotheca. This distinguishes it from L. tenuis^ 
Allman, with which it has many resemblances. The lower 
part of the hydrotheca narrows regularly (PI. XIV. fig. 2, h) ; 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 22 



330 M. C. ]\Ieresclikowsky on the Hydroida. 

but frequently individuals are met with in which this part 
diminishes very little, and thus acquires a nearly cylindrical 
form (PI. XIV. fig. 2, a) . Another characteristic feature is the 
shortness of the pedicels which support the hydrothecfe, and 
which are a little less than half the length of the hydrotheca, 
whilst in L. tenuis the pedicel is longer than the hydrotheca. 
The annulation is pretty well marked, but far from attaining 
the development observed in CampanuUna I'ejjens, which is 
further distinguished from Le2^ioscyphus Grigorieivi by the 
mode of ramification and the form of the hydrotheca. In our 
species the annulation is clearly marked only in the pedicels, 
and on the branches above the points of insertion of tlie latter. 
The colour of the branches is especially distinct at the base of 
the colony, where it is a dull brown ; it becomes lighter and 
lighter towards the middle, and finally disappears at the ex- 
tremity. The hydrothecffi arc always colourless. 

Lengtii of the hydro thecfe (average) 0'34 millim., length 
of the superior cone O'l, maximum breadth of the hydrotheca 
0"091, length of the pedicel O'l 5, breadth of the branches 
0-065. 

Sertularella (jigantea, mihi. (PL XIV. figs. 6, 7.) 

Sertularia polyzoiiias, Linn., var. robiista, Sars, " Bidrag til Kundskaben 

oin INIiddelhavets Litoral-Fauna," in Nyt Magazin for Naturvidens- 

kabema, 1857, p. 168. 
Sertularia polyzonias, hinn., ^^olyzonias (ex parte), Hincks, Hist. Brit 

Hvdr. i. p. 235. 
Sertidaria poh/zonias, lAnn., var. (/igantea, Hincks, " On Deep-water 

Ilvdroida fi-om Iceland," Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xiii. 

(1*874), p. 151, pi. vii. figs. 11. 12. 
Seytidaria poh/zom'as, Linn., var. r/iffantea, Hincks, S. Smith and O. 

Hagen, " Report on the Dredgings in the Region of St. George's 

Banks in 1872," Trans. Conn. Acad, of Arts and Sciences, iii. part i. 

(187G), p. 53. 

The tolerably flexible stems spring from the branched hydro- 
rhiza often without ramifying ; sometimes they divide at their 
base into two or three branches, each of which may again 
ramify once more ; the terminal branches are in all cases very 
long and straight. The hydrotheca^ are evidently alternately 
arranged upon the angularly bent stem ; frequently Ave ob- 
serve three or four undulations (ribs) crossing the hydrotheca ; 
its form is much elongated, only a little widened at its base ; 
in size it is two or three times the length of the hydrotheca of 
S. poJyzonias. In adult individuals the margins are always 
furnished with several ledges, and an equal number of small 
opercula placed one above the other. Below each hydrotheca 
the stem is slightly ringed. 

Gonophores unknown. 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 331 

Localities. — 1. Island of Solowetzky, on a Balanus (depth 
unknown) ; 2. Not far from the Orlow promontory, 67° 17' N. 
lat. and 41° 35' E. long., at a depth of 35 fathoms on a 
gravelly bottom, attached to Flustra (June 28) ; 3. Glacial 
sea, Mourmansky bereg, Gaurilowo, Stanowischtje (from M. 
Danilewsky, in the collection of the Museum of the Academy 
of Sciences of St. Petersbm-g) . 

This species has long been known ; but M. Sars and Mr. 
Hincks have regarded it as simply a polar variety of Sertularella 
polyzonias. Nevertheless, even by its appearance to the 
naked eye, by the habit, it is always very easy to distinguish 
this species from every other species of the genus Sertularella] 
and this distinction is produced principally by the enormous 
hydrothecee, which are often twice the length of those of S. 
polyzonias. And besides all this, it must be taken into con- 
sideration that, among all the Hydroids of my collection, I do 
not find a single one that presents a form intermediate be- 
tween 8. polyzonias and 8. gigantea, which I possess from 
three different localities. Hence this character is very con- 
stant, and is characteristic of the northern seas. Neither Mr. 
Hincks, nor M. Sars, nor MM. Smith and Hagen say a 
single word as to intermediate forms;, so that I am led to 
regard the var. gigantea of 8. polyzonias as a distinct species, 
as constant as any other, and having characters sufficiently 
salient to enable it to be recognized with facility. Besides its 
size, this species is further characterized by the form of the 
hydrothecai, which are much elongated and often have three 
or four ribs, by the margin, which is always adorned with 
several (sometimes eight or even ten) ledges, giving it a 
veiy peculiar aspect, and, lastly, by the mode of ramification. 
All this will be better understood from figs. 6 and 7 of 
Plate XIV., especially if these drawings be compared with 
that of 8. polyzonias given by Hincks*. 

Usual length of the colony 3-4 centims. Length of the 
hydrotheca 1*3 millim., its breadth 0"52 ; space between two 
successive hydrothecse along the stem 0*63. 

Sertulojria albimaris, nov. sp. (PI. XIV. figs. 3-5.) 

Hydrorhiza composed of a continuous layer, produced by 
the confluence of an ordinary ramified hydrorhiza in a single 
plane ; so that the thickness of the layer does not exceed the 
diameter of the tubes of the hydrorhiza. The surface of this 

* Hincks, Hist, of Brit. Hydr. pi. xlvi. fio'. 1. I have Sertularella 
polyzonias from the Black Sea ; so that I have been w^ell able to com;pare 
the two species ; and it is strange that Mr. Hincks did not find it possible 
to separate these two very difterent forms. 

22* 



332 M. C. Meveschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

layer is furnished with small spines. The principal stem is 
very wide ; it gives origin to slenderer branches, arranged 
alternately and regularly in a single plane, so that the whole 
acquires the aspect of a feather. The lateral branches may 
divide dichotomously at their extremities. The position of 
the hydrothecse is not exactly opposite ; their form is not very 
characteristic ; the summit is a little compressed and notched^ 
so as to form two points. 

Gonophores unknown. 

Locality. — Tlie narrow part of the White Sea (Gorlo), be- 
tween the river Ponoy and the island of Morjowetz, in 66° 
55' N. lat. and 40^ 45' E. long., at a depth of 20 fathoms, on 
a gravelly bottom (June 28, 1876) ?. 1 am not quite sure 
that the ticket attached to this Hydroid is the right one. 

This is undoubtedly one of the most singular and interest- 
ing species of the genus Sertularia ; and, indeed, if the differ- 
ences presented by the hydrorhiza are increased by those of 
the gonophores, it will be necessary to form a distinct genus 
for it. What most characterizes it is the hydrorhiza, which 
is composed of a rather thin layer, giving origin at its surface 
to several colonies in tlie form of pretty bushes, so that the 
whole resembles a little shady thicket. Under the microscope 
it is seen that the liydrorhiza is adorned with an irregular 
branching pattern, formed by partitions which are nothing 
but the lateral walls of the tubes of the hydrorhiza, Avhich has 
become a continuous layer by means of these walls (PL XIV. 
fig. 5). This is the reason why we always notice that the 
partitions seen in profile have a line in the middle, which is 
caused by these partitions being formed by two lateral walls 
belonging to two neighbouring tubes, which are thus united. 
Both the upper and lower layers of chitine, between which 
the partitions are placed, are nothing but the upper and lower 
walls of the original tubes. Thus we see that the hydrorhiza 
is formed of several ramified tubes, which have become fused 
together by their lateral Avails ; these lateral walls, after 
having joined in growing, form the pattern already men- 
tioned (figs. 5, 6) , whilst the upper and lower walls constitute 
the upper and lower continuous membranes, between which 
the pattern is placed. There are spots at the margin of the 
hydrorhiza where this process is still continuing; and here it 
may all be seen perfectly. 

So far as I know, there is not a single species, not only in 
the whole family Sertulariidte, but generally among the The- 
caphora, that has a hydrorhiza of this kind, wliich much re- 
sembles the hydrorhiza of Hydractinia or Podocoryne, but with 
the difference that in these latter the hydrorhiza is composed 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 333 

of several layers superposed upon one another, whilst in Sertu- 
laria alhimaris it only consists of a single layer. 

As I have already said, the surface of the hydrorhiza bears 
processes of chitine in the form of long, slender cones, empty 
in the middle and without openings at the extremity (fig. 5, a). 
The length of these conical spines does not exceed 0'2 millim. 
These cones, which remind us of the spines in Hydractinia 
and Podocoryne^ are not numerous. It is a very interesting 
fact that, in all the cases in which the hydrorhiza assumes the 
form of a continuous layer, this peculiarity is always com- 
bined with another, namely the existence of spines ; and it 
would be interesting to ascertain the wherefore of this charac- 
teristic coincidence that exists between these two facts. 

Another peculiarity presented by this Hydroid is that the 
principal stem (fig. 3) is very wide in one direction (it is 
compressed) ; and this width is not induced by the size or 
breadth of the hydrothecje, but by the central portion which 
bears the hydrothecse, which gives the colony a very peculiar 
habit. The width of the lateral branches is much less. The 
hydrothecEe are a little compressed at the end, not, however, in 
the same direction as the principal stem, but in a direction 
perpendicular to this ; and their orifice is notched so as to form 
two teeth. In general form they remind us of those of Poly- 
serias mirahiUs. Sometimes, however, hydrothecse occur with 
very elongated necks bent to one side. Two or three 
pairs of hydrothecse (sometimes, especially on the principal 
stem, a single pair) form an articulation which may easily 
be detached. The position of the hydrothecas is more or 
less opposite, more alternate on the lateral branches than 
on the principal stem ; but even then it is easy to group them 
in pairs ; so that, according to M. Kirchenpauer, it would be 
necessary to arrange this species in the genus Dynamena ; 
but, considering the insignificance and the want of clearness 
of this distinction, I prefer to retain the English termi- 
nology. 

Length of the colony 16 millims. ; breadth of the principal 
stem (measured between the outermost summits of two oppo- 
site hydrothecse) 0*8, the same breadth in the lateral branches 
0-60-0-73 ; length of the hydrothecte 0-43, their breadth 0-17 ; 
length of the spines 0*2. 

POLYSERIAS, nov. gen. 

This genus, belonging to the family Sertulariidas, forms a 
very peculiar type among the Hydroids of the order Theca- 
phora, by reason of the arrangement of its hydrothecae. Ex- 
cept Salacia abietina and Campamdaria verticiUatcij there. 



334 M. C. Meresclikowsky on the Ilydroida. 

exists no Tliecaphorous Hydroid in which the hydrothecas are 
arranged in more than two rows ; but even in the above two 
species the apparent arrangement in several rows is, funda- 
mentally, the result of the stem being composed of as many 
smaller stems amalgamated together as there are rows of 
hydrothecte ; so that here the number of rows is only apparent. 
But in all the Hydroids in which the stems are not complex 
the hydrothecce are arranged either in two rows, as in Set-tu- 
laria, Thinaria, &c., or in a single one, as in Plumularia, 
Aglaojjhenia, Hydrallmania, &c. In Polyseriaa, on the con- 
trary, although in all other respects it differs but little from 
Sertularia or Thuiaria, the arrangement of the hydrothecte 
in several (6, 8, 10) longitudinal rows is a character that 
occurs without the stem being composite. This multiserial 
arrangement gives a perfectly peculiar aspect to all the species 
of Pdyserias : the branches become thick, round, and longi- 
tudinally striated ; the colonies are usually large, and the 
branches long. It is characteristic of the whole genus, that 
on the principal stem the arrangement of the hydrothecse is, as 
usual, biserial. 

The gonosomes are not very different from the gonophores of 
Sertularia or Thuiaria, except that their arrangement may 
also be multiserial, like that of the hydrotheca^.. 

"When I gave a short description of the genus Polyserias in 
this journal some months ago*, I knew nothing in literature 
upon this type of Hydroids. Since the publication of my de- 
scription there has appeared the third part of the ' Proceedings 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,' in which 
Mr. Clark, in a memoir upon the Hydroids of the Aleutian 
Islands, describes two species of Hydroids which undoubtedly 
must be placed in my genus Polyserias. Unfortunately the 
author has not paid sufficient attentiou to the significance of 
the multiserial arrangement of their hydrothecai, and has 
ranged one of them in the genus Dijohasia, and the other in 
Thuiaria. It is evident that this view must give place to 
mine, according to which all the forms should be united in a 
single genus, Polyserias. It was, moreover, only from this 
memoir that I learned that this polyserial form was de- 
scribed by Mr. Verrill, under the name of Dijjhasia mirabilis, 
as long ago as 1872, in the ' American Journal,' and subse- 
quently in a Connecticut journal; and I do not think I am 
mistaken in identifying Diphasia nurabilis, Yerrill, with my 
Polyserias Hincksii'\. 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Sept. 1877. 

t For the references to these citations see the synonymy of Polyserias 
■niirahilis. 



M. C. Mei-eschkowskj on the Hydroida. 335 

Polyserias mirahiUs, Verrill. (PL XV. figs. 5, 6.) 

Diphasia mirabUis, Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci. vol. v. (Dec. 1872), 

p. 9 ; S. Smith & O. Hagen, Trans. Conn. Acad, of Arts & Sci. vol. iii. 

pt. i. (1877), pp. 219, 225; Clark, Proc. Acad. Phil. 1877, pt. iii. 

p. 219, pi. xiii. fig. .36. 
Polifserias Hincksii, Mereschkowsky, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xx, 

(1877) p. 228, pi. vi. figs. 15, 16. 

Colony rigid, plume-like, attaining a length of 16 and a 
breadth of 6 centims. The principal stem is angularly bent, 
and only bears two series of hydrothecas ; from each angle 
issues a long and straight branch which is never ramified ; 
the arrangement of the branches is regular, alternate, and in 
the same plane ; they are of equal length to [near] the ex- 
tremity, where they become shorter. Sometimes, especially 
in the largest colonies, the stem gives off from its two lower 
bends, not, as usual, a single branch, but [twoor more] branches, 
Avhich issue simultaneously from the angle formed by the prin- 
cipal stem ; and in this very rare case each pair of branches is 
not arranged in the same plane as all the other branches. 
Each branch is attached by means of a short peduncle, and 
forms with the principal stem an angle of about 45*^. The 
hydrothecaj upon the branches are always arranged in six dis- 
tinct and regular rows, even to the ends of the branches, 
which terminate abruptly. The transverse section of the 
branch, if it is rather slender, only shows three cells around 
the central cavity ; but on making the section a little higher 
up, we obtain three other cells, placed, not directly above the 
former, but between them in the interstices — which proves 
that we have to do with six rows, and that at the same time 
two hydrothecae belonging to two rows are not placed side by 
side, but sometimes higher, sometimes lower (that is to say, 
alternately). This will be better understood by examining 
the drawing which I have already given*. The form of tlie 
hydrothecffi is that of those of the Sertularice in general, fur- 
nished with a pretty long neck inclined outwards and slightly 
flattened, and with a wider part united with the stem. The 
aperture of the hydrotheca is operculate and furnished with 
two very distinct teeth placed at the corners of the orifice, 
which, in consequence of the compression of the neck, is 
elongated. 

The gonophores in their young state have the form of a 
reversed cone attached by its apex (PI. XV. fig. 5) ; but in the 
completely developed state they differ very little from the 
gonojihores of Sertidaria or Tliuiaria. Their form is elon- 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1877, vol. xx. pi. vi. fig. 10. 



336 M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 

gate oval, narrowed below into a short peduncle, and abruptly 
truncate at the extremity above, where they are narrowed into 
a sort of wide and very short tube. The arrangement of 
the gonophores upon the branches may be in four rows ; and 
frequently they are in such great numbers and so close toge- 
ther that they compress one another and then acquire an 
irregular form. When looked at from above they then have 
the appearance shown in the accompanying figure (fig. 10). 

This species, which I only describe very 
briefly now, was at first named by me P. Fig. 10. 

Hinchsu'^ but as I have since convinced ^ — ^^^_^^ 
myself that it was described several years ( [ ( / 
ago under the name of Dipliasia mirahilisj \ I \ (. 
the laws of priority compel me to change ^--~^— -^*^ — ^"-^^ — ^ 
the name, and to call it Polyserias mira- 
hilis. At the same time I shall change the name of another 
Polyserias^ which I have briefly described as P. glacialis, and 
I shall give it the name of P. Hinchsii, in honour of the Rev. 
Thomas Hincks. The description of this species will follow 
immediately. 

It must be remarked that Polyserias mirahilis is one of the 
most magnificent, and, at the same time, one of the largest 
species that have been met with in the White Sea. ISTor can I 
say that it is rare, as 1 have several specimens of it from several 
localities. The largest specimens, which have only retained 
their branches in the upper part, measure nearly 16 centims. 
Their colour is a rather dark brown, darkest especially on the 
principal stem and at the ends of the lateral branches. The 
length of the branches is from 1 to 2 centims., and their width 
about 1*1 millim. Length of hydrothecEe 0*55 millim., their 
breadth 0*48 ; length of the mature gonothecai 1*1 millim., 
their breadth 0-63. 

This species, as indeed the whole genus, is purely polar, 
and apparently even circumpolar. 

Localities. — 1. The island of Solowetzky, near the monas- 
tery, at a small depth (not more than 15 fathoms) ; 2. Near 
the promontory of Orlow (White Sea), 67° 17' is", lat. and 
41° 35' E. long., at a depth of 35 fathoms, on a gravelly 
bottom, June 28, 1876 (gonophores present) ; 3. Glacial Ocean, 
N.E. of the Swiatoy Nos (the Holy Nose), on the Mourman- 
sky bereg, 68° 13' N. lat. and 40° E. long., at a depth of 60 
fathoms, on a bottom of sand and shells, June 30 (the best 
specimens, with many gonophores). 



M. C. Mereschkowsky on the Hydroida. 337 

Polyserias Hvncksu^ nov. sp. (PI. XV. figs. 1-4.) 

Poli/serias fflacialis, Mereschk. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xx. (1877) 
p. 228. 

Colony rather rigid, plumiform, attaining a length of 20 
centims. and a breadth of 10 centinis. The principal stf^m is 
angularly bent, and only bears two kinds of hydrothecte. 
From each angle issues a branch, which at first forms with 
the main stem an angle of about 45°; but afterwards this 
angle enlarges more and more until the position of the branch 
becomes vertical to the main stem. The branches are long, 
cylindrical, attain a length of 6'5 centims., and become shorter 
in proportion as they approach the apex of the colony. They 
are attached by means of a short and slender peduncle ; their 
arrangement is alternate and in the same plane (PI. XV. fig. 1). 
The hydrothecai upon the branches are always arranged in six 
rows, as in the preceding species, and in the same alternate 
manner; but here each pair of rows (fig. 2) forms a distinct 
system, separated by a small interval not occupied by hydro- 
thecas. The roundness of the branches is more distinct in this 
species, as also the rows of hydrotheca^. The thickness of 
the branches is very considerable, and still greater in the 
youngest. The hydrothecas are oval, a little wider below, 
with a more or less regular oval aperture ; they are immersed 
in the stem for their whole extent, and their neck does not 
project outwards. In the lower part of the hydrotheca; 
there is a small tube, which constitutes the communication 
between the hydrotheca and the central canal which traverses 
the whole length of the branch. Colour of the branches pale 
yellow, that of the main stem dark brown ; the points of the 
brandies are not of darker colour as is usual in I\ mirahilis. 

Gonophores in the young state (fig. 4) in the form of a re- 
versed cone, just as in P. mirahilis^ but generally smaller. 
In the adult state (fig. 3) they retain their conical form, but 
the cone becomes larger and more elongated ; below, it is 
attached by a short peduncle ; above, it is truncate with the 
margins much rounded, and furnished with a tube of very 
inconsiderable length, whicli is scarcely observable, and much 
narrower than in the preceding species. The gonothecaj of 
this species are never present in such abundance as in P. 
mirabilts. 

This species, the largest that I am acquainted with in the 
White Sea, is distinguished from the preceding by the greater 
breadth of the colony, due to the extreme length of the lateral 
branches, by the much lighter colour, and especially by the 
stout, cylindrical form of the branches, the surface of Avhich is 



338 M. C. Meresclikovvsky on the Hydroida. 

completely smooth, in consequence of the form of the hydro- 
thecse, which more approaches that occurring in Thuiaria^ 
being entirely immersed in the chitinous substance, while the 
outwardly curved necks of P. mirahilis give a hispid aspect to 
its branches. 

Width of the branches of the middle of the colony 0*75 and 
0*85 millim., of the uppermost branches 1*10 millim. ; length 
of the hydrothecffi 0*52 millim. (at the end 0*57), their breadth 
0'34 millim. (at the end 0'45) ; length of the gonothecai 0'9 
millim., their breadth 0*5. 

This species, which is a still more magnificent one than the 
preceding, is not more rare ; but it is especially from the 
Glacial Ocean (near the Swiatoy Nos) that I have collected 
the largest and most luxuriant specimens. 

Localities. — 1. White Sea, near the promontory of Intzy 
(on the Zimnij bereg), in 66° N. lat. and 40° '2b' E. long., at 
a depth of 10 fathoms, on a stony bottom, June 23 (without 
gonophores) ; 2. Glacial Ocean, N.E. of the Swiatoy Nos, 
upon the Mourmansky bereg, in 68° 13' N. lat. and 40° E. 
long., at a depth of 60 fathoms (the large specimens), upon 
a bottom of sand and shells, June 30, 1876 (with gono- 
phores) . 

Propositions. 

The following are the fifteen propositions, contained in the 
present memoir, which, I think, I can sustain and defend : — 

1. Forms like Syncoryne, Coryne, Gemmaria^ Stauridiam, 
Cladonema, Millejjora, &c. form a type which I name the 
articulate type ; all these forms are governed by the Jaw of 
metamerism. 

2. Articulation is produced by incomplete transverse 
division. 

3. The very large number of metameres is produced by the 
laAv of ])hysiological inertia of N. Wagner. 

4. The articulate form in the Hydroids is almost always 
accompanied by capitate tentacles ; tlris form is the best adapted 
to fulfil the function of defence, the only function that remains 
to them when their position has become too distant from the 
mouth. 

5. The exceptions to this rule may be perfectly well ex- 
plained, and by no means contradict proposition 3. 

6. The hydranth with its tentacles may be regarded as a 
polymorphic colony (tentacles and body) composed of several 
Archhydrce, Hack., produced by the process of gemmation. 
The tentacles are not the homologues of such organs as feet, 
hands, &c. ; they are only their analogues. 



M. C. Mereschkowskj on the Ihjdroida. 339 

7. The medusa of Ohelia jiabellata is developed in the 
manner ascertained by F. E. Schultze in the case of Si/n- 
coryne Sarsii, in the first place by the impulsion of the active 
ectoderm into the passive endoderm. 

8. The first stages of the development of the ova of the 
medusa of Ohelia Jiabellata before fertilization consist in a 
repeated division of the nucleolulus^ followed by the division 
of the nucleolus into several parts, a division ■w^hicli stops at 
the nucleus, 

9. Ohelia Jlahellata J under certain conditions, appears to be 
able to increase by spontaneous fission by a sort of cyst, after 
the fashion of Schizocladium ramosum and Corymorpha. 

10. There are more than forty species of Hydroids in the 
White Sea, about eight of which are new. The fauna is more 
polar than that of the north of Norway and the Mourmansky 
bereg, and shows some oriental features {i. e. features of the 
fauna of the Pacific Ocean). It does not prove Lov^n's 
hypothesis of a connexion between the White Sea and the 
Baltic, 

11. Oorhiza horealis, nov. gen. et sp., is distinguished by 
the sporosacs issuing immediately from the hydrorhiza with- 
out the intervention of blastostyles. 

12. There are Hydroids {Oorhiza borealis) the tentacles of 
which are furnished with eyes (or " eye-pigment"). 

13. The northern variety of Sertularella polyzonias must 
constitute a distinct species — '^ Sertularella yigantea, mihi. 

14. Sertularia albimaris, new species, with a hydrorhiza 
in a continuous layer. Description of Leptoscyphus Origo- 
riewi, nov. sp. 

15. The forms of the family Sertulariidai, which have their 
Iiydrothecffi arranged not in two but in several series, must 
form a new genus, Polyserias. (Description of two species.) 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
I>LATE XIII. 

Fig. 1. Young medusa of Ohelia Jlahellnta in the form oi Archhf/dra. 

Fiys. 2, 3. Subsequent stages of development, in which the ectoderm alone 
is active and buries itself in the endoderm. 

Fiff. 4. Optical section of tig. 5. 

Fiff, 5. The four radial canals, strongly developed ; commencement of the 
formation of the manubrium. 

Fiff. 6. Young medusa still attached to the blastostyle. 

Fiff. 7. Medusa of Obelia Jiabellata, completely developed and furnished 
with four sporosacs. 

Fiffs. 8, 9. 10. Ova taken from the sporosacs of the medusa of Obelia Jia- 
bellata, not fecundated, and showing different stages of develop- 
ment of the nucleolus and uucleolulu?. 

Fiff. 11. The nucleus, highly magnified, to show the relative size of the 



340 Mr. W. C. Hewitson on new Species o/Hesperidge. 

nucleolulus and its irregular, variable form: n\ nucleus; n", 

nucleolus; w'", nucleolulus. 
Figs. 12, 13. More advanced stages of the development of the ovum, asso- 
ciated with an enlargement of the ovum. 
Fig. 14. A second observed case of a nucleolus in process of division : «", 

nucleolus. 
Fig. 15. A nucleolus {n"), much magnified, with a nucleolulus (w'") in 

the middle and an aureole of live small granules. 
Fig. 16. The apex of a stem of Ohelia fiabellata, va. which the coenosavc 

has become detached as a cylinder with a cavitj'. 
Fig. 17. A hydrotheca in which the ccenosarc has formed, instead of a 

cylinder, a sphere with a cavity, ectoderm, endoderm, and pe- 

risarc. 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1. Leptoscyphus Origoriewi, nov. sp., magnified, drawn with the 

camera lucida. 
Fig. 2. Two varieties presented by the hydrothecse of Leptoscyphus Gri- 

goriewi, more highly magnified. Drawn with the camera 

lucida. 
Mg. 3. Sertularia albimaris, nov. sp., principal stem and lateral branches. 

Enlarged ; drawn with the camera lucida. 
Fig. 4. A colony of Sertularia albimaris, natural size. 
Fig. 5. Portion of the hydrorhiza of the same, much enlarged (camera 

lucida) : a, the spines ; 6, the vertical partitions formed by the 

lateral walls of the tubes, which are joined in growing. 
Fig. 6. Sertularella giganteu, milii, natural size. 
Fig. 7. The same, enlarged. 

Plate XV. 

Fig. 1. A very fine colony of Polyserias Hi/icksii, nov. gen. et sp. 

Fig. 2. Part of a stem of the same Hydroid, enlarged (camera lucida). 

Fig. 3. A mature gonotheca of Pulyserias Hincksii. 

Fig. 4. A young gonotheca of the same. 

Fig. 5. Polyserias mirahilis, with immature gonothecse (camei-a lucida). 

Fig. 6. A mature gonotheca of the same Hydroid. 

Fig. 7. Part of a colony of Oorhiza borealis, nov. gen. et sp., enlarged^ 
from a sketch by M. Wagner. 

Fig. 8, Sporosacs of Oorhiza borealis, issuing from the hydrorhiza. 

Fig. 9. Tip of a tentacle of Oorhiza borealis with pseudopodium-like fila- 
ments and red pigment grains (eye-pigment). 

Fi,g. 10. A body on a peduncle, moving like an Amoeba, and giving origin 
to filaments. 

Fig. 11. Another tip of a tentacle, to show the arrangement of the fila- 
ments. 



XXXVII. — Descriptions of tioenty new Species o/* Hesperidae 
from Ms own Collection. By W. C. Hewitson. 

Plesioneura Tola. 

Alis utrinque nigro-fuscis : auticis fascia media, regulari, nervis 
albis quinquepartita, nivea. 

Both sides dark brown. Anterior wing crossed in tlie 



Mr. W. C. Hewitson on new Species o/" Hesperidoe. 341 

middle from the subcostal nervnre to a little below the first 
branch of the median nervure, below which it is narrow, by a 
broad oval, regular, transparent snow-white band, divided by 
the nervures, which are of the same colour. 

Exp. 2 inches. 

Hah. Tondano {Wallace). 

Plesioneura Orona. 

Alls utrinque fuscis : anticis fascia media, regulari, nervis fulvis 
trijiartita, aurantiaca. 

Both sides dark brown. Anterior wing crossed in the 
middle from the subcostal nervure, where it is narrow, to the 
first branch of the median nervure, where it is broadest, by a 
semitransparent regular band of orange. 

Exp. 1^4 inch. 

Hah. Batchian {Wallace). 

Plesioneura Cythna. 

AUs utrinque rufo-fuscis : anticis fascia media hyalina alba, nervis 
albis tripartita : posticis basi margine costali albo nitido. 

Upperside rufous-brown. Anterior wing crossed in the 
middle from the subcostal nervure, where it is narrow, to the 
first branch of the median nervure, where it is broadest, by a 
transparent band of Avhite. Posterior wing with the costal 
margin from the base to its middle white and polished. 

Underside as above, except that the white band is con- 
tinued to the inner margin. 

Exp. \^ inch. 

Astictopterus Verones. 

Alis utrinque rufo-fuscis : auticis infra macula apicali fulva. 

Both sides rufous-brown. 

Underside of the anterior wing marked by a subapical 
rufous spot. 
Exp. 1^ inch. 
Hah. Sumatra {Wallace). 

Asticto2Jterus Harmachis. 

AHs utrinque fuscis : anticis fascia lata, irregulari, angulata, nervis 
nigris quadripartita, hyahna, flava. 

Both sides dark rufous-brown. Anterior wing crossed in 
the middle from the subcostal nervure to the submedian ner- 
vure by a very irregular angular transparent band of yellow, 
divided into four parts by the nervures, which are black : the 



342 Mr. W. C. Hewitson on neiv Sjjecies o/* Hesperidse. 

first part large and oblong within the cell, the second trian- 
gular between the second and third branches of the median 
nervure, the third oblong and bounded by the first and second 
branches of the median nervure ; two small spots, one of 
which is very minute, towards the apex. 

Underside as above. 

Exp. 2 inches. 

Hob. Sumatra {Buxton). 

This species is also in the collection of Dr. Staudinger, 
from Malacca. 

Astictopterus Ozias. 

Alls iitrinque fuscis : anticis supra fascia media sinuata, uervis 
flavis quadripartita, hyalina, flava : infra, anticis apice, posticis 
fasciis duabus latis cinereis, 

Upperside dark rufous-brown. Anterior wing crossed at 
the middle, from the subcostal nervure to the submedian ner- 
vure, by a broad irregular transparent band of yellow, divided 
by the nervurea, which are of the same colour, and twice in- 
dented on its inner border: the first part within the cell trian- 
gular ; the second triangular, formed by the median nervure 
and its second and third branches ; the third oblong between 
the first and second median branches. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that the apex 
is broadly grey. Posterior wing crossed below the middle by 
two broad bands of grey. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hob. Java. 

This species is also in the collection of Dr. Staudinger, from 
Java ; my specimen is without a locality. 

This and Harmachis have the appearance of Uesjyeria. 

Astictopterus OtJwnias. 

Alls uti'inque rufo-fuscis : anticis fascia media tripartita maculaque 
aurautiacis. 

Both sides rufous-brown. Anterior wing crossed at the 
middle from the subcostal nervure to near the submedian ner- 
vure by an irregular band, broken into three orange spots by 
the nervures : the first in the cell ; the second oblong, bounded 
by the first and second branches of the median nervure ; a 
fourth spot, outside of these, placed between the second and 
third branches of the m^edian nervure. 

Exp. 2-j\ inches. 

Hah. Borneo. 



Mr. W. C. Hewitson on neio -S^c^V^ o/" Hesperidfe. 343 

Astictopterus Vihius. 

Alis utrinque fuscis : anticis macula magna media, sub apice sinuata, 
aurautiaca. 

Both sides dark rufous-brown. Anterior wing with a large 
central orange spot, circular, except opposite the apex, where 
the brown is obtruded in a quadrate form. 

Exp. 1-^ inch. 

Hah. Gaboon. 

Ceratrichia Jlava. 

Alis utrinque flavis : anticis margine postico late nigro punctis 
duobus minutis sub apice notato : posticis apice nigro. Infra : 
anticis maculis apicalibus albo notatis : posticis semicirculo punc- 
torum nigrorum. 

Upperside briglit yellow. Anterior wing with the outer 
margin black, marked beyond the end of tlie cell by a minute 
yellow spot, and near the apex by a very minute spot of the 
same colour. Posterior wing with the apex black ; some 
minute black spots on the outer margin. 

Underside yellow. Anterior wing as above, except that the 
a])ex is rufous, marked by black spots, each marked by a minute 
white spot ; the margin black, traversed by a line of yellow ; 
the fringe black and white alternately. Posterior wing with 
two or three subbasal brown spots, followed by a semicircular 
series of brown spots, some of which are marked with yellow ; 
a submarginal series of minute black spots ; the margin also 
spotted with black. 

Exp. 1-^y- inch. 

Hah. Cameroons {Rutherford). 

CeratricMa Aretma. 

Alis rufo-i'uscis : anticis maculis sex albis hyalinis maculaque opaca, 
posticis maculis Iribus : posticis infra flavo minioque tinctis. 

Upperside dark rufous-brown. Anterior wing with six 
transparent white spots : one near the inner margin, one 
intersected by the median nervure, the third beyond this, and 
three near the apex. Posterior wing with two transparent 
central spots : one before the middle ; the other below it, bifid. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that the base of 
the costal nervure is white, and that there are some pale spots 
near the apex. Posterior wing with the costal half yellow- 
white, marked by two or three small brown spots, and on the 
costal margin by a carmine-brown spot ; anal half, except the 



344 Mr. W. C. Hewitson 07i new Species o/" Hesperidse. 

abdominal fold, which is pale yellow, carmine-brown, marked 
by the transparent spots as above. 

Exp. Iyo inch. 

Hab. Calabar. 

The two species which I have described, together Avitli 
C. nothus and C. Ccesar, form Mr. Butler's well-marked genus 
Ceratrichia. 

Pterygosindea grisea. 

Alis utrinque griseis, fasciis tribus macularibus nigris : anticis 
punctis octo albis hyalinis. 

Upperside dark brown, so thickly irrorated throughout 
with white as to give it the appearance of being dark grey. 
Both wings crossed by three irregular bands of black spots. 
Anterior wing with eight small transparent spots : three from 
the middle of the costal margin (two of which are in the cell), 
two between tlie branches of the median nervure, and three 
near the apex. 

Underside as above, but paler. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. Gaboon [Rogers). 

Pterygospidea KehelatJia. 

Alis utrinque ruf o-brunneis : supra fasciis duabus transversalibus 
nigris : anticis macula nigra subbasali maculisque septem aibis 
hyalinis, quatuor in medio positis. 

Upperside bright rufous-brown. Both wings crossed be- 
yond the middle by a band of brown and by a submarginal 
band of the same colour, partly broken into spots. Anterior 
wing with a distinct black spot not far from the base of the inner 
margin ; seven transparent white spots, four of which are in 
the middle, one on the costal margin, one in the cell large 
and quadrate but sinuated on its inner border, and two below 
it between the branches of the median nervure. Posterior 
wing with two or three subbasal indistinct brown spots j the 
outer margin angular at the middle. 

Undei'side rufous-brown. Anterior wing as above. Pos- 
terior Aving marked by several black spots : three (one of 
which is bifid) in a semicircle before the middle, and seven in 
pairs, also forming a semicircle beyond the middle. 

Exp. Ig inch. 

Hah. Macassar {_WalIace). 

Pterygospidea Sephara. 
Alis utrinque rufo-brunneis : anticis punctis tredecim hyalinis, 



Mr. W. C. Hewitson on new S^ecees o/" Hespeiidge. 345 

fascia^media, fascia subapicali fasciaque anali fuscis : poaticis basi 
apiceque fuscis, fasciisque duabus pallide brimneis. 

Upperside rufous-brown, marked bj thirteen transparent 
wliite spots, all of which, with one exception, are very minute: 
live near the middle of the costal margin, three of which are 
in the cell, where two of them are upon a spot of brown ; four 
below these between the branches of the median nervure and 
the submedian, one of which is square and larger than all the 
rest, one very minute, and one linear ; and fom* near the apex, 
all placed upon a transverse brown band ; a band of brown 
near the apex and also near the anal angle. Posterior wing 
with the base and apex dark brown, a brown spot on the 
costal margin, and two transverse bands of paler brown. 

Underside as above, except that it is without the brown at 
the middle of the anterior wing, as well as that at the base of 
the posterior wing. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. Brazil. 

This and the last described are most nearly represented by 
P. truncata. 

Hesperia Netopha. 

Alls fuscis: anticis maculis quinque hyalinis maculaque opaca alba: 
posticis macula media bipartita alba. Infra anticis radiis api- 
calibus flavis : posticis flavis maculis margineque posteriore nigris. 

Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with six white 
spots, five of which are transparent : two in the cell ; four in 
a longitudinal central band, the first near the inner margin, 
opaque, the last towards the apex, very minute. Posterior 
wing with a trifid pale yellow central spot. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that the outer 
margin is ochreous and that there are rays of yellow at the 
apex. Posterior wing yellow, marked by several black spots: 
two at the base, two before the middle, followed by a trans- 
verse curved band of six ; the outer margin and some of the 
nervures where they touch it dark brown ; the fringe yellow. 

Exp. l^^j inch. 

Hab. West Africa. 

Hesperia Nyassce. 

Alis fuscis : anticis maculis quatuor hyalinis maculaque opaca alba : 
posticis macula media bipartita flava. Infra anticis apice cine- 
raceo, fusco striate : posticis cineraceis, maculis nigris notatis. 

Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with fiv^e white 
spots : one in the cell bifid, four in a central longitudinal 
band, the first near the inner margin opaque, the last towards 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 23 



346 Mr. W. C. Hewitson on new Species q/" Hesperidge. 

the apex scarcely visible. Posterior wing with a bifid 
ochreous central spot. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that the costal 
margin is rufous, the apex broadly lilac-grey, intersected be- 
tween the nervures by lines of dark brown. Posterior wing 
lilac-grey, marked by several black spots : two at the base, 
three in a transverse band before the middle, and four beyond 
the middle. 

Exp. 1| inch. 

Hah. Nyassa {Tlielwall) . 

This and the last described are very different from any 
other species, but singularly like each other in marking, 
though upon a totally different ground-colour. 

Hesperia vermiculata. 

Alis supra fuscis : anticis punctis quinque hyalinis punctoque 
opaco flavis, puncto in cellula punctisque in fascia longitudinal! 
positis : posticis fascia margineque anali flavis. Infra anticis 
radiis apicalibus flavis : posticis flavis maculis nigris albisque. 

Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with six spots, five 
of which are transparent and slightly tinted with yellow : one 
in the cell, oblong; five in a longitudinal central band, the 
first of which near the inner margin is opaque, the last, 
towards the apex, minute. Posterior wing with an oblique 
short central band and the fringe yellow ; the anal angle also 
broadly yellow. The abdomen dark brown, banded with 
yellow. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that there are 
two lines of yellow from the base of the costal margin, which 
are united near its middle ; rays of the same colour at the 
apex, and a triangular white spot at the end of the cell. 
Posterior wing yellow, spotted with black and white ; the 
base and costal margin dark brown, with the nervures yellow; 
two white spots below the middle of the costal margin, a 
white spot near the inner margin; a transverse series of black 
spots below the middle, followed by a series of white spots, 
and again by an apical series of black spots. The white spots 
slightly tinted with blue. 

Exp. I3V inch. 

Hah. Sumatra [Buxton). 

A beautiful species, near H. Liburnia and H. Latoia. 

Syriclitlius Cenchreus. 

Alis fuscis, fascia submargiuali macularum albarum : posticis fascia 
media maculari alba : posticis infra albis, fasciis tribus fuscis. 

Upperside dark brown. Both wings with a submarginal 



Mr. W. C. Hewitson on new Species of Hesperidae. 347 

series of white spots ; the fringe brown, bordered inwardly 
with white. Posterior wing with a spot in the cell, and a 
central band of oblong white spots. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that it is white 
near the base. Posterior wing white, crossed by three bands 
of dark brown : one before the middle, short ; one below the 
middle, longer; and one submarginal, broadest and longest 
and irrorated with white. 

Exp. l^ijj inch. 

Hah. Para {Bates). 

Arteurotia Camhyses. 

Alls supra nigro-fuscis, fascia submarginali maciilari cineracea. 
Infra fuscis : anticis margine interiore cinereo : posticis fasciis 
duabus indistinctis. 

Upperside black. Both wings with a submarginal series 
of grey spots, largest at the apex of the anterior wing, scarcely 
visible towards its anal angle. Anterior wing with a very 
indistinct short band of grey from the middle of the costal 
margin. Posterior wing witli a similar band in its middle. 

Underside. Anterior wing dark brown, the apex paler, the 
inner margin grey. Posterior wing red-brown, with the 
costal margin and two indistinct transverse bands of darker 
brown. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. Bolivia {Buckley). 

This species is nearly allied to Mycteris ccerula of Mabille, 
which belongs to this genus. 

Arteurotia Castolus. 

Alis utrinque fuscis : anticis punctis tribus subapicalibus hyalinis. 
Infra anticis puncto cinereo apicali : posticis angulo anali late 
cineraceo, fusco undulato. 

Upperside dark brown. Both wings indistinctly variegated 
by grey. Anterior wing with three minute subapical trans- 
parent spots. 

Underside as above, except that there is a small grey spot 
at the apex of the anterior wing, and that the anal half of the 
posterior wing is grey undulated with brown. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hab. Brazil. 

Arteurotia Celendris. 

Alis utrinque fuscis : anticis punctis duodecim minutis hyalinis : 
posticis dimidio inferiore cinereo, fascia submarginaH fusca : his 
infra fascia media maculari alba maculaque anali magna nigra. 



348 Dr. F. Bvliggemann o/t Artcaraus monachus. 

Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with twelve minute 
transparent spots : three at the middle of the costal margin, 
two of which are in the cell ; six in a central oblique band, 
two of which are lunular ; and tliree near the apex ; a minute 
white spot on the fringe at the apex, and a lunular spot of the 
same colour near the anal angle. Posterior wing with the outer 
half grey, bordered above with white, crossed near the outer 
margin by a band of dark brown. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that there are 
two minute white spots above the lunular spot near the anal 
angle. Posterior wing with a band of white spots at the 
middle, a series of smaller white spots below these, and a large 
black spot at the anal angle bordered above and below with 
white. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Hah. Amazons (Bates). 

Gonognathus Platon of Felder is the typical representative 
of this genus ; but as Mr. Kirby informs me that Gonognathus 
is preoccupied, I have adopted Arteurotia of Butler and Druce. 
Thracides Ai'istoteles of Westwood also belongs to this genus, 
and bears very little resemblance to the species which Hiibner 
puts into his genus Thracides. 



XXXVIII. — Note on Artamus monachus. 
By Dr. F. Beuggemann. 

In 1850 Prince Bonaparte established a new species of Arta- 
mus from Celebes {A. monachus), with the following dia- 
gnosis : — " Capite, alls caudaque nigris " (Consp. Avium, i. 
p. 343). 

In 1877 Dr. Sclater established a new species of Artamus 
from New Ireland [A. insignis), with the following dia- 
gnosis : — " Di versus ab A . monacho capite alis et cauda nigris " 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 101). 

Going further into the question, it may be mentioned in 
advance that A. monachus was first distinguished and named 
by Temminck ; but as the Dutch ornithologist never gave a 
description of it, we have not at all to deal with an A . mona- 
chus of Temminck, as quoted by most authors. The next 
account of the species was given by the illustrious traveller 
Wallace, who described specimens from North Celebes and 
the Sula Islands (P. Z. S. 1862, p. 340), as having the head, 
wings, and tail ashy grey instead of black. Upon this, Lord 
Walden, in his elaborate memoir on the birds of Celebes 
(Trans. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 67), where also a good figm-e of the 



Mr. D. G. Elliot on a neiv Ptilopus. 349 

species is given, expressed his doubts about the identity of 
Bonaparte's and Wallace's birds. Having found again the 
characters indicated by Wallace in one of Von Rosenberg's 
specimens, I suggested in a previous paper (Abh. Ver. Brem. 
V. p. 69) that there might be a lapsus calami in Bonaparte's 
statement. 

Such being the state of affairs, until a short time ago, 
there could not be much objection to naming the Celebean 
bird "^. monachus.'''' Bonaparte's diagnosis is, indeed, short 
enough ; and recently one of his appellations, although in 
general use, has been rejected on account of its being accom- 
panied by a diagnostic phrase consisting of on\j four words. 
However, I cannot agree in fixing a certain number of words 
as indispensable for the establishment of a species. This 
would lead to a most trivial higgling ; for it is extremely diffi- 
cult to tell how many words should be considered sufficient. 
In some cases, I think, even a single word might do ; besides 
it can never be demanded that the first description of a 
species should be exhaustive in every respect. But Bona- 
parte's diagnosis is erroneous ; and, as lately the Oriolus 
indicus has been renamed because of a wrong original 
description, it might have been regarded as necessary to find 
a new name for our bird. But this objection is, in my 
belief, not sustainable, as the species could be ascribed to 
Wallace, as well as the Oriolus indicus to Jerdon. 

However, it has become unavoidable to rename the Celebes 
bird ; for now a species is known answering fully to Bona- 
parte's diagnosis, viz. A. insignis ; and therefore I venture 
to propose the name of A. spectabilis for the former. It 
now little matters whether Bonaparte's term " nigris " is 
miswritten or not, and whether the type in the Leyden 
Museum is really A. insignis (and in this case the habitat 
would be wrong) or A. spectabilis (and then the description 
would be wrong) ; on the contrary, I consider it best, under 
such circumstances, to drop ",4. monachus " altogether, and 
to use the new names for the two species respectively. 



XXXIX. — Description of an apparently new Species of Pigeon 
of the Genus Ptilopus." By D. G. Elliot, F.E.S.E. &c. 

Ptilopus pictiventris. 

Adult. Front and crown rosy purple, with a faintly in- 
dicated yellow margin. Occiput greenish grey. Throat 
whitish ; neck, upper part of mantle, and breast ashy green. 



350 Miscellaneous. 

Flanks light green. Centre of abdomen rufous, bounded above 
bj a deep purple line. Crissum and under tail-coverts bright 
yellow, the latter orange towards their tips. Back and upper 
tail-coverts bright green. Scapulars tipped with lilac. Tail 
bright green, with a broad apical yellow band. Bill greenish, 
with a yellow tip. Feet probably dark red. Total length 
8^ inches, wing 5i, tail 3, culmen ^ inch. 

Hob. Nukahiva (type), Marquesas Islands, Samoa {Whit- 
mee) ; Savage Island, Navigators' and Friendly Islands 
Layard) . 

This is, I presume, the bird called P. apicalis by Layard in 
the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' for 1876, p. 495. 
It differs from the P. apicalis^ Bon., a very distinct species, by 
being of a much lighter colour on the neck and breast, and by 
having the rufous of the abdomen bounded above by deep 
purple, and the scapulars tipped with lilac. In the type of 
P. apicalis there is no purple on the abdomen, the patch being 
rufous mixed with yellow, and the scapulars are uniform 
green. The locality Vavao, given by Bonaparte, is question- 
able, as the type was brought by Hombron and Jacquinot 
from the Samoan Islands ; but which one is not stated. The 
type of the Ptilopus pictiventris is now in the collection of the 
Paris Museum, and came from NuhaMva, of the Marquesas 
group. I have also seen two specimens in the British Mu- 
seum, sent by the Rev. S. J. Whitmee from Samoa and 
Savage Island, which are precisely like the type, and bore 
upon their label (written by Mr. Whitmee) the name of 
Ptilopus fasciatuSy JPeale, which is a very different species, in 
no way to be confounded with it. As there is considerable 
confusion still existing among these small fruit-pigeons of the 
South- Sea Islands, I will add that the present new species 
differs from the others with a yellow apical band on the tail 
especially by the colouring of the abdomen. Its proper posi- 
tion in the group will be fully shown in a paper upon these 
birds, on which I have been for some time engaged, and have 
now nearly ready for publication. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

On Dinichthys, Neivherry. 

Peop. Owen, followed in this by Prof. Huxley, constituted an 
order, Protopteri (Dipnoi, Huxley), for the genus Lepidosiren, 
which combines with essentially ichthyic characters structural 
peculiarities which greatly approximate it to the perennibranchiate 
Batrachians. Paul Gervais and others, on the contrary, class the 



Miscellaneous. 351 

type of this order among the Ganoids ; and Dr. Giinther, going 
still further, regards the Dipnoi as nothing more than a suborder of 
the Ganoids, and thinks that these latter should be united with the 
Plagiostomi, to form with them a single order (Palaeichthyes) charac- 
terized by a heart furnished with a contractile arterial bulb, an 
intestine with a spiral valve, and uncrossed optic nerves. 

The discovery of Ceratodiis Forsteri certainly seems to diminish 
the value of the order Dipnoi, This fish, which approaches Lepido- 
siren in regard to its respirator)^ apparatus, departs from it, on the 
other hand, by the structure of its heart, which is perfectly 
ganoidean, consisting only of two cavities with an arterial bulb ; 
moreover the intestine is furnished with a spiral valve. The genus 
Diniclitliys is a new type, which, combining the osteological charac- 
ters of the Lepidosirens and those of the Placoderms (cuirassed 
Ganoids), furnishes an additional argument in favour of M. Gervais's 
opinion and establishes a fresh transition between the different 
groups of Ganoids. 

Besides its great size (a cranium measures 3 feet in length and 
2 in breadth) the Diniclitliys is especially remarkable by its denti- 
tion. The lower jaw consists of massive rami, the posterior extre- 
mities of which are rounded and flat. The anterior part of each 
ramus is bent upwards so as to form a sort of strong, acute, and 
prominent tooth ; behind this tooth the jaw is thickened by a bony 
projection on the inside, which terminates in front in a triangular 
process like a tooth ; beyond this process the margin of the mandi- 
ble is compressed for a distance of 5 or 6 inches, and consists of a 
very dense bone-like enamel ; in one species this margin is entire 
but trenchant ; in another it is denticulated with conical points 
half an inch long. 

The upper jaw consists of two triangular premaxillaries, constitu- 
ting, as it were, two great incisors, followed by two maxillaries 
"with trenchant or denticulate margins. This structure much 
reminds us of the dentition of Lepidosiren and Coccosteus ; and the 
resemblance becomes still more striking when we compare figures 
representing these three forms. Unfortunately, the upper part of 
the cranium being but imperfectly known, we cannot tell whether 
the bones called premaxillaries by Mr. Newberry are or are not 
the homologues of the dentigerous nasals of Lepidosiren ; but with 
resjject to the mandible the resemblance is as complete as could be 
desired. 

The body of Dinichtliys was covered with a buckler composed of 
plates exactly similar to those of Coccosteus decipiens, of the same 
number, and arranged in an almost identical manner, the only 
difierences shown by a comparison of the figures being a certain 
narrowness of the buckler and the termination in a sort of point of 
the outer angle of the j)osterior plates. 

The jaws of Dinichtliys present several points of resemblance to 
those of Coccosteus ; but this is not the case with the cranium and 
the back, the bony armour of which, in the former fish, much more 
resembles that of Asterolepis and Heterostevs. Whilst the outer 



352 Miscellaneous. 

surface of the bony plates of the Placoderms is covered with stellate 
tubercles, that of DinicMliys is only marked with fine granulations, 
with slightly deeper and very irregular furrows. The fins are only 
known from a fragment 6 inches long and 3 or 4 inches broad, 
which probably formed part of a median fin with ossified rays as 
thick as a man's little finger. 

Thus, as we pass from the Dipteri of the Devonian to the existing 
Ceratodus Forsteri by means of the Carboniferous Ctenodus and the 
Triassic Ceratodus, so Dinichthys binds together Coccosteus, PUrich- 
tliys, Asterolepis, and Lepidosiren, although in both cases we by no 
means possess all the intermediate forms. — Bibl. Univ. June 15, 
1877, Arch, des Sci. p. 195. 

071 an Ostracode Crustacean of a new Genus (Acantho-pxis), met with in 
the deep Waters of the Lake of Geneva. By M. H. Yeenet. 

This entomostracan cannot be referred to any type hitherto ob- 
served in fresh water ; it belongs to the marine family Cytheridse. 
Like the representatives of that family it possesses only a single pair 
of maxill?e, and, on the other hand, three pairs of feet armed with 
strong hooks at their basal articulation (the other freshwater Ostra- 
codes having two pairs of maxillae and two pairs of legs). The 
rudimentary postabdomen is reduced to two rounded lobes, each 
bearing two hairs. The antennae also much more resemble the type 
of the Cytheridse than that of the Cypridse. 

The reproductive apparatus does not present any thing peculiar ; it 
resembles that of the Ostracodes in general. Besides the sexual 
tube there is a receptacidum seminis in the female, and a very com- 
plicated chitiuous copulatory apparatus in the male. The vulvae 
are placed below the two postabdominal lobes. 

With regard to its mode of life, this crustacean is unable to leave 
the bottom. It does not swim at all ; it sometimes creeps, but 
usually buries itself, and thus travels in the mud and organic debris 
by the aid of its feet and antennae. The hairs and segments of the 
feet are driven into the mud, which serves as a support. The strong 
hooks of the basal articulation are especially useful, "Tbut give a 
somewhat awkward appearance to the mode of progression. The 
mechanism of this locomotion may be compared to that of a man 
who endeavours to advance upon his knees, aiding himself with his 
toes. 

The two pairs of antennas act in opposite directions ; their action 
may be compared to that of the two anterior paws of a mole. These 
are the members which enable our crustacean to bury itself in the 
mud. 

With reference to the origin of this organism two suppositions 
may be formed : it may be descended from a marine species intro- 
duced by some means into our lakes ; or it may have for its ancestor 
a freshwater crustacean ; the genus Candona would be that which 
it most resembles, though nevertheless very dissimilar. The field 
of hvpotheses remains open upon this point. — Bihl. Univ. Oct. 15, 
1877", Arch, des Sci. p. 334. 



THE ANNALS 



MAGAZINE OF NATUEAL HISTOEY. 

[FIFTH SERIES.] 
No. 5. MAY 1878. 



XL. — Notes on the Oenus E-etepora, with Descriptions of new 
Species. By the Rev. Thomas Hincks, B.A., F.R.S. 

[Plates XVIII. & XIX.] 

The singular beauty of the Lace-corals has always attracted tlie 
collector ; but, so far, little has been accomplished towards the 
elucidation of their history. Of the many forms -which exist, 
especially in the Southern Ocean, few have been discriminated. 
Even the representatives of the tribe in Northern and British 
waters and in the JMediterranean have been only imperfectly 
investigated; and much remains to be done amongst them. 

The notices of Retepora which we have from the older 
writers are valueless for purposes of identification ; and the 
same remark applies to many of the descriptions of more 
modern date. 

The following recent species have been described : — 

From Australia : 

Retepora phoenicea, Btisk. 
R. monilifera, MacyiUivray. 
R. porcellana, id. 
R. granulata, id. 
R. fissa, id. 

I believe that the foregoing are all distinct from the forms 
described as new in this paper ; but in so difficult a genus it 
is essential that the diagnosis should be much fuller and more 
minute than authors have usually made it, and identification 
is not always sure. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 5. Vol. i. 24 



354 Rev. T. Hincks on the Genus Retepora. 

From the South Seas : 

E. versipalma, De Blainville (Man. d'Act. p. 419). 
Of this species the diagnosis is hopelessly defective. 

From India : 

R. indica, nOrbigny. 

Nothing is to be learnt of this species from the brief 
notice of.it in the ' Paleontologie Francjaise ' (vol. v. p. 364); 
but it is identified bj D'Orbigny with a form figured by 
Rumphius (Amboin. pi. 87. fig. 5) ; and as Busk quotes the 
latter as a synonym of his R. phoenicea, it is possible that 
this species and R. indica may be identical. 

From Florida : 

R. marsupiata, Smitt * (also from Teneriffe). 

R. reticulata, Pourtales f. Ranked by S luitt as a variety of iZ.^eawVma, 

but probably a distinct species. Dredged from a depth of 270 

fathoms. 
R. reticulata of Johnston tf- Couch cannot be identified from their 

descriptions. 

From the Arctic seas : 
R. Wallichiana, Busk ^ Hincks f (associated with R. Beaniana, 
King, and R. cellulosa, Smitt). 

From the North Sea : 
R. Edwardsii, Van Beneden § (probably identical with R. celhdosa, 
Smitt) . 

From the British seas : 
R. Beaniana, King \\. 

From the Mediterranean : 
R. cellulosa, auctt. 

There has been much confusion amongst authors as to the 
application of this' name. The northern form, with which 
Smitt has connected it, ranges to the Mediterranean ; but it 
has probably been applied to other Mediterranean forms by 
the earlier writers. 

I do not give this as an exhaustive list, though I believe 
that it will be found to include most of the described species 

* Floridan Bryozoa, pt. ii. p. 67, pi. xiii. figs. 245-254. 

t Ibid. p. 69, pi. xiii. figs. 242-244. 

X Hincks on Polyzoa from Greenland (wrongly " Iceland " in the 
text) and Labrador, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, for January 1877, p. 107, 
pi. xi. figs. 9-13. 

§ " Sur les Polypes Bryozoaires de la Mer du Nord," Bull. Acad. 
Rov. d. Belg. vol. xv. no. 2 (1849), pi. x. figs. 9-13. 

II Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, xviii. p. 237. 



Rev. T. Hincks on the Genus Retepora. 355 

(If not all) which are recognizable. If so, the number of known 
forms is remarkably small compared w4th the probable extent 
of the genus. 

The Retepores have a wide distribution in space, ranging 
from the Arctic seas to New Zealand and Australia, where 
thej are represented by many species, and occurring in the 
Indian seas (Straits of Malacca &c.), at the Canary Isles, 
off Cape Horn, and on the southern coasts of North America. 
They have also a wide bathyraetrical range, and have been 
taken at great depths as well as in comparatively shallow 
water. 

The new species which I am about to describe are in part 
Australian ; one of them is common to our own shores and 
to the Mediterranean ; and one or two besides are inhabi- 
tants of the latter or of the Red Sea. 

The most important specific cliaracters in this group are 
the structure of the oral aperture, the shape and size of the 
fenestrce, and the form and position of the avicularian appen- 
dages. Some of the species are distinguished by a slit or 
fissure in the lower margin of the mouth, terminating below 
in a loop-like foramen ; in others this is wanting. The genus 
may be conveniently divided into two groups, characterized 
by the presence or absence of the oral fissure. 

Class POLYZOA, J. V. Thompson. 

Subclass HOLOBEANCHIA, E. Ray Lankester. 

Group a. EcTOPSocTA, Nitsche. 

Order GYMNOL^IMATA, Allman. 

Suborder Cheilostomata, Busk. 

Genus Retepoka, Lamarck. 

a. With on oral fissure. 

1. Hetepora Couchii^ n. sp. (PI. XVIII. figs. 1-6.) 

Uetepora JBeaninna, Ilincks, Devon and Cornw. Cat., Ann. & Mag. Nat. 

Hist. ser. 3, ix. 306 (50, sep.). 
Uetepora cdlidosa, var. Bcaniana, Manznni, Bryoz. Foss. Ttal. quarta 

contrib. 19, pi. v. fig. 26 (Sitzungsb. d. k. Ak. d. Wiss. Bd. Ixi. 1 Abth. 

Marz-Heft, 1870). 

Zoarium irregularly cup-shaped, undulated and contorted, 
with a sinuated margin, hispid. Fenestrce small, oval ; stem 
short. ZoocBcia subcylindrical, depressed, except at the upper 
extremity, surface smooth : orifice semielliptical, the front 



356 Rev. T. HIncks on the Genus Retepora. 

margin produced into a tall mucronate process, broad below 
and narrowing towards the apex, bent outwards, and bearing 
on its summit a minute avicularium, with rounded mandible ; 
peristome elevated on one side of the mucro into a broad, 
wing-like process, produced at its upper and outer angle into 
a pointed spine ; a slit-like fissure between the mucro and 
the lateral process, closed above, but forming a looped foramen 
below ; elongate, linguiform avicularia, with a very delicate 
mandible, distributed over the zoarium, frequently one on the 
front of the cell towards the side. Dorsal surface vibicate, 
with many small subcircular and linguiform avicularia, irre- 
gularly placed. Oooecia elliptical, smooth, with a narrow 
longitudinal fissure. 

Height (of the largest specimen examined) a little more 
than \ inch, breadth about | inch. 

Hah. On stones &c., deep water. 

Localities. Off the Land's End {R. Q. Couch) ; south-west 
of Polperro, on stone, 40 fathoms {T. H.) ; Guernsey [Bev. A. 
M. Norman). 

Distribution. Mediterranean, 390 fathoms (' Porcupine ' 
expedition, teste Busk) . 

Range in time. Italian Pliocene beds [Manzoni). 

The very much produced and recurved rostrum, with its 
minute terminal avicularium and the wing-like elevation of 
the peristome on one side of it, are the most salient and 
striking features of this species. But it is also distinguished 
from its allies R. Beaniana and R. cellulosa by differences in 
the avicularia axydifenestrce. From the former it is also sepa- 
rated by the presence of an oral fissure. 

This is probably the form which Borlase records from 
Scilly, and which Couch includes in his ' Cornish Fauna' under 
the name of R. reticulata, though it is quite impossible to 
identify it by their descriptions. I infer that it is the 
sana€ species, because no other south-western Retepore has 
been brought to light by recent dredgings. 

2. Retepora p7'cetenuis, n. sp. (PI. XIX. figs. 6-8.) 

Zoarium forming a simple, reticulated frond, more or less 
curved and contorted. Fenestroe usually of large size, elongate, 
and narrowed towards both extremities ; the branches very 
slender, commonly composed of only two rows of cells. 
Zoooecia ovate, very slightly convex, smooth ; orifice sub- 
orbicular, peristome not elevated, a small fissure on the lower 
margin, and beside it usually a minute avicularium with 
rounded mandible ; on the front of the cell, a little below the 
mouth, frequently a raised elongate avicularium ; mandible 



Eev. T. Hincks on the Genus Retepora. 357 

broad at the base, slender and somewhat curved above, 
directed downwards. Oooecia small, suberect, semielliptical, 
closely adnate to the cell above, somewhat flattened in front, 
produced below into a truncate process, which reaches down 
some way within the aperture ; a short and narrow fissure in 
the front wall. Dorsal surface very slightly vibicate, with 
many scattered elongate avicularia. 

Height (of fine specimens) about | inch. 

Locality. For my specimens of this very beautiful species 
I am indebted to E. S. Newall, Esq., F.R.S. It was included 
amongst a number of Polyzoa which were said to have been 
taken from a telegraph cable in the Red Sea. On examining 
the collection, however, I find it to contain so many Mediter- 
ranean forms that 1 suspect there has been some mistake about 
the locality. Probably both Mediterranean and Red-Sea forms 
may be mixed in it. Mr. Newall is unable to clear up the 
point ; and I can therefore only refer the present species doubt- 
fully to the Red Sea. 

A large proportion of the specimens in the collection aiford 
unmistakable evidence as to their habitat, the base from which 
they rise having been moulded on the cable and forming a 
cast of it. 

R. prcetenuis is one of the most beautiful of its tribe. 
Whether it ever assumes the caliculate form I am unable to 
say ; but all the specimens which have come into my hands 
(about a dozen in number) consist of a simple reticulated exr 
pansion. The fenestr(B are usually much elongated, and the 
inosculating branches which compose tlie network remark- 
ably slender, giving an air of great lightness and delicacy to 
the whole structure, which is very slightly put together and 
extremely fragile. The oral fissure is very small, almost 
rudimentary, and is associated with a minute, rounded avicu- 
larium, rising from the lower margin beside it. The peristome 
is very slightly developed; and the structure of the oral aper- 
ture is essentially simple. The elongate and pointed avicu- 
laria are not present on every cell ; but on every specimen a 
considerable number may always be met with, and they form 
a good distinctive character. They are raised on a mound- 
like elevation ; and the slender acuminate mandible points^ as 
a rule, straight downwards. The ovicell presents some very 
marked peculiarities. It is small and decidedly suberect ; the 
front wall is flattened, and is prolonged below into a kind of 
lamina, subtruncate at its lower extremity, which extends 
some way into the aperture. The fissure is very short and 
narrow, and is not open below. 



358 Rev. T. Hincks on the Genus Retepora 

L. Without an oral fissure. 

3. Itete])ora vlana^ n. sp. (PL XVIII. figs. 7, 8.) 

Zoarium thin, flat, and compressed. Fenestra rather large, 
usually pointed above and below, separated bj wide inter- 
spaces (three or four rows of cells) ; habit of growth unknown. 
Zoooecia ovate, very slightly convex, surrounded by a raised 
line, surface smooth ; orifice arched above, with a straight lower 
margin ; peristome not raised, thin, entire, unarmed ; fre- 
quently a small avicularium, with rounded mandible, imme- 
diately below the mouth, usually supported on an umbo. 
Dorsal surface smooth, vibicate, destitute of avicularia. 
Oooecia ? 

Locality. Red Sea (probably). The specimens form part 
of the collection to which I have previously referred. 

This very distinct species is characterized by the flatness 
and evenness of its surface, by its great simplicity of structure, 
and the slight development of the accessory appendages, 
which are usually so abundant amongst the Retepores. The 
cell resembles that of an ordinary Lej^ralia (auct.). The 
orifice is well arched above and straight below, the height 
somewhat exceeding the breadth, and is surrounded by a per- 
fectly simple peristome, which is not raised above the level of 
the surface. 

The small rounded avicularium, which is often present 
below the mouth, usually mounted on an umbonate rising, is 
the only appendage which occurs in my specimens. 

4. Retepora tessellata, n. sp. (PI. XIX. figs. 9-12.) 

Fenestrce elongate, narrow, not so wide as the interspaces, 
which are broad and rather massive ; habit of growth un- 
known. Zoooecia short-ovate, smooth, flattish, bordered by 
a raised line ; orifice arched above, lower margin straight, with 
a small central sinus, the front wall (in the adult state) carried 
up on each side of it and terminating above in a somewhat 
pointed extremity, hollowed out below it ; a spine immediately 
above each lateral prolongation of the front wall ; usually on 
the front of the cell a slender elongated avicularium with pointed 
mandible, frequently placed transversely, but sometimes 
directed downwards ; many stout processes distributed over 
the zoarium, standing out at right angles to its surface, and 
bearing a large pointed avicularium on one side. Oooecia im- 
mersed, subglobose, smooth, hollowed out in front. Dorsal 
surface divided into numerous distinct areas, bounded by raised 
lines, each bearing one or more of the elongate avicularia. 



Eev. T. Hiucks on the Genus Eetepora. 359 

Locality. South Australia*. 

In this species the characters of the mouth are very distinc- 
tive. The shape and the minute marginal slit and the way 
in which the cell-wall in the adult is carried up on each side 
of it and hollowed out in front are all very characteristic 
points. The avicularium on the front of the cell is a very 
constant feature ; it is sometimes depressed and sometimes 
slightly elevated above the surface. 

Perhaps, however, the most marked peculiarity is to be 
found in the tessellated condition of the dorsal surface. It is 
mapped out into distinct areas, each bounded by a raised line, 
and is covered with great numbers of the pointed avicularia, 
similar to those which are so abundant on the front of the 
zoarium. ? 

5. Eetepora rohusta, n. sp. (PI. XYIII. fig. 9, 10.) 

Zoarium thick and massive. Fenestrm elongate-oval, large, 
separated by very wide and solid interspaces; habit of growth 
unknown. Zooaicia regularly rhomboidal, surrounded by raised 
lines, which terminate above on a level with the inferior mar- 
gin of the orifice; surface smooth, uneven, often depressed in 
the centre. Orifice arched above ; lower margin almost straight ; 
no sinus ; occasionally a small oval avicularium placed trans- 
versely immediately under the lower lip, or upon it ; on the 
front of most of the cells a somewhat tongue-shaped avicu- 
larium, pointing straight downwards, or sometimes placed 
obliquely, often occupying its central depression. Oooecia 
? Dorsal surface vibicate, with scattered small avicu- 
laria. 

Locality. South Australia. 

This species is distinguished from all the preceding by its 
massive zoarium and large reticulations. The meshes are 
much elongated and the inosculating branches of remarkable 
width and solidity. 

There are points of agreement between it and Macgilli- 
vray's R. porcellana. But as he has not given us a detailed 
account of its minute structure, or a figure, it is impossible 
to decide whether such agreement implies specific identity. 
His description of the avicularium which occurs towards the 
middle of the cell in R. porcellana, as having a " short man- 
dible," is sufficiently vague ; but, so far as it goes, it does not 
apply to that of the present form, which is elongate and 
tongue-shaped. 

* I am indebted for most of my Australian specimens to my friend 
H. R. W. Lemann, Esq., of Bath. 



360 Rev. T. Hincks on the Genus Retepora. 

The very regular rliomboidal shape of the cell in R. robusta, 
and the way in which its bounding lines extend only to the 
inferior margin of the orifice and do not embrace the mouth 
itself, are distinctive points. Its most striking characteristic, 
however, is the stoutness of its habit, by which it can be at 
once distinguished from all the other southern species with 
which I am acquainted. 

The species which follow have already been described ; but 
I venture to supply a fuller account of them than we have 
from the authors who have previously noticed them. In 
studying this very difficult family I have vividly realized the 
necessity of thorough and minute diagnosis, if we are to 
escape the very serious evils of doubtful identification and a 
burthensome synonymy. 

1. Retepora moniUfera^ Macgillivray*. (PI. XIX. figs. 1-5.) 

Zoarium regularly cup-shaped, or much convoluted, and 
forming a number of irregularly shaped cavities, the sinuous 
and anastomosing walls of which give a very intricate appear- 
ance to the surface ; surface minutely granulated. Fenestrce 
very small, narrow-oval ; interspaces broad. Zoooecia sub- 
cylindrical, distinct, flattish ; orifice (primary) arched above, 
slightly curved outwards below, broader below tlian above, 
with a minute sinus on the inferior margin j secondary orifice 
(formed by the elevation of the cell-wall) orbicular, with a 
deep looped sinus in front, on each side of which is an as- 
cending process, one of the two bearing on its inner side a 
small avicularium, the mandible directed upwards ; a tall and 
stout jointed spine on one side just above the avicularium. 
Small oval avicularia distributed over the zoarium. Tall 
and stout aviculiferous processes, expanding downwards, 
often present in great numbers ; the avicularium placed on 
the front with a pointed mandible. Oooecia large, prominent, 
subpyramidal, with a granulated rim above the upper edge of 
the aperture, from the centre of which a somewhat clavate 
band, also granulated or beaded, extends upwards, almost to 
the top of the ovicell. Dorsal surface dense, minutely granu- 
lar, slightly vibicate, with scattered small oval avicularia. 

Locality. South Australia. 

On the young marginal cells the primary orifice with its 
minute sinus is met with; in the older portions of the colony 

* " Notes on the Cheilostomatous Polyzoa of Victoria and other parts 
of Australia," by P, H. Macgillivray, A.M., M.R.C.S. (Trans. Phil. Inst, 
of Victoria, vol. iv. 1860, p. 168, pi. iii. tigs. 6-9). 



Rev. T. Hincks on the Genus Retepora. 361 

it IS almost entirely concealed by the secondary orifice. In 
this we find the characteristic orbicular shape, the large loop- 
like sinus, and the marginal processes and avicularium. The 
remarkable spine (PI. XIX. fig. 3) which rises on one side 
of the orifice seems to have escaped observation. Its struc- 
ture is peculiar. At the base it is articulated by a corneous 
joint to a small tubular process on the margin, and is com- 
posed of a number of segments or pieces, each of which is 
contracted below and expands upward, and seems to fit into 
the one beneath it ; so that the spine presents an uneven out- 
line and has the appearance of being jointed at pretty regular 
intei'vals. The large aviculiferous processes are often present 
in profusion and give a \txy marked character to the zoarium ; 
occasionally, however, they are scantily developed. The 
variety of the avicularian appendages in this species is re- 
markable. In addition to those which have been described, 
there is occasionally a gigantic avicularium, exceeding the 
zoooecium in length, which occupies an elevated space at the 
top of the fenestree, with a much elongated subspatulate man- 
dible directed obliquely downwards. I'his is sometimes re- 
placed by a very curious form, which I have not met with 
elsewhere. It is narrow-elliptical in shape, usually large, 
with a very solid semielliptical mandible, of a dark horn- 
colour (PI. XIX. fig. 5). This form, I believe, is really an 
aborted condition of the gigantic avicularium just described, 
and consists essentially of the basal portion of the latter minus 
the long mandible. 1 was at one time induced to think that 
the form with the gigantic avicularia should be accounted 
distinct ; but in its minute characters it agrees with the 
present species. It is perhaps worthy of being distinguished 
as R. monilifera^ var. munita. 

It should be noted that the aspect of the cell, and especially 
of its oral aperture, is subject to great variations, corre- 
sponding with the stages of growth and development. After 
the formation of the secondary orifice has been commenced, 
its sinus appears as a very small slit almost closed above, 
and the avicularium lies transversely on the margin beside it, 
without being elevated, as it is subsequently, on a mucronate 
process. 

The peculiar structure of the ovicell, which has suggested 
the specific name, seems to be due to the filling-in of the fissure, 
which exists in the usual condition on the younger cells, with 
a granulated calcareous plate. The oooecia are commonly 
developed in such quantities as almost to conceal the surface 
of the zoarium ; and this profusion may perhaps be accounted 
a specific character. 



362 Rev. T. Hincks on the Genus Retepora. 

R. monilifera affords a very striking illustration of the 
diversities in the habit of growth which are so characteristic 
of the present family. So utterly different in aspect are its 
simply caliculate and its convoluted and chambered variety, 
that it is difficult to believe that they are referable to one 
and the same species. I was at first so completely deceived 
by the very distinctive habit of the latter, combined with 
some other trifling peculiarities, that I had marked it as a 
new species, under the name of R. contortwplicata. 

2. Retepora plioenicea, Busk *. 

Zoariuni of a rich red colour, irregularly cup-shaped, 
variously contorted, the edges of the lamina sometimes uniting 
so as to form cylindrical cavities. Fenestrce small, oval, the 
inosculating branches broad and rather massive. Zoooecia 
rhomboidal or irregularly ovate, commonly enlarged above, 
narrowed downwards, and truncate at the bottom, flat, with 
a conspicuous line and a few very large punctures round 
the edge ; surface smooth and polished ; orifice orbicu- 
lar ; peristome raised and somewhat thickened, subtubular, 
slightly bent forwards, the margin often serrulate; some- 
times a minute circular orifice in the centre, immediately 
below it ; a depression on the front of the cell below the 
mouth, from which a pointed avicularium extends upwards to 
the lower margin. Dorsal surface solid, smooth or minutely 
warty, strongly vibicate, and generally destitute of avicularia. 
Oooecia globose, subimmersed ; surface entire, smooth and 
shining, hollowed out in front, the fissure being filled in by 
a thick opercular plate, which is prolonged below within the 
orifice. 

Locality. South Australia, Adelaide and Glenelg. 

Mr. Busk has characterized R. phoenicea with his accus- 
tomed accuracy ; but as his description is very concise, in har- 
mony with the plan of his work, it may not be superfluous to 
furnish a further account of it. 

To the elements of beauty which are common to the tribe, 
the charm of rich colouring is superadded in the present 
species ; and its fine red tint is well preserved in fresh un- 
bleached specimens. The cell exhibits strongly marked cha- 
racters, but is subject to a certain amount of variation. The 
subtubular peristome is sometimes wanting, and the orbicular 
orifice, with its slightly thickened rim, is on a level with the 
surface. The edge is often entire and shows no trace of ser- 
rulation. The minute central foramen below the mouth I have 

* Cat. Marine Pol. part ii. p. 94, pi, cxxi. figs. 1, 2. 



Rev. T. Hincks on the Genus Retepora. 363 

not always been able to detect, even when it is not concealed 
by the apex of the suboral avicularium. The latter is not 
always present ; but it must be accounted a characteristic fea- 
ture of the species. It is immersed, extending from a depres- 
sion situated about halfway down the cell, or less, to the lower 
margin of the mouth, on which its pointed extremity rests. 
It is rounded below and is furnished with a short mandible, 
very broad at the base, and tapering to a fine point. Very 
characteristic also is the flat, smooth, polished and tinted 
surface of the cell, bordered by a distinct raised white line, 
and sparsely punctured round the edge. The punctures or 
foramina are of very considerable size ; two are generally 
placed side by side at the bottom of the cell. 

I have examined many fragments of this fine species ; but 
the only perfect specimen which I possess is of a compressed 
cup-shape, with the lamina gracefully curved and the margin 
sinuated. The cup is much flattened at one side ; and on the 
other side, which is greatly produced, it widens out and then 
terminates in a pointed spout-like projection. The height is 
half an inch, and the width an inch. The form is a singularly 
elegant one, even for a Retepore ; but in this genus the habit 
of growth is so variable that it cannot be relied on as a 
specific character. 

3. ? Retep07'ap^anuIata,MiiCg{WiYraj. (PI. XIX. figs. 13-15.) 

Zoarium cup-shaped, thick. Fenestrce very small, oval or 
subrotund, much narrower than tlie very broad interspaces. 
Zoooecia rhomboid, flat, lined round, the surface covered with 
granules, which often form a border or edging round the upper 
margin of the mouth ,• orifice suborbicular, somewhat ex- 
tended transversely ; peristome not raised ; frequently one or 
two small oval or subcircular avicularia placed transversely 
immediately below the inferior margin ; many such avicularia 
scattered over the surface of the cells ; numerous blunt and 
low mamillffi distributed over the zoarium, bearing on the 
upper side an avicularium with broad triangular mandible. 
Oooecia large, prominent, subglobose, surface granular, no 
fissure. Dorsal surface indistinctly vibicate, with scattered 
circular avicularia, sometimes absent. 

Locality. South Australia. 

This is probably the R. granulata of Macgillivray — though, 
in the absence of a sufficiently minute diagnosis of the latter, 
I hardly venture to identify the two with certainty. Amongst 
my specimens there is much diflierence in the degree in which the 
surface is granulated. In some cases the cells are almost 
smooth ; in others the surface is thickly studded with small 



364 Rev. T. HIncks on the Genus Retepora. 

glossy granules. Round the upper part of the orifice they 
are frequently of larger size, and are ranged in line and placed 
close together, so as to have much the appearance of rudi- 
mentary spines. 

The oooeciuin in R. granulata is described as " immersed 
and granular ;" in my specimens it is closely united to the 
cells about it, and the base may be slightly immersed, but 
its striking characteristics are its massiveness and prominence. 
It stands out boldly from the surface of the cell, sometimes 
smooth, sometimes much roughened and bearing several of the 
small avicularia. The minute characters of the zoooecium and 
its orifice are not included in Macgillivray's diagnosis. In most 
of the cells of the form which I have in view an oval avicula- 
rium, set transversely, occurs immediately under the lower mar- 
gin of the orifice, placed towards one side. Sometimes a second 
is present. Great numbers of similar avicularia are distributed 
over the cells, whilst the aviculiferous mamillas, very dif- 
ferent from the tall acuminate processes which occur on other 
species, tliickly stud the surface of the zoarium. The inoscu- 
lating branches are very thick and massive, and the meshes 
small and often suborbicular in shape. 

Macgillivray describes the zoarium of his H. granulata as 
" expanded, foliaceous, convoluted." The habit of growth, 
as I have already remarked, has no specific significance in 
this tribe ; but the fragments of the present species which 
I have examined show it to be caliculate and occasionally 
to form subcylindrical cavities. 

4. Eetepora cellulosa^ Smitt *. 

This species has a wide range. It occurs in the Arctic seas 
and in the Mediterranean, but has not been obtained, so far 
as I know, on our own coasts. Darwin took it off Cape 
Horn Macgillivray, a slender variety of it, in Australia ; 
Hutton records it from New Zealand. I have a characteristic 
specimen from South Australia. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate XVIII. 

Fig. 1. Retepora Couchii, Hincks : natural size. 

Fig. 2. The same. 

Fig. 3. A portion of the zoarium, front surface, magnified. 

Fig. 4. A portion of the zoarium, dorsal surface, magnified. 

Fig. 5. A single zoocecium, magnified. 

Fig. 6. One of the larger avicularia. 

* Kritisk Forteckn. ofver Skandinaviens Hafs-Bryozoer, iv. (1868) 
pp. 34, 203, pi. xxviii. figs. 222-225. 



On new Species of Heteropterous Hemiptera. 365 

Fig. 7. Retepora plana, Hincks : portiou of the front surface, magnified. 

Fig. 8. The same : portion of the dorsal surface, magnified. 

Fig. 9. Retepora robiista, Hincks : a fragment of the zoarium, natural 

size. 
Fig, 10. The same : portion of the front surface, magnified. 

Plate XIX. 

Fig. 1. Retepora monilifera, Macgillivray : zoooecia, magnified. 

Fig. 2. The same : a zoooeciimi in an earlier stage. 

Fig. 3. One of the oral spines, magnified. 

Fig. 4. One of the gigantic avicularia, magnified. 

Fig. 6. Large elliptical avicularium, magnified. 

Fig. 6. Retepora jjrcetenuis, Hincks : portion of the front surface, magni- 
fied. 

Fig. 7. The same : portion of the zoarium, magnified, showing the rela- 
tive width of the fenestrse and the interspaces. 

Fig. 8. Fragment of the zoarium, nat. size. 

Fig. 9. Retepora tessellata, Hincks : front surface. 

Fig. 10. The same : dorsal surface. 

Fig. 11. The oooecium. 

Fig. 12. Fragment of the zoarium, nat. size. 

Fig. 13. ?Rete2)ora gramdata, Macgillivray: front surf ace . 

Fig, 14. The oooecium. 

Fig. 15. Two fenestrfe magnified, showing the width of the interspace. 



XLI. — Descriptions of new Species of Heteropterous Hemiptera 
collected in the Hawaiian Islands hy the Rev. T. Blackburn. 
—No. 2. Bj F. Buchanan White, M.D., F.L.S. 

Having received from Mr. Blackburn information as to the 
habits, localities, &c. (as well as more examples of some) of 
the species noticed in mj former paper (vol. xx. p. 110), it 
Avill perhaps be as well to give notes on these species before 
describing certain new ones since received. 

In my last paper I omitted to number the species, which I 
will now do. 

1. Geotomus subtristis, Buchanan White. 

2. Geotomus JucunduSj Buchanan White. 

Both widely distributed and pretty common, living under 
stones and about the roots of herbage, and not confined to the 
mountains. 

3. Triphleps persequens^ Buchanan White. 

Three specimens only found. 

4. Cardiastethus mundulus, Buchanan White. 
Not rare about the outside of roofs of houses. 



366 Dr. F. B. Wliite on neio Species 

5. Nabis innotatus, Buclianan White. 

The specimen from which the description was made appears 
to be a pale form ; in others the dark markings of the pro- 
notum are more distinct, and the centre of the scutellum, as 
well as the two spots near the apex of the first vein of the 
corium, which are so frequently present in species of the 
genus Nabis, are more or less fuscous. On the whole, how- 
ever, the name " innotatus " is not amiss. 

Taken commonlj by sweeping, but chiefly on the higher 
ground. 

6. Nabis suhrufiis, Buchanan "White. 

Eare. Three specimens taken singly under bark on the 

hieher mountains, 
o 

7. Nabis? lusciosus, Buchanan White, 

Appears to vary in tlie intensity of the markings. 

Not very common. Taken by sweeping, and also under 
and about bark on the higher mountains. The bark-fre- 
quenting propensity of this and the preceding species is, I 
think, very unusual in the genus. 

8. Luteva insolida, Buchanan White. 
Common everywhere, on the lower ground, in December. 

9. Merragata hebroides, Buchanan White. 

On small stagnant pools formed by the temporary overflow 
of streams on the higher mountains. When the pools dry up, 
the insect frequents the holes where the water has been. 

10. Corixa Blackburni, Buchanan White. 

Very common in salt-water pools on the sea-shore. These 
pools are formed artificially for the manufacture of salt. As 
the liquid becomes more dense by evaporation, the Corixai 
migrate to pools more recently filled. Some would appear, 
however, to remain too long, as, in the last stage of evapora- 
tion, the pools generally contain a few dead Corixce. Mr. 
Blackburn has hitherto failed to find any freshwater species 
of this genus. 

Asopidae. 

11. CEchah'a jxitruelis, Stal. 
Arma patruelis, Stal, Freg. Eug. Ee?a, Ins. 220. 3, 
This species, which has not been found elsewhere, is com- 
mon on forest trees at no great elevation. 



of Heteropterous Ilemiptera. 367 

12. (EcJialia ])acijica, Stal. 

Anna pacifica, Stal, I. c. 221. 4. 

Like the last this is also peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. 
Though widely distributed it is not common, and frequents 
trees on the mountains. 

Lygseidse. 

13. Nysius Dallasi, n. sp. 

N. oblongus, testaceo-flavescens, pallido-sericans ; capite vitta 
lateral! iitrinque intra ociilos et marginibus angustissimis vittse 
pallidae centralis, rostri apice, pronoto intra marginem anticum. 
et macula utrinqi;e prope angulos posticos, scutelli basi, tarsorum 
articulo prirao, tertio apice unguiculisque, sterno maculis nonnul- 
lis, ventre vitta laterali utrinque marginem haud attingente et 
testaceo-maculata nigricantibus ; anteunarum articulo primo ad 
apicem exteriore, seeundo apice et tertio basi, margine antico 
angustissimo corii, femoribus anticis maculis parvis, et tibiis apice, 
f usco-brunneis ; membrana albido-byalina. Capite cum oculis 
quam pronoti apex latiore ; antennis gracilibus ; rostro metaster- 
num attingente, articulo primo bucculis paullo longiore; bucculis 
dimidio capitis fere requilongis, retrorsum sensim humilioribus et 
evanescentibus ; pronoto apice quam basi breviore, longitudine 
quam latitudine paullo minore, sat rude punctate, lateribus, im- 
pressione lincari antica et vitta media leevigatis, utrinque intra 
angulos posticos elevatos oblique sulcato ; scutello punctato sat 
fortiter triradiatim rugoso ; elytris basi parallelis, deiu ampliatis et 
rotundatis; pedibus gracilibus, tibiis apice paullo incrassatis, tarsia 
posticis longis articulo primo articulis duobus ultimis ad unum 
multo longiore ; ventris segmenfcis 3 apicalibus feminse angulariter 
emarginatis. 
5 . Long, 5, lat. 1| m. m. 

Not being closely allied to any of the species in Stal's 
' Enumeratio/ its place is between that author's sections 
"a" and "a a." 

This species (which I have much pleasure in dedicating 
to Mr, W , S, Dallas, the founder of the genus Nysius, and 
Avhose ' List of Hemiptera in the British Museum ' is so 
useful to all students of this order of insects) occurs rarely 
amongst mixed herbage near the summit of a mountain-pass 
known as the '^ Pali," near Honolulu. 

14. Nysius delectus, n, sp. 

'N. suboblorrgus, dilute fiavesceuti-testaceus ; antennarum articulo 
primo vitta externa et articulis 3 ultimis, rostri articulis 3 ulti- 
mis, capite (vitta centrali angustissima et tuberculis antenniferis 
exceptis), pronoto intra marginem anticum, punctis in disco, 
macula triangulari utrinque prope angulos posticos necnon margine 



368 Dr. F. B. White on new Species 

postico ante scutellum, scutello (lateribus apiceque exceptis), 
corii margine antico angustissimo, lineis interruptis ad venas, 
maculis nonnullis ia disco, et margine apicali plus minus inter- 
rupto, clavi sutura commissuraque, femorum maculis saepe con- 
fluentibus prsesertim superne, tibiarum basi apice et linea angus- 
tissima ad marginem anticum, tarsorum articulo primo apice et 
articulo tertio unguiculisque, sterno (incisuris exceptis), abdo- 
minis 'marginibus posticis segmentorum 3 ultimorum saltem in 
medio, genitalibusque nigris vel piceo-nigris ; antennarum articulo 
secundo apice imo paUido et articulo tertio apice dilutiore ; ooulis 
rufo-brunneis ; membrana albido-hyalina. Capite cum oculis 
apice pronoti latiore, dense pallido-sericante ; autennis sat graci- 
libus, articulo secundo tertio longiore, tertio quartoque sequilongis; 
rostro metasternum attingente, articulo primo bucculas superante ; 
bucculis fere dimidio capitis aequilongis, retrorsum sensim humi- 
lioribus et evanescentibus ; pronoto pallido-sencante rude punc- 
tato, vitta media, imjjressione lineari antica, lateribus, et angulis 
posticis Isevigatis, sat brevi, margine antico quam margo posticus \ 
breviore, longitudine quam latitudo postica disdincte minore, mar- 
gine postico utrinque intra angulos posticos elevates sulca obliqua 
instructo ; scutello pallido-sericante et rude punctate, ruga sat 
elevata laevigata ; elytris parce sericantibus, basi parallelis, deiu 
ampliato-dilatatis et sensim rotundatis ; tibiis apice clavatis, 
tarsorum articulis primo tertioque apice incrassatis ; margine 
exteriore calloso orificiorum auriculato-pi'ominulo ; ventris seg- 
mentis 3 ultimis foeminae angulariter emarginatis : sterno ventre- 
que dense pallido-sericantibus. 
cJ et $ • Long. 5-6, lat. 2-2| m. m. 

Somewhat allied to the preceding species, which, however, 
differs in its more slender form, longer and more graceful 
antennee and legs, as well as in the coloration. 

Widely distributed (but not very common) on the moun- 
tains, and generally taken by beating. 

15. Nysiiis arhoricola, n. sp, 

N. oblongus, testaceus, nitidus, glaber ; capite, rostri apice, vitta 
laterali utrinque, corpore subtus, scutelli basi lateribusque nigris ; 
antennis totis dilute et articuli primi maculis obscurioribus, rostro 
apicem versus, oculis, callis transversis intra marginem anticum 
pronoti et angulis posticis, scutelli ruga callosa (apice imo ex- 
cepto), corii venis, maculis 2 magnis triangularibus ad marginem 
apicalem et apice, femorum maculis nonnullis, tibiis apice imo, et 
tarsonim articulis apice plus minus brunneis vel fusco-brunneis ; 
orificiis et maculis connexivi rufo-iiavidis ; membrana albido- 
hyalina. Capite ruguloso, cum oculis pronoti apice paullo latiore ; 
antenni